||Reaction Mechanism of Monomolecular Self-Assembled Films Modified by Free Radical Dominant Downstream Microwave Plasma
||Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Downstream microwave plasma
synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray photoele
本研究以自製順流式微波電漿機台(downstream microwave plasma, DMP)作用於以化學吸附方式固定於Au(111)或Ag(111)的自組裝分子層Self-assembled monolayers, SAMs)，結合同步輻射高解析X光光電子能譜(synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, HRXPS )，即時探討DMP、SAMs以及金屬基材界面的反應機制。
以Langmuir probe對所設計的DMP進行電子密度及電子溫度的量測，所得電漿密度約為106 n/cm3，電子溫度約為0.5 eV，此可証實研究所使用的DMP系統其具高能量的物種少，經順流後主要的作用物種應為以存活期較長的自由基等活性物種為主，因此將本DMP系統定義為以自由基為主的電漿處理系統。
藉由上述理論的探討，使用此以自由基反應為主的DMP電漿系統於SAMs/Au表面製作圖樣，並以掃描式光電子顯微術(Scanning photoelectron microscopy, SPEM)分析電漿處理後表面鍵結變化。研究結果顯示，藉由電漿處理時間的控制，使SAM分子產生負型或正型光阻的效能，而此效能主要與SAM分子與電漿的反應隨時間變化相關。而藉由蝕刻程序，可證實圖樣轉印的效果。藉由此測試，顯示本系統具有製作微米/奈米等及元件例如微流道、生感測器或者提供微電漿製作的可行性。
In this work, we applied custom-made downstream microwave plasma (DMP) upon self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically adsorbed on Au or Ag (Metal). The pristine and plasma-modified SAMs/Metal substrates were then characterized by synchrotron-based in-situ high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their reaction mechanisms at the plasma/SAMs/Metal interfaces were studied.
The diagnosis of the DMP system was performed by custom-made Langmuir probe. Plasma density of the DMP system was estimated as 106 particles/cm3 or correlated with an electron temperature of around 0.5 eV. Plasma state of current DMP system was thus considered as low content of energetic species, whereas only long-lives free radicals were possible to survive in the course of traveling a distance. A free radical-dominant DMP system was then provided for the subsequent studies.
This defined plasma system was employed to react with various SAMs/Metal. The SAM molecules and head-group S-Metal bonds were sensitive to plasma composition, in particular, the oxygen-derivative species. The primary plasma-induced processes were dehydrogenation, desorption of hydrocarbon and sulfur-containing species, and the oxidation of the alkyl matrix and S-Metal interface. The reaction rates of all major plasma-induced processes were found to be directly proportional to the oxygen content in the plasma, which can be correlated with the measurement of plasma reactivity.
In the study of minor oxygen content in non-oxygen plasma, it was found that oxygen/nitrogen plasma was much reactive in comparison with oxygen/argon plasma. The minor content of oxygen-derivative species played an important role in plasma reactivity, while nitrogen-derived species were relatively efficient in energy transfer. In addition, SAM molecules with long alkyl chains and S-Ag bonds, compared with S-Au bonds, were much resistant to an analogous plasma treatment owing to the characteristic of low-density plasma.
Based upon these fundamental studies, we applied this technique to make a defined pattern on SAMs/Au using the analogous free radical-dominant DMP system and a particular synchrotron-based scanning photoelectron microscopy. By controlling the plasma exposure time, the modified SAMs/Au exhibited as a respective negative or positive resist, which was mostly related to plasma reaction with SAM molecules. After etching on the modified SAMs/Au, a clear pattern was exactly developed. From this frequently-used example, it is therefore very promising to apply this patterning method for the making of micro/nano devices such as micro-fluid channels, very small scale bio-chip, micro-discharges for novel micro-plasma system.
第一章 導論 1
1.1 導論 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 、理論基礎與文獻回顧 6
2.1 SAMs簡介 6
2.2 物理源對Self-assembled monolayers的效應 15
2.2.1溫度對Self-assembled monolayers的效應 15
2.2.2電子束對Self-assembled monolayers的效應 16
2.2.3紫外光對Self-assembled monolayers的效應 22
2.2.4X-ray對Self-assembled monolayers的效應 25
2.3 電漿簡介 27
2.4 X-ray光電子能譜術 46
第三章 材料與方法 50
3.1 自組裝單分子層(self-assembled monolayers)製備 50
3.2 順流式微波電漿機台 53
3.3 Langmuir probe 電漿參數量測[66, 102-106] 56
3.4 實驗設計及流程 63
3.4.2. 微量氧(> 1%)添加於以自由碁為主氮氣電漿對SAMs反應速率的影響 64
3.4.3. 順流式電漿對SAMs的改質效應:電漿組成、碳鏈長度、基材的影 66
3.5 高解析光電子能譜儀以及掃描式光電子顯微術分析 69
第四章 同步輻射X-ray光源誘導損害SAMs效應 75
第五章 微量氧添加於以自由基為主的氮氣電漿對SAMs反應機制及速率探討 85
5.1 自由基為主的氮氣電漿對SAMs的反應機制探討 85
5.2 微量氧添加於以自由基為主的氮氣電漿對SAMs反應速率探討 92
第六章 順流式電漿對SAMs的改質效應:電漿組成、碳鏈長度以及基材的影響 107
6.1 電漿組成對ODT/Au反應機制的影響 107
6.2 碳鏈長度及基材對氮、氬氣電漿反應速率的影響 116
第七章 使用順流式氮氣電漿系統於以SAMs為超薄光阻層圖案轉移之研究 125
7.1 順流式氮氣電漿處理ODT/Au表面型態及鍵結變化情形 125
7.2 順流式氮氣電漿處理ODT/Au經濕式蝕刻顯影後表之圖案 134
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