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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914212230
論文名稱(中文) 聽覺訊息與作業複雜度對肢體間協調與知覺動作結合能力影響之年齡發展趨勢
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Auditory Cues and Task Complexity on Inter-limb Coordination and Perception-action Coupling in Children and Adults: A Developmental Trend
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 洪湘斐
研究生(英文) Hsiang-fei Hung
學號 t6695403
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 口試委員-陳振宇
指導教授-成戎珠
召集委員-黃英修
口試委員-楊政峰
中文關鍵字 知覺動作結合  發展趨勢  聽覺訊息  作業複雜度  肢體間動作協調 
英文關鍵字 Development  Task complexity  Auditory cue  Inter-limb coordination  Perception-action coupling 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景與目的:人類自出生後,便不斷的感知各種與任務及環境相關的訊息,並依此訊息做出適當的動作來探索環境。隨著年齡增長,兒童所需學習與執行的動作任務漸趨複雜。肢體間協調(inter-limb coordination)與知覺動作結合(perception-action coupling) 的能力是執行複雜動作所需的兩項重要基本能力。然而過去的研究較少探討兒童上下肢進行粗大動作時的肢體間協調表現,且有關兒童在配合知覺訊息執行粗大動作時的知覺動作結合表現的研究也不多,作業複雜度改變對知覺動作結合表現的影響也還未被探討。因此,本研究目的為:(1) 探討外在聽覺訊息對肢體間動作協調表現之影響;(2) 探討任務困難度對肢體間動作協調與知覺動作結合表現的影響;(3) 探討上述肢體間動作協調表現與知覺動作結合表現的發展趨勢。方法:共有68名正常受試者參與本實驗,包含五個組別:5-6歲、7-8歲、9-10歲與11-12歲兒童及年輕成人。受試者須在三種不同聽覺訊息情況下,執行單獨原地踏步或拍手的單項作業與同時原地踏步與拍手的雙重作業。聽覺訊息情況包含:無聽覺訊息、訊息頻率為受試者自選的踏步與自選的拍手頻率。肢體間動作協調表現以回合內的動作頻率變異係數以及拍手踏步相位結合變異係數來探討;知覺動作結合能力則以知覺動作相位結合之精準度與變異係數表示之。統計分析以混合設計變異數分析,探討年齡、肢體動作、作業複雜度與聽覺訊息情況等因子對上述依變項的影響。結果:動作頻率變異係數隨年齡增加而減少;當聽覺訊息頻率為自選的踏步頻率時,動作頻率變異係數較無聽覺訊息與訊息頻率為自選的拍手頻率時大;拍手頻率變異係數隨任務複雜度增加而上升,但踏步頻率變異係數不受影響。各年齡層的踏步拍手相位結合變異係數均不受聽覺訊息情況不同的影響;除5-6與7-8歲及9-10與11-12歲之間的踏步拍手相位結合變異係數無顯著差異外,其餘兩兩年齡層之比較,變異係數隨年齡增長而減少。知覺動作相位結合平均值隨作業複雜度增加而變大,7-10歲兒童之拍手與聽覺訊息相位結合值大於11-12歲與成人組別。拍手與聽覺訊息相位結合之平均值與變異係數受到聽覺訊息頻率影響,但踏步與聽覺訊息結合的表現則不受聽覺訊息頻率影響。結論:肢體間的動作協調能力隨年齡發展而增進。依所採用的聽覺訊息頻率的不同,節律性聽覺訊息對正常人的肢體間動作協調並無影響,甚至會有不好的影響。知覺動作的相位結合精準度會隨作業複雜度增加而減少,但穩定度則不受作業複雜度影響,且此作業複雜度的改變,對各年齡層的影響是相同的。
英文摘要 Background and purposes: To act adaptively in one’s environment requires all kinds of task- and environment-related information to base on for choosing appropriate muscle responses. After born, children are constantly adapting to the environment and need to learn and perform more complex motor tasks with increases in age. The inter-limbs coordination and perception-action coupling are two keystone abilities of the complex motor skills. Previous studies that investigated the inter-limbs coordination and the perception-action coupling in gross motor tasks for children were limited. The effects of auditory cue on inter-limbs coordination and the task complexity on perception-action coupling were unclear. Therefore, the purposes of the present study were to investigate: (1) the effects of external auditory cues on inter-limbs coordination; (2) the effects of task complexity on the inter-limbs coordination and perception-action coupling; and (3) the developmental trend of above behaviors. Method: A total of 68 normal subjects participated in the study and constituted five age groups: 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 years old and young adults. Participants were required to perform marching or clapping alone as single-gross-motor tasks, and marching together with clapping as dual-gross-motor task in three auditory cue conditions. The auditory cue conditions were no cue, cue with self-selected step frequency of pure tone and cue with self-selected clap frequency of pure tone. The coefficients of variances (CVs) of action frequency and step-clap phasing value within-trials were used to examine the performance of inter-limbs coordination. The mean and CV of perception-action phasing value were adopted as the indicators of perception-action coupling ability. The effects of age, limb action, task complexity and cue conditions on the dependent variables were tested with Repeated Measures ANOVA. Results: The CV of action frequency decreased with an increase in age and it was larger in cues with preferred step frequency of tone condition than it in no-cue or cues with self-selected clap frequency of tone conditions. CV of clap frequency increased with an increase in task complexity, but CV of step frequency did not change. Furthermore, CV of step-clap phasing decreased with an increase in age but remained constant across cue conditions. The differences between any two groups were significant but not between either 5-6 and 7-8 years groups or 9-10 and 11-12 years groups. The increase of task complexity would increase the mean perception-action phasing value. The mean clap-cue phasing values were larger in children aged 7-10 than adults and children aged 11-12. Furthermore, both mean and CV of clap-cue phasing value varied with the changes of cue frequency, but the performance of step-cue phasing stayed constant. Conclusion: Inter-limbs coordination improves with the increase of age. Depending on the cue frequency, the auditory cue has no effect or detrimental effect on inter-limbs coordination for normal subjects. Task complexity reduces the accuracy, but not stability, of perception-action coupling, and the effects are similar across age groups.
論文目次 中文摘要 ............................................ I
Abstract .......................................... III
誌謝 .............................................. VI
目錄 .............................................. VII
表目錄 ............................................ XI
圖目錄 ............................................ XII
第一章 緒論 ...................................... 1
1.1 動作發展 ..................................... 1
1.2 肢體間協調 ................................... 2
1.2.1 定義與指標 ................................. 2
1.2.2 影響因子 ................................... 4
1.2.2.1 年齡 ..................................... 4
1.2.2.2 作業複雜度 ............................... 5
1.2.2.3 動作類型 ................................. 5
1.2.2.4 外在知覺訊息 ............................. 6
1.3 知覺動作結合 ................................. 8
1.3.1 定義與指標 .................................. 8
1.3.2 影響因子 ................................... 8
1.3.2.1 年齡 ..................................... 8
1.3.2.2 動作類型 ................................. 9
1.3.2.3 聽覺訊息頻率 ............................. 9
1.4 研究背景 ..................................... 10
1.4.1 研究動機 ................................... 10
1.4.2 研究目的與假設 ............................. 11
第二章 研究方法 .................................. 12
2.1 受試者 ....................................... 12
2.2 篩選工具 ..................................... 14
2.2.1 畢保德圖畫詞彙測驗修訂版 ....................14
2.2.2 兒童動作評估測驗 ........................... 14
2.3 儀器 ......................................... 15
2.3.1 Kistler 9286AA測力板 ....................... 16
2.3.2 自製鈴鼓拍手器 ............................. 17
2.3.3 聽覺訊息使用之軟體 ......................... 17
2.4 實驗設計 ..................................... 18
2.4.1 單項作業 ................................... 18
2.4.2 雙重作業 ................................... 18
2.5 實驗流程 ..................................... 19
2.6 資料收集與分析 ............................... 20
2.6.1 踏步、拍手與聽覺訊息之資料收集 ............. 20
2.6.2 相位結合值之定義 ........................... 22
2.7 統計分析 ..................................... 23
2.7.1 平均喜好頻率 ............................... 23
2.7.2 肢體動作頻率變異係數 ....................... 23
2.7.3 上下肢體動作相位結合之平均值與變異係數 ..... 24
2.7.4 上下肢體動作與聽覺訊息相位結合之平均值與變異
係數 ....................................... 24
第三章 研究結果 .................................. 25
3.1 平均喜好頻率 ................................. 25
3.2 回合內動作頻率變異係數 ....................... 26
3.3 回合內相位結合平均值 ......................... 33
3.3.1 上下肢動作相位結合平均值 ................... 33
3.3.2 知覺動作相位結合平均值 ..................... 36
3.4 回合內相位結合變異係數 ....................... 41
3.4.1 上下肢動作相位結合 ......................... 41
3.4.2 知覺動作相位結合 ........................... 44
第四章 討論 ...................................... 47
4.1 肢體間協調 ................................... 48
4.1.1 年齡的發展趨勢 ............................. 48
4.1.1.1 同源肢體間動作協調 ....................... 48
4.1.1.2 非同源肢體間動作協調 ..................... 49
4.1.2 聽覺節律刺激對肢體間動作協調之影響.......... 50
4.1.2.1 同源肢體間動作協調 ....................... 50
4.1.2.2 非同源肢體間動作協調 ..................... 53
4.1.3 作業複雜度對肢體間動作協調表現之影響........ 55
4.2 知覺動作結合之能力 ........................... 57
4.2.1 年齡的發展趨勢 ............................. 57
4.2.2 作業複雜度對知覺動作結合之影響 ............. 58
4.2.3 聽覺訊息頻率對知覺動作結合之影響 ........... 59
4.3 肢體間動作協調與知覺動作結合能力之發展比較 ... 61
4.4 實驗限制與未來研究方向 ....................... 62
第五章 結論 ...................................... 64
參考文獻 .......................................... 65
自述 .............................................. 70
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