||Resources, Logistics Service Capabilities, Innovation Capabilities and the Performance of Liner Shipping Services in Taiwan
||Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
Liner Shipping Service
Logistics Service Capabilit
最後利用結構方程模式(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)分析，研究結果發現資源會正向影響定期海運業者創新能力與物流服務能力，創新能力會正向影響物流服務能力，且物流服務能力也會正向影響其經營績效。雖然資源與創新能力對經營績效沒有顯著關係存在，研究結果發現資源與創新能力可透過物流服務能力之中介效果間接影響經營績效。因此，本研究建議定期海運業者應積極發展其關鍵資源與創新能力，方能維持物流服務能力進而改善其經營績效。
The purpose of this study is to identify crucial resources, logistics service capabilities, and innovation capabilities and examine their effects on Taiwanese liner shipping firms’ performance based on the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm. Based on factor analysis, three resources were identified, namely, network resource, information equipment resource, and corporate image, and four logistics service capabilities were identified: logistics value-added service capability, service reliability capability, relationship building capability, and information integration and flexibility capability. However, only one innovation capability dimension was identified in this study.
In addition, ANOVA results revealed that the performance of logistics value-added service capability significantly differed between liner shipping companies, liner shipping agencies, and ocean freight forwarders. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed to test the research hypotheses. Results indicated that resource had a significant positive effect on logistics service capabilities and innovation capabilities as well as an indirect effect on firm performance mediated by logistics service capability.
Results also indicated that logistics service capability had a positive effect on liner shipping firms’ performance. While resource and innovation capability were not found to have a positive effect on firms’ performance, it was found to have a significant positive effect on logistics service capabilities. Hence, resource and innovation capability have an indirect effect on firm performance mediated by logistics service capability.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES XI
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 5
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 5
1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 RESOURCE-BASED VIEW OF THE FIRM 9
2.1.1 Definition of the Resource-Based View (RBV) of the Firm 9
2.1.2 Resources, Capabilities, and Competencies 11
126.96.36.199 Resources 12
188.8.131.52 Capabilities 13
184.108.40.206 Competence and Core Competence 14
2.1.3 Summary 18
2.2 LOGISTICS CAPABILITIES 20
2.2.1 Definition of Logistics 20
2.2.2 The Literature on Logistics Capabilities 24
2.3 LOGISTICS SERVICE CAPABILITIES IN THE LINER SHIPPING 33
2.3.1 Introduction to the Liner Shipping Industry 33
2.3.2 Literature on Shipping Service Attributes 37
2.3.3 Literature on Logistics Service Capability in the Transport Industry 45
2.4 INNOVATION CAPABILITY 53
2.4.1 Definition of Innovation Capability 53
2.4.2 Types of Innovation 56
2.4.3 Literature on Innovation Capability 58
2.5 FIRM PERFORMANCE 64
2.6 SUMMARY 68
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 72
3.1 THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL 72
3.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 73
3.2.1 Resource 73
3.2.2 Innovation Capability 75
3.2.3 Logistics Service Capability 76
3.3 SOURCES AND COLLECTION OF DATA 77
3.3.1 Sources and Collection of Data 77
3.3.2 Non-response Bias 81
3.4 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 82
3.4.1 Information Sought 83
3.4.2 Type of Questionnaire and Method of Administration 85
3.4.3 Individual Question Content 85
3.4.4 Form of Response 90
3.4.5 Decide on Question Wording 92
3.4.6 Decide on Question Sequence 93
3.4.7 Determine Physical Characteristics 93
3.4.8 Re-examine and Revise of Questionnaire 94
3.4.9 Pre-testing the Questionnaire and Pilot Test 94
3.5 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY TEST 96
3.5.1 Reliability Test 97
3.5.2 Validity Test 98
3.6 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 100
3.6.1 Defining the Population 100
3.6.2 Sampling Frame and Sample Selection 101
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 102
3.7.1 Corrected Item-total Correlations 102
3.7.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis 103
3.7.3 Structural Equation Modeling 105
220.127.116.11 Basic concepts of structural equation modeling 105
18.104.22.168 Critical issues related to the application of SEM 106
22.214.171.124 The stages involved in structural equation modeling 107
3.7.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 112
126.96.36.199 Convergent validity 113
188.8.131.52 Discriminant validity 113
184.108.40.206 Composite reliability 114
3.8 SUMMARY 115
CHAPTER 4 GENERAL FINDINGS AND DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 118
4.1 RESPONSE RATE AND NON-RESPONSE BIAS 118
4.2 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND THEIR COMPANIES 122
4.2.1 Personal information 122
4.2.2 Company information 125
4.3 IMPORTANCE OF RESOURCES, LOGISTICS SERVICE CAPABILITIES, AND INNOVATION CAPABILITIES 131
4.3.1 Importance of Resource Attributes 131
4.3.2 Importance of Logistics Service Capability Attributes 133
4.3.3 Importance of Innovation Capability Attributes 135
4.4 IMPORTANCE OF RESOURCE, LOGISTICS SERVICE CAPABILITY, AND INNOVATION CAPABILITY ATTRIBUTES ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ FIRMS’ CHARACTERISTICS 136
4.4.1 Importance of Resource Attributes According to Respondents Firms’ Characteristics 136
4.4.2 Importance of Logistics Service Capability Attributes According to Respondents’ Firms’ Characteristics 143
4.4.3 Importance of Innovation Capability Attributes According to Respondents’ Firms’ Characteristics 152
4.5 IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF RESOURCES, LOGISTICS SERVICE CAPABILITIES, AND INNOVATION CAPABILITIES 158
4.5.1 Liner Shipping Service Firms’ Assessment of Resource Attributes 159
4.5.2 Liner Shipping Service Firms’ Assessment of Logistics Service Capability Attributes 160
4.5.3 Liner Shipping Service Firms’ Assessment of Innovation Capability Attributes 163
4.5.4 Firm Performance 164
4.6 ASSESSMENT OF COMPETITIVE POSITIONS OF RESOURCE, LOGISTICS SERVICE CAPABILITY AND INNOVATION CAPABILITY ATTRIBUTES 165
4.7 SUMMARY 170
CHAPTER 5 EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 173
5.1 EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS 173
5.1.1 Critical Resource Dimensions 174
5.1.2 Critical Logistics Service Capability Dimensions 176
5.1.3 Critical Innovation Capability Dimensions 179
5.1.4 Firm Performance 180
5.2 CORRECTED ITEM-TOTAL CORRELATION AND RELIABILITY TEST 181
5.3 A COMPARISON OF RESOURCE, LOGISTICS SERVICE CAPABILITY, AND INNOVATION CAPABILITY DIMENSIONS AMONG TAIWANESE LINER SHIPPING FIRMS 185
5.4 STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING 188
5.4.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 188
5.4.2 Convergent Validity and Item Reliability 195
5.4.3 Standardized Residuals and Modification Indices 196
5.4.4 Discriminant Validity 199
5.4.5 Composite Reliability and Variance Extracted Measures 201
5.4.6 Estimation of the Structural Model 203
5.5 HYPOTHESES TESTING RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 207
5.6 SUMMARY 209
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 212
6.1 CONCLUSION TO THE STUDY 212
6.1.1 Crucial Resource, Logistics Service Capability, and Innovation Capability Attributes 213
6.1.2 Crucial Resource and Logistics Service Capability Dimensions 214
6.1.3 Impacts of Resource on Innovation Capability and Logistics Service Capability 215
6.1.4 Impacts of Innovation Capability on Logistics Service Capability 216
6.1.5 Impacts of Resource on Firm Performance 217
6.1.6 Impacts of Innovation Capability on Firm Performance 217
6.1.7 Impacts of Logistics Service Capability on Firm Performance 218
6.2 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 218
6.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY 220
6.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 221
6.5 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 222
Appendix A: Questionnaire (In Chinese) 247
Appendix B: Questionnaire (In English) 252
CURRICULUM VITAE 256
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