||Effects of Sound Stimuli Applied in Branding – An Empirical Study of Its Antecedents and Consequences
||Effects of Sound Stimuli Applied in Branding – An Empirical Study of Its Antecedents and Consequences
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
Recently, Intel and Nokia's success of sound branding encouraged followers to emulate this branding strategy. This research is to explore the effects of sound stimulus applied to facilitate branding. A qualitative research was conducted to ascertain that consumers perceive pleasantness, relation to brand/product, distinctiveness, length and clarity, and accessibility as the five dimensions for sound trademarks. A sound trademark comprising brand name is most effective to relate with pairing brand. An empirical research was then conducted by questionnaire survey to measure consumers’ perception toward sound stimuli, and its influence toward brand preference. Consumers’ perception toward sound stimulus is further examined to identify its influences on attitude toward brand, brand awareness with brand association, and qualitative perception. Brand loyalty and preference are confirmed the consequent influences from those antecedents.
The research result suggests that sound trademarks should be carefully selected. Judiciously designed or selected sound trademarks can help consumers easily remember brand, elicit positive awareness, association, attitude and perception. Consequently, consumer’s loyalty and preference are affected. In contrast, slogan-alone sound trademarks, especially ambiguous meaning slogan, may cause negative attitude and lower preference.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES IX
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation. 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
1.3 Research Procedures 3
1.4 Research Structures 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Brand and Related Concepts 6
2.1.1 Brand and Brand Equity 6
2.1.2 Brand Awareness 8
2.1.3 Brand Associations 9
2.1.4 Perceived Quality 10
2.1.5 Brand Loyalty 10
2.1.6 Attitude toward Brand 11
2.1.7 Brand Preference 11
2.2 Mark and Sound Trademark 12
2.2.1 Mark and Trademark 12
2.2.2 Sound Trademark 13
2.3 Sound Stimuli in Branding 14
2.4 Research Hypotheses 16
2.4.1 Relationships among Sound Stimulus, Attitude toward Brand, Brand Awareness with Brand Association, and Perceived Quality 16
2.4.2 Relationships among Attitude toward Brand, Brand Awareness with Brand Association, Perceived Quality, Brand Loyalty, and Brand Preference. 18
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 21
3.1 Research Framework 22
3.1.1 Conceptual Model 22
3.2 Selecting and Defining Sound Stimuli 23
3.2.1 Collecting the Sound Specimens 23
3.2.2 Exploratory Study about Sound Characteristics 24
3.2.3 Selecting Sound Specimens for Questionnaire Survey 26
3.3 Construct Measurement and Questionnaire Design 27
3.3.1 Perception toward Sound Stimulus 28
3.3.2 Attitude toward Brand 29
3.3.3 Brand Awareness with Brand Association 29
3.3.4 Perceived Quality 30
3.3.5 Brand Loyalty 30
3.3.6 Brand Preference 31
3.3.7 Demographic Variables 31
3.4 Hypotheses to Be Tested 31
3.5 Sampling Plan 32
3.6 Data Analysis Procedures 33
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 33
3.6.2 Purification and Reliability of the Measurement Variable 33
188.8.131.52. Factor Analysis 33
184.108.40.206. Item-to-total Correlation 34
220.127.116.11. Cronbach’s alpha 34
3.6.3 T-test and Analysis of Variance 34
3.6.4 Linear Regression Analysis 34
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 35
4.1 Data Analysis for Entire Dataset 37
4.1.1 Characteristics of Respondents 37
4.1.2 Descriptive Analysis 38
4.1.3 Factor Analysis 39
4.1.4 Comparing Mean Difference on the Factors among Sound Stimuli Discernment 41
4.2 Data Analysis for Samples of Subjects Discerned Brand 43
4.2.1 Descriptive Analysis 43
4.2.2 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test 45
18.104.22.168 Perception toward Sound Stimulus 45
22.214.171.124 Attitude toward Brand 47
126.96.36.199 Brand Awareness with Brand Association 48
188.8.131.52 Perceived Quality 48
184.108.40.206 Brand Loyalty 49
220.127.116.11 Brand Preference 50
4.2.3 Hypotheses Test 51
18.104.22.168 The Influence of Perception toward Sound Stimulus on Attitude toward Brand 51
22.214.171.124 The Influence of Perception toward Sound Stimulus on Brand Awareness with Brand Association 52
126.96.36.199 The Influence of Perception toward Sound Stimulus on Perceived Quality 53
188.8.131.52 The Influence of Brand Awareness with Brand Association on Attitude toward Brand 54
184.108.40.206 The Influence of Brand Awareness with Brand Association on perceived quality 55
220.127.116.11 The Influence of Brand Awareness with Brand Association on brand loyalty 55
18.104.22.168 The Influence of Attitude toward Brand on Brand Loyalty 56
22.214.171.124 The Influence of perceived quality on Brand Loyalty 57
126.96.36.199 The Influence of Brand Loyalty on Brand Preference 57
4.2.4 Comparing Construct Mean Difference among Categories of Sound 58
4.2.5 Comparing Construct Mean Difference between Brand Discernment Result 60
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 62
5.1 Research Conclusions 62
5.2 Implications and Recommendations 64
5.3 Research Limitations and Further Research Direction 65
Appendix I–Original Description from Taiwan Trademark Law 72
Appendix II–The twenty-six Sound Specimens from TIPO 73
Appendix III–Questionnaire 74
Appendix IV–Interview Codings 78
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