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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914060242
論文名稱(中文) 汽油車氣態污染物之排放劣化與行駛里程相關性研究
論文名稱(英文) Experimental analysis of emission deterioration for different accumulated mileage vehicles
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 陳子秦
研究生(英文) Zih-cin Chen
電子信箱 P5694125@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 P5694125
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 176頁
口試委員 口試委員-江鴻龍
口試委員-張艮輝
口試委員-張能復
口試委員-鄭福田
指導教授-蔡俊鴻
中文關鍵字 致癌性  光化反應潛勢  排 放劣化  車體動力計 
英文關鍵字 carcinogenic risk  emission deterioration  ozone formation potential  maximum incremental reactivity (MIR)  chassis dynamometer 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究藉由車體動力計模擬測試不同車齡汽油車於FTP-75行車型態,引擎排放法定氣態污染物之劣化特性,並利用GC/MS以及HPLC解析各項揮發性有機污染物(VOCs)以及醛酮化合物(Carbonyls)成份及濃度,推算VOCs排放係數,並評析有害空氣污染物對健康風險之影響與汽油車引擎排放VOCs所致臭氧形成潛勢。

研究結果顯示,低、中、高里程車群之NMHC排放係數分別為60.2±32.0 mg/km、104.4±38.5 mg/km、184.0±81.8 mg/km,CO排放係數分別為529.6±229.0 mg/km、1811.0±715.4 mg/km、1876.1±971.4 mg/km,NOx排放係數為118.6±101.2 mg/km、229.6±122.8 mg/km、382.1±328.2 mg/km。各項基準污染物排放係數皆以累積行駛里程較低車輛最低,高里程車輛最高。研究實測車輛排放劣化現象顯示TEDs5.1模式模擬排放劣化趨勢呈高估特性,污染物排放率與累積行駛里程呈線性關係。

汽油車輛引擎廢氣VOCs主要特徵成份為Toluene、Benzene、Xylene、p-Ethyltoluene及1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzen;廢氣之醛酮化合物主要特徵成份為Butyraldehyde、Acetone、Acrolein、Acetaldehyde、Valeraldehyde。
以MIR指標評析汽油車排氣致光化反應潛勢之影響,研究結果顯示,低累積行駛里程車群排放VOCs、Carbonyls之致臭氧形成量

以MIR指標評析汽油車排氣致光化反應潛勢之影響,研究結果顯示,低累積行駛里程車群排放VOCs、Carbonyls之致臭氧形成量為1477.4、36.4 mgO3/km,中累積里程車群排氣之形成量為765.7、38.1 mgO3/km,高累積里程車群排氣之形成量為487.73、102.9 mgO3/km。研究結果顯示高累積里程車輛排放廢氣為臭氧生成潛勢最高。
比較相關參數對汽油車排氣影響,車齡超過5年及行車里程高於80000公里之二期車車輛,其排放廢氣之污染物排放量、致癌性、致臭氧產生潛勢皆較高。
英文摘要 This study investigates the emission deterioration of gasoline vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for 3 types of aged vehicles, including low-mileage vehicles, medium-mileage vehicles, and high-mileage vehicles, based on the United State Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75).The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls compounds were also sampled by sampling bags and DNPH-Cartridges, and were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, respectively. The effects of health risk from exhausted air toxics and the ozone formation potentials of vehicles emissions by the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) index were evaluated.

The test results indicated that high-mileage vehicles caused the highest emission factor for HC、CO、NOx. The emission factor of low-mileage, medium-mileage and high-mileage vehicles are 60.2±32.0 mg/km、104.4±38.5 mg/km、184.0±81.8 mg/km for NMHC;For CO are 529.6±229.0 mg/km、1811.0±715.4 mg/km、1876.1±971.4 mg/km;For NOx are 118.6±101.2 mg/km、229.6±122.8 mg/km、382.1±328.2 mg/km.

The result shows the emission deterioration of test data is lower than model test, especially in high-mileage and aged vehicles.

The components of significant emissions for VOCs are Toluene、Benzene、Xylene、p-Ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzen. For carbonyls compounds are Butyraldehyde、Acetone、Acrolein、Acetaldehyde and Valeraldehyde.

The ozone formation potentials(VOCs and carbonyls) of 3 types of vehicles emissions from low-mileage vehicles contributed 1477.4 and 36.4 mgO3/km;medium-mileage vehicles contributed 765.7 and 38.1 mgO3/km;high-mileage vehicles contributed 8407.3 and 102.9 mgO3/km. The result indicated that the high-mileage vehicles have the highest ozone formation potential.

All these data indicate that gasoline vehicles used over 5 years and 80,000 km have the highest potential of emissions, carcinogenic risk and ozone formation.
論文目次 中文摘要...........................................................................I
Abstract...........................................................................III
誌 謝................................................................................V
目 錄................................................................................VI
表目錄..............................................................................X
圖目錄..............................................................................XIII
第一章 前 言......................................................................1-1
1-1 研究缘起.....................................................................1-1
1-2 研究目標.....................................................................1-3
第二章 文獻回顧.................................................................2-1
2-1 移動源空氣污染排放特性................................................2-1
2-1-1 台灣地區機動車輛概況................................................2-1
2-1-2 機動車輛排放廢氣特性................................................2-4
2-1-3 排放量計算方法.........................................................2-5
2-2 車輛廢氣排放及其影響因素.............................................2-10
2-2-1 引擎種類..................................................................2-10
2-2-2 操作條件..................................................................2-12
2-2-3 觸媒轉換器之裝設......................................................2-14
2-2-3 使用油品..................................................................2-14
2-3 排氣與車輛排放劣化之影響因素.......................................2-15
2-3-1 累積行駛里程............................................................2-16
2-3-2 操作條件..................................................................2-16
2-3-3 使用油品..................................................................2-17
2-4 機動車輛排放光化反應性污染物.......................................2-18
2-4-1 揮發性有機物之光化反應性指標....................................2-18
2-4-2 揮發性有機物於大氣中光化反應特性..............................2-19
第三章 研究方法.................................................................3-1
3-1 研究架構.....................................................................3-1
3-2 篩選測試車輛...............................................................3-2
3-3 排氣採樣測試程序.........................................................3-3
3-3-1 車體動力計簡述.........................................................3-3
3-3-2 動力計操作與排氣測定................................................3-3
3-3-3 汽油車引擎尾氣之採樣程序..........................................3-4
3-4 汽車引擎排氣測定分析及品保品管....................................3-7
3-4-1 汽油車引擎排氣之分析................................................3-7
3-4-2 實驗品保品管............................................................3-12
3-5 汽車引擎尾氣空氣污染物排放係數推估..............................3-16
第四章 結果與討論..............................................................4-1
4-1 汽車引擎尾氣氣態污染物特徵解析....................................4-1
4-1-1 基準污染物排放濃度解析.............................................4-1
4-1-2 基準污染物排放係數解析.............................................4-3
4-2 車輛排放劣化比較.........................................................4-14
4-2-1 實測值比較...............................................................4-14
4-2-2 模式推估值比較.........................................................4-16
4-3 汽車平均終身污染排放評估.............................................4-25
4-3-1 終身污染排放量評估...................................................4-25
4-3-2 終身油品使用量評估...................................................4-27
4-4 氣態有機污染物排放特徵解析..........................................4-33
4-4-1 氣態有機污染物排放濃度解析.......................................4-33
4-4-2 氣態有機污染物排放係數解析.......................................4-36
4-5 有害空氣污染物排放特徵解析..........................................4-47
4-5-1 有害空氣污染物排放係數解析.......................................4-47
4-5-2 健康風險衝擊............................................................4-50
4-5-3 有害空氣污染物終身排放評估.......................................4-55
4-6 汽車引擎尾氣致光化反應潛勢..........................................4-68
4-6-1 汽車排放NMHC致光化反應趨勢....................................4-68
4-6-2 汽車使用油品致光化反應趨勢.......................................4-71
第五章 結論與建議..............................................................5-1
5-1 結論...........................................................................5-1
5-2 建議...........................................................................5-3
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