||The Effects of Basic Psychological Needs on Actual Behavior for Knowledge Provider in Knowledge Sharing: focused on R&D Employees of Taiwan High-tech Industries
||Department of Business Administration (on the job class)
管理大師彼得杜拉克曾說：「二十一世紀企業最有價值的資產乃知識生產力。」對倚重研發創新的台灣高科技廠商而言，鼓勵科技知識的流通和分享，從中激盪價值創新的火花，幾乎比重新孕育和培養知識更加重要。這也就是Leonard-Barton在「知識創新之泉: 智價企業的經營(Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation)」一書中所提到的：創造科技能力的組織特質。
然而，如何有效激動員工主動進行知識分享，是第一步也是最困難的一步。人們通常吝於分享某些知識，以保護自己在職場上的競爭力。許多學者曾經嘗試找出最有效的知識分享激勵因子，而本研究則試圖從心理需求層面切入，引用自我知覺理論(Self-determination Theory, SDT)的三個基本心理需求──能力、關係及自主性是否會影響其願意主動進行知識分享的態度、意圖及行為(理性行為理論，Theory of Reasoned Action, TRA)。
本研究先以結構方程式模型的路徑分析法進行整體模式驗證，得到的模式適配度非常良好(x²/df=1.276, p=0.251, GFI=0.985, AGFI=0.949, CFI=0.995, RMR=0.024)。針對個別假設之驗證，則以簡單線性迴歸及階層迴歸分析法進行驗證，並確認所有的研究假設均成立(β=0.238-0.565, R²=0.1~0.3)，即能力、關係及自主性等三大基本心理需求均對研發人員是否願意進行知識分享之態度有正面影響；而自主性的需求是否被滿足，亦對組織對於個人的主觀規範造成正向的影響。此外，TRA理論中並未提到主觀規範可能影響個人態度，此假設亦在本研究中獲得驗證。
Social ecologist Peter F. Drucker had predicted in 1999 that the major management challenges for the 21st Century would be knowledge productivity. For high-tech industries in Taiwan, the innovation and knowledge management based on cross-field knowledge sharing is even more essential for R&D departments. That’s what Leonard-Barton mentioned as a technology company's competitive advantage in his book—Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation.
However, making employees share their knowledge voluntarily is not easy. People tend to hoard knowledge for various reasons. Many researchers tend to find out the most effective motivators of knowledge sharing. In this research, we were interested in how psychological needs affect personal attitude and actual behavior on sharing knowledge, and employed the three basic psychological needs – competence, relatedness and autonomy of Self-Determination Theory (SDT), and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as the theoretical framework.
Through a field survey of R&D employees from 30 Taiwan high-tech. companies and organizations, including semiconductor, software, photonics, electronic components, telecommunication & internet, computer devices, and research institutes. A total of 206 completed samples were returned, given the overall respondent rate of 75%.
The proposed research model is supported by path analysis of SEM model in this sample survey (x²/df=1.276, p=0.251, GFI=0.985, AGFI=0.949, CFI=0.995, RMR=0.024), and each path confirmed with significant effect per its high regression weight (β=0.24-0.57, R²=0.1~0.3) of simple and hierarchical regression analysis, which supported that the basic psychological needs of a person will positively affect his/her attitude and intention of knowledge sharing. The autonomy needs will also positively affect the subjective norm, which means a person who need more autonomy will care more about what other people think of his behavior. Besides, the study also proved that subjective norm affects the intention of a person indirectly through his/her attitude, which was not been identified in TRA.
Effective knowledge sharing cannot be forced or mandated. In this study we provide empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of basic psychological needs as motivational drivers to share personal knowledge. To institutionalize knowledge-sharing behaviors, organizations could foster its facilitative work contexts of subjective norms to satisfy individual’s needs of competence, relatedness and autonomy according to our research result. We have contributed to the development of a richer understanding of what must occur in order to create such facilitative work contexts. Given the importance of knowledge sharing in today’s world—and even more so in tomorrow’s world—we hope that our findings will be useful to organizations, especially R&D departments of high-tech companies in Taiwan, which engaged in improving the knowledge sharing atmosphere within organization, or to facilitate a better working contexts.
Chapter One - Introduction 10
1. Research background 10
2. Research motivation 10
3. Research objectives 11
4. Research scope and limitations 11
5. Research structure & procedures 12
Chapter Two - Literature Review 13
1. Knowledge Sharing 13
2. Theory of Reasoned Action 15
3. Self-Determination Theory 18
3.1 Competence 19
3.2 Relatedness 19
3.3 Autonomy 20
4. Definitions of the Constructs 21
Chapter Three - Research Hypotheses & Methodology 23
1. Research Model 23
2. Hypotheses 24
2.1 The Relationship between Basic Psychological Needs and Attitude 24
2.2 The Relationship between Autonomy and Subjective Norms 25
2.3 The Relationship among Subjective Norms, Attitude, and Intention 26
2.4 The Relationship between Autonomy and Behavior Intention 28
2.5 The Relationship between Behavior Intention and Actual Behavior 29
2.6 The Indirect Effect of Subjective Norm toward Attitude and Behavior Intention 29
3. The Scales and Validity 30
4. Questionnaire Development 31
5. Measurement and Data Collection 32
6. Respondents Profile 34
7. Analysis Methods 35
Chapter Four - Data Analysis 36
1. Factor Analysis and Reliability 36
2. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) 38
2.1 Overall Model Fit Summary: 39
2.2 Path Coefficient & Effects Summary: 40
3. Regression Analysis to test hypotheses 41
3.1 BPNs toward personal Attitude 41
3.2 Autonomy needs toward subjective norm 43
3.3 Subjective norm toward personal attitude 43
3.4 Subjective norm toward intention 44
3.5 Attitude toward intention 44
3.6 Autonomy toward intention 45
3.7 Intention toward behavior 45
3.8 Subjective norm toward intention via attitude 46
3.9 The complete path regression statistics of the research model 47
Chapter Five - Conclusion & Suggestion 48
1. Result & Conclusion 48
2. Findings 49
3. Managerial Implication 51
4. Suggestion for Further Research 51
Chapter Six - References 53
Chapter Seven - Appendix 66
7.1 Survey Questionnaire 66
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