||Soupe du jour效應：產品製造國語言對於消費者產品認知的影響
||The Soupe du Jour Effect: Language as a Country-of-Origin Cue and its Impact on Product Perception
||Institute of Cognitive Science
Country of Origin
研究一旨在檢驗流暢性偏好理論 (Preference fluency theory)。根據這項理論，我們預測當新產品以消費者所熟悉並且有組織的方式呈現時，他們比較願意嘗試這份產品。這項研究分別在台灣和越南進行調查，以有組織和沒組織兩種不同描述格式以及六種語言(繁體中文、俄文、韓文、日文、法文以及越南文)將虛構的食品呈現給消費者並觀察他們對於新食品的嘗試意願。結果顯示描述的方式是否有組織對於消費者沒有影響，但是相較於本國語言的標示，台灣人比較有可能嘗試帶有外國語言標示的東西。可是越南人較喜歡越南文標示的產品。實驗一的結果與流暢度偏好理論(Preference fluency theory) 的預測相反，消費者透過語言而引發出的產品所屬國的形象(Soupe du jour effect)似乎更能解釋消費者的行為，研究二則在測試這一項新的假設，即語言對消費者的影響 (Soupe du jour effect)。
研究二主要觀察Soupe du jour effect 對茶葉產品的影響力。在台灣及越南各有約700人參加本研究的兩種問卷調查，參加的人必需以1-5分的標準來評斷他們對某一項新產品的嘗試意願程度並對該項產品的進行價位評估。結果顯示台灣人給予帶有日文標示的產品最高的估價，他們最願意購買的產品是帶有日文標示的台灣製產品；相反地，越南人則比較喜歡帶有越南文標示的越南產品。這項研究結果彰顯強烈的語言效果，但這個效果卻因為文化不同而異。
這三個研究的結果顯示語言效果 (Soupe du jour effect) 的存在及其對消費者行為的影響程度。一國的語言可以間接激發該國家所代表的形象，此外，Soupe du jour effect 會因產品及文化的不同而改變，因此，因應不同的產品及不同的市場文化應該使用不同的語言如此方能充分發揮 Soupe du jour effect。
This research projects aimed to investigate the language effect as a proxy of country of origin effect on people perception of a new food product and their purchase intention. This project included three sequential studies.
Study 1 was conducted to examine the hypothesis that “people will be more willing to try a new food if it is presented in an organized format and in a familiar language”, predicted by Preference fluency theory. This study was conducted in Taiwan and Vietnam. The study investigated the effect of two formats (organized vs. disorganized) and 6 languages (Traditional Chinese, Russian, Korean, Japanese, French and Vietnamese) on people’s willingness to try a fictitious food. Results showed that organized format didn’t make any difference in inducing people to try a new food in comparison with disorganized format. Taiwanese people were more likely to try a new food with foreign labels than with Chinese label. Meanwhile, Vietnamese people were less likely to try a food with foreign labels than with Vietnamese label. These findings were opposite to what have been predicted by Preference fluency theory. Therefore, a new theory was conjectured and examined in the second part of study 1. This theory says that “to which country a food is thought to belong could influence whether or not people would be willing to try it”. This language effect is named “Soupe du jour” effect.
Study 2 examined the “Soupe du jour” effect in tea product category. Two surveys have been conducted in Taiwan and Vietnam. About 700 subjects have participated in each survey in each country. Participants were asked to indicate their willingness to buy a new tea product and price on a 5 point scale. Results showed that Taiwanese participants gave high price to the tea with Japanese label. Their purchase intention was highest for a tea made in Taiwan and label in Japanese. In contrast, Vietnamese participants preferred a tea made in Vietnam with label in Vietnamese. These findings revealed that language effect was robust but cultural-different.
Study 3 was carried out to verify the results of the first two studies to confirm the effect of language effect on people perception of price and their purchase intention. An experiment using realistic stimuli was conducted on a Taiwanese sample of 150 subjects. Stimuli in this experiment were fake tea boxes. The boxes looked similar to each other, except for the languages in their labels. Five languages were used. They were traditional Chinese, simplified Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese and English. Results showed that Japanese label was the most chosen, compare with the others. Traditional Chinese label was the second-most chosen. No difference was found between the choices of simplified Chinese, Vietnamese and English labels. Besides, Japanese language increased price for tea made in Taiwan, Vietnam, China and England. The findings showed a robust effect of foreign language in Taiwanese sample.
Results of the three studies revealed the existence and magnitude of the language effect, which was called “Soupe du jour” effect. Languages were found to be a proxy to trigger the country image of the country they represented. “Soupe du jour” was found to be product-specific and culture-specific. Depends on type of product and culture of the marketplace, appropriate language should be chosen to be able to take advantage from “Soupe du jour” effect.
ABSTRACT (in English) II
ABSTRACT (in Chinese) IV
LIST OF TABLES X
LIST OF FIGURES XIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 4
1.3 Research Objectives 8
1.4 Research Structure 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Preference Fluency Theory 10
2.2 Country of Origin Effect 11
2.3 Consumers’ Perceived Price and Willingness to buy a New Product in Country of Origin Paradigm 14
2.3.1 Perceived Price-Quality and COO Effect 14
2.3.2 Purchase Intention and COO Effect 15
2.4 Language as Country of Origin Cue 16
CHAPTER THREE STUDY 1: LANGUAGE EFFECT AND TWO THEORIES: PREFERENCE FLUENCY AND PERCEPTUAL MAP OF FOOD FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 18
3.1 Language Effect and Preference Fluency Theory 18
3.1.1 Objectives 18
3.1.2 Methods 18
3.1.3 Data Analysis 22
3.1.4 Results 22
3.1.5 Discussions and Conclusions 26
3.1.6 Conjectures 28
3.2 “Soupe du jour” Effect and the Perceptual Map of Familiarity and High-end 30
3.2.1 Objectives 30
3.2.2 Methods and Procedures 30
3.2.3 Data Analysis 31
3.2.4 Results 33
3.3 General Discussions 41
3.4 Conclusions 43
CHAPTER FOUR STUDY 2: LANGUAGE AS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN CUE 45
4.1 Objectives 45
4.2 Methods 46
4.2.1 Stimuli 46
4.2.2 Country of Origin 46
4.2.3 Languages (Writing Systems) 47
4.2.4 Response Variables 47
4.2.5 Participants 47
4.2.6 Procedures 47
4.3 Data Analysis 48
4.4 Results 50
4.4.1 Sample Characteristics 50
4.4.2 Language Effect as COO cues on Taiwanese People Perception of Price and Their Willingness to buy the Tea Product 52
4.4.3 Language Effect as COO Cues on Vietnamese People Perception of Price and their Willingness to buy the Tea Product 60
4.5 Discussions 66
4.5.1 “Soupe du jour” Effect and its Variation in Different Cultures 66
4.5.2 Limitations of the Methodology 68
CHAPTER FIVE STUDY 3: “SOUPE DU JOUR” EFFECT IN REALISTIC-STIMULI PARADIGM 70
5.1 Objectives 70
5.2 Methods 70
5.2.1 Participants 70
5.2.2 Stimuli 70
5.2.3 Procedure 71
5.3 Data Analysis 75
5.4 Results 76
5.4.1 Sample Characteristics 76
5.4.2 “Soupe du jour” Effect and its Role as a Proxy of Country of Origin Effect 78
5.5 Discussions 87
5.6 Conclusions 88
CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 89
Appendix- 1: Frequency and Price Data of Restaurants in Taiwan and Vietnam 100
Appendix- 2: Mean Scores of Familiarity Rankings and Price Estimates, and Mean Scores of Familiarity and Expensiveness Ratings of Different Cuisines in two samples: Taiwanese and Vietnamese 102
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