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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914044716
論文名稱(中文) 電驅動與壓力驅動流於微流體管道之研究: 界面電動效應對於兩不互溶流體平行流之影響、混沌混合、流體聚焦
論文名稱(英文) Electrokinetic / Pressure-Driven Flows in Microfluidic Channels: Interfacial Electrokinetic Effect on Parallel Flow of Two- Immiscible-Fluid, Chaotic Mixing, and Flow Focusing
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 張志彰
研究生(英文) Chih-Chang Chang
電子信箱 n9892113@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n9892113
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 213頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊瑞珍
召集委員-謝曉星
口試委員-張建成
口試委員-陳炳煇
口試委員-楊鏡堂
口試委員-苗君易
口試委員-黃吉川
口試委員-李國賓
口試委員-宋齊有
中文關鍵字 微流體  電動學  電雙層  電滲  兩不互溶流體  非均勻介達電位  混沌混合  虛擬粒子追蹤法  龐加萊圖像  李亞普諾夫指數  流體聚焦 
英文關鍵字 Microfluidics  Electrokinetics  Electrical Double Layer  Two-Immiscible-Fluid  Electroosmosis  Non-Uniform Zeta Potential  Chaotic Mixing  Passive Particle Tracking Method  Poincaré map  Lyapunov Exponent  Flow Focusing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 此論文主要探討三個微流體相關之研究主題: 界面電動效應對於微管道內兩不互溶流體平行流之影響、異質性表面電荷之設計誘發流體混沌混合於二維及三維微管道內、電動及水力式流體聚焦於微管道內。
在第一個研究主題中,我們以理論解析方式探討存在於液體-液體或液體-氣體界面之表面電荷對於兩不互溶流體平行流流動之影響,此兩種不互溶流體分別為傳導流體(例如:水溶液)及非傳導流體(例如:油、空氣)。兩種不同型態(肩並肩型態、三明治型態)平行流之解析解分別被提出,其結果顯示兩不互溶流體平行流之速度分佈及流量與介達電位比(固-液與液-液界面之介達電位比)、兩流體黏滯度比、管道深寬比及兩不互溶流體界面位置有關。
在第二個研究主題中,我們探討三維定常流場及二維非定常流場之混沌混合問題。在三維定常流場混合問題方面,我們以數值模擬方式探討電滲流在具異質性表面電荷分佈之三維微管道中之混合,共有三種不同型態之混合管道被探討。我們使用虛擬粒子追蹤法顯現及評估各混合管道之混合效果,結果顯示在低雷諾數下可產生被動式電滲混沌混合於異質性三維微管道中。在二維非定常流場混合問題方面,我們以理論方式探討流體主動式混合於具異質性表面電荷分佈之二維微管道,此表面電荷分佈藉由場效應控制可隨空間及時間變化。在此混合系統中,主要流可為壓力驅動流或電滲流,而因異質性表面電荷分佈所產生之電滲渦流扮演混合擾動的角色,藉由時間上地切換交替兩種不同型態之電滲渦流場將可產生混沌混合。首先,我們先導出在不同表面電荷分佈下電滲流場之解析解,再以動力分析方式(龐加萊圖像、李亞普諾夫指數)描述粒子在此主動混合系統之運動行為。而粒子混沌行為強度可藉由李亞普諾夫指數量化,因而找出其最佳切換頻率,此最佳切換頻率也經由直接數值模擬方式被驗證。
在第三個研究主題中,我們以理論及實驗方式探討流體聚焦現象,包含二維單相流電動及水力聚焦問題、二維兩不互溶流體水力聚焦及三維單相流水力聚焦。在二維電動聚焦方面,我們使用克希何夫電流定律推導一簡單理論式預測電動聚焦流之尺寸。在二維水力聚焦方面,針對對稱性及非對稱性聚焦問題,我們分別提出兩簡單理論模型以預測水力聚焦流之尺寸。實驗結果顯示,所提出之理論式可描述電動及水力聚焦之尺寸大小。另外,我們亦提出一理論模型描述兩不互溶流體水力聚焦效應,其聚焦尺寸大小與兩流體之流率比、黏滯度比及管道深寬比有關。最後,我們設計及製造一三維水力聚焦微流體裝置,其為一雙層聚二甲基矽氧烷微管道之結構。其聚焦步驟分成垂直聚焦及水平聚焦,經由此兩步驟三維水力聚焦可達成,此有利於細胞/粒子之計數。數值模擬結果及實驗圖像皆顯示樣品流可成功地被聚焦一小範圍區域內。此外,我們亦藉由數值模擬方式探討了管道深寬比及雷諾數大小對於垂直聚焦效應之影響,結果顯示此三維水力聚焦裝置較適用於低雷諾數下(約5以下),以避免聚焦樣品流在垂直聚焦時遭誘發之二次流所破壞。
英文摘要 This dissertation addresses the following three research topics relevant to microfluidics: the interfacial electrokinetic effect on parallel flows of two-immiscible-fluid in microchannels, the heterogeneous surface charge patterning induced chaotic mixing in two- and three-dimensional microchannels, and electrokinetic and hydrodynamic flow focusing in microchannels.
In the first topic, we have performed a theoretical investigation into the effect of surface charge at a liquid-liquid or liquid-gas interface on two-immiscible-fluid parallel flows in microchannels. The two fluids are conducting fluid (e.g. aqueous solution) and non-conducting fluid (e.g. oil), respectively. Side-by-side and sandwiched type parallel flows were considered in this work. Their corresponding analytical solutions of flow velocity for the case of laminar, steady state fully developed flow were derived, in which the interface between the two fluids was assumed to be planar. The velocity profile and flow rate were shown to be as a function of the zeta potentials of the channel walls and liquid-liquid (or-gas) interface, dynamic viscosity ratio of the two-fluid, aspect ratio of the microchannel, and interface position of the two-fluid.
In the second topic, chaotic mixing in steady-state three-dimensional flows (passive mixing) and time-dependent two dimensional flows (active mixing) were introduced. In the case of three-dimensional steady-state flow mixing, we have performed a numerical simulation investigation into electoosmotic flow mixing in three-dimensional microchannels with patterned non-uniform surface zeta potentials. Three types of micromixers were investigated, namely a straight diagonal strip mixer, a staggered asymmetric herringbone strip mixer, and a straight diagonal/symmetric herringbone strip mixer. A particle tracing algorithm was used to visualize and evaluate the mixing performance of the various mixers. The particle trajectories and Poincaré maps of the various mixers were calculated from the three-dimensional flow fields. The surface charge patterns on the lower walls of the microchannels induce electoosmotic chaotic advection in the low Reynolds number flow regime and hence enhance the passive mixing effect in the microfluidic devices. A quantitative measure of the mixing performance based on the Shannon entropy was employed to quantify the mixing of two miscible fluids. In the case of two-dimensional time-dependent flow mixing, active mixing in two-dimensional microchannels with spatiotemporal variations in zeta potential distributions was investigated theoretically. The heterogeneous zeta potential distribution was assumed to be a square wave-like form. In this mixing system, the primary flow is either pressure-driven flow (i.e. parabolic flow) or electroosmotic flow (i.e. plug-like flow), and electroosmotic recirculating rolls (i.e. secondary electroosmotic flow) act as the perturbation source. The electroosmotic recirculating flow fields can be modulated spatiotemporally using a field-effect (i.e. the so-called capacitive effect). By time-wise alterations of two different electroosmotic recirculating flow fields, chaotic mixing can be induced. Firstly, analytical solutions of electroosmotic recirculating flow fields were derived. Then, blob deformation, Poincaré map, and infinite-time Lyapunov exponent analysis were employed to describe the behaviors of the particle motion in this active mixing system. The chaotic strength was quantified by the Lyapunov exponent and then the optimal frequency was found. Finally, the optimal frequency was also verified through direct numerical simulations.
In the third topic, three sub-topics, including two-dimensional electrokinetic/hydrodynamic focusing of single phase flow, two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing of two-immiscible-fluid, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing of single phase flow were investigated theoretically and experimentally. In two-dimensional electrokinetic focusing, a theoretical model based on Kirchhoff’s current law was derived and applied to predict the width of the electrokinetically focused stream. In two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing, two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing were proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with low or high aspect ratios. The results predicted by the theoretical models were shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, a theoretical model was also developed to predict the width of the two-fluid hydrodynamically-focused stream for a given volumetric flow rate ratio, dynamic viscosity ratio of the two-fluid, and microchannel aspect ratio.
Finally, we designed and fabricated a three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic device, which is comprised of a two-layer PDMS microchannel structure. A sample flow stream was firstly vertically constrained into a narrow stream and then horizontally focused into one small core-region from a cross-section perspective, which is useful for cell/particle counting. We showed the numerical and experimental images of the focused stream shape from a cross-section perspective; experimental images were captured using a confocal fluorescence microscope. We also investigated the effect of channel aspect ratio on the vertical focusing effect through numerical simulations. The results showed that the sample flow can be focused successfully in the lower aspect ratio of the main channel (slightly greater than 0.5) in our design. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number on the vertical focusing effect was also investigated. The numerical results showed that the rectangular-like shape of the focused stream from the cross-section perspective was deformed when the Reynolds number was high due to stronger secondary flows produced in the vertical focusing unit. This phenomenon was also demonstrated experimentally. The device only works well at low Reynolds numbers (approximately less than 5). The device can be integrated into an on-chip flow cytometer.
論文目次 Contents
Abstract I
中文摘要 III
致 謝.........................................IV
Dedication V
Contents VI
List of Figures XI
Abbreviation XXII
Nomenclature XXIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Microfluidics 1
1.2 Electrokinetics 3
1.2.1 Electrical double layer 3
1.2.2 Electroosmosis 6
1.2.4 Streaming potential and its applications 8
1.3 Electrokinetic Transport Equations 9
1.3.1 Electrostatics 9
1.3.2 Constitutive equations for continuum hydrodynamics 10
1.3.3 Constitutive equation for species (ion) transport 12
1.4 Theory of Electrical Double Layer 13
1.4.1 The Boltzmann distribution and Poisson-Boltzmann equation 13
1.4.2 Debye-Hückel theory 16
1.4.3 Guoy-Chapman theory 17
1.4.4 Grahame equation 17
1.4.5 Zeta potential 18
1.5 Scope of Thesis 19
Chapter 2 Materials and Methods 21
2.1 Fabrication of Microfluidic Chips 21
2.1.1 Fabrication of glass-based microchips for electrkinetic flow focusing 21
2.1.2 Fabrication of PDMS-based microchips for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow focusing 22
2.2 Experimental Setup 24
2.2.1 Electrokinetic focusing 24
2.2.2 Two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing 25
2.3 Numerical Method 27
Chapter 3 Interfacial Surface Charge Effect on Parallel Flows of Two-Immiscible-Fluid in Microchannels 28
3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Mathematical Model 30
3.2.1 Electrical double layer (EDL) field 32
3.2.2 Flow field 33
3.2.3 Flow rate 36
3.3 Verification of Analytical Solutions through Numerical Simulations 37
3.4 Electroosmotic Effect on Parallel Flow of Two-Immiscible-Fluid 38
3.4.1 Comparison of the results of the present model and the previous model 39
3.4.2 Effect of the viscosity ratio of two fluids 41
3.4.3 Effect of the zeta potentials of the fluid-fluid interface and the channels walls 43
3.4.4 Effect of the channel aspect ratio 45
3.4.5 Effect of the interface position or the holdup of the conducting fluid 48
3.4.6 Effect of the dimensionless Debye-Hückel parameter (K) 50
3.5 Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure-Driven Parallel Flows of Two-Immiscible-Fluid 51
3.6 Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Sandwiched-type Parallel Flow of Two-Immiscible-Fluid 54
Chapter 4 Chaotic Mixing in Non-uniform Zeta Potential Microchannels 57
4.1 Introduction 57
4.1.1 Microfluidic mixing 57
4.1.2 Electroosmotic flow mixing 59
4.2 Electroosmotic Chaotic Mixing in Three-dimensional Microchannels with Patterned Surface Charges 61
4.2.1 Formulation and boundary conditions 63
4.2.2 Particle tracing algorithm 66
4.2.3 Description of mixing channel and flow condition 66
4.2.4 Secondary flow patterns 67
4.2.5 Straight diagonal strip (SDS) mixer 69
4.2.6 Staggered asymmetric herringbone strip (SAHS) mixer and Straight diagonal /symmetric herringbone strip (SDSHS) mixer 75
4.3 Electroosmotic Flow in Two-dimensional Microchannels with Non-uniform Zeta Potential Distributions 80
4.3.1 Electrical double layer (EDL) fields 81
4.3.2 Electroosmotic flow fields 83
4.3.3 Electroosmotic flow patterns in microchannels with non-uniformly charged walls 90
4.4 Chaotic Mixing in Two-dimensional Microchannels Utilizing Spatiotemporally Switching Electroosmotic Recirculating Rolls 97
4.4.1 Description and formulation of problem 99
4.4.2 Analysis of mixing in the case of pressure-driven primary flow 108
4.4.3 Analysis of mixing in the case of electroosmotic primary flow 121
Chapter 5 Electrokinetic and Hydrodynamic Focusing in Microchannels 129
5.1 Introduction 129
5.2 Two-dimensional Electrokinetic Focusing 131
5.2.1 Theoretical analysis 132
5.2.2 Verification of our electrokinetic focusing model through experiments 137
5.3 Two-dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing 138
5.3.1 Theoretical analysis 139
5.3.2 Theoretical and experimental results of symmetric hydrodynamic focusing effect 144
5.3.3 Theoretical and experimental results of asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing effect 149
5.4 Hydrodynamic Focusing Effect on Two-immiscible-fluid 153
5.4.1 Theoretical analysis 153
5.4.2 Velocity profiles 158
5.4.3 Theoretical results of the hydrodynamic focusing effect of two-immiscible- fluid 160
5.5 Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing in Two-layer PDMS Microchannels 163
5.5.1 Comparison of vertical focusing unit of DESIGN I and DESIGN II 167
5.5.2 Influence of Reynolds number on vertical focusing effect in DESIGN II 172
5.5.3 Confocal fluorescence microscope images of the focused sample stream after vertical and horizontal focusing processes 175
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Works 178
6.1 Interfacial Surface Charge Effect on Parallel Flows of Two-Immiscible-Fluid in Microchannels 178
6.2 Chaotic Mixing in Non-uniform Zeta Potential Microchannels 179
6.2.1 Electroosmotic Chaotic Mixing in Three-dimensional Microchannels with Patterned Surface Charges 179
6.2.2 Chaotic Mixing in Two-dimensional Microchannels Utilizing Spatiotemporally Switching Electroosmotic Recirculating Rolls 184
6.3 Electrokinetic and Hydrodynamic Focusing in Microchannels 186
6.3.1 Two-dimensional electrokinetic and hydrodynamic focusing of single phase flow in microchannels 186
6.3.2 Hydrodynamic focusing effect on two-immiscible-fluid in microchannels 187
6.3.3 Three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing in two-layer PDMS microchannels 188
Bibliography 190
Appendix A Analytical Solutions of Sandwiched-Type Pressure-Driven/Electroosmotic Parallel Flows of Two-Immiscible-Fluid in Microchannels 204
Appendix B Analytical Solutions of Secondary Electroosmotic Flows in Two-Dimensional Microchannels with Square Wave-Like Zeta Potential Distributions 211
Curriculum Vitae 213
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