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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914011275
論文名稱(中文) 台灣地區汽油車輛CO2排放推估方法之研究
論文名稱(英文) Method in estimating CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles in Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 李秀璇
研究生(英文) Hsiu-Hsuan Li
電子信箱 hoho-hsuan@yahoo.com.tw
學號 p5694133
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 189頁
口試委員 口試委員-鄭福田
口試委員-張能復
口試委員-江鴻龍
指導教授-蔡俊鴻
口試委員-張艮輝
中文關鍵字 排放係數  汽油車  CO2排放量  活動強度  推估方法 
英文關鍵字 calculation methodology  activity intensity  emission factors  gasoline vehicles  CO2 emission 
學科別分類
中文摘要   運輸部門排放溫室氣體具重要貢獻,已為各國管理重點之一。台灣地區目前乃以能源局汽油使用量推算道路移動污染源所致溫室氣體排放量,無法精確估算各車種排放量;因此無法針對排放量高之車種加強管制。本研究主要探討汽油車輛排放CO2推估方法,評析排放係數及活動強度相關係數對汽油車(自小客、營小客、自小貨、營小貨、機車) CO2排放量影響,以建立反映台灣地區特性之汽油車輛CO2排放推估方法,研究收集IPCC、GHG Protocol、美國、澳洲、日本、國內環保署、國內交通部等七種推估方法進行討論。
  以IPCC公告參數為基準,評析國內外不同推估方法所使用熱值及排放係數差異,熱值介於32.3至34.9 MJ/L,差異為-6.1至1.5 %,排放係數介於66.0至69.3 kgCO2/GJ,差異為-4.7至0.1 %,所導衍排放係數介於2234至2358 gCO2/L,差異為-5.3至0 %。利用質量守恆推估汽油排放係數與實測排放係數介於1978.1至2478.0 gCO2/L,差異為-11.7至10.6 %。以質量守恆方式推估92、95、98無鉛汽油CO2的排放係數均大於依IPCC準則推算排放係數,介於2368至2478 gCO2/L,差異介於5.7%~10.6%。比較小客車及機車CO2排放係數(gCO2/km、gCO2/L)與基準污染物(HC、CO、NOx)排放係數之關係,於CO2排放係數(gCO2/km、gCO2/L)減少條件下,NMHC/HC及CO排放均增加。
  以IPCC方法為基準,套用國內汽油熱值,針對燃料熱值(kcal/L)、單位燃料熱值之含碳量(tC/TJ)、碳氧化率、排放係數(gCO2/L)等參數,結果顯示燃料熱值介於7714至7800 kcal/L,差異為-1.1至0 %,單位燃料熱值之含碳量介於18.2至18.9 tC/TJ,差異為-3.8~ 0 %,所導衍排放係數介於2156至2241 gCO2/L,差異為-3.8~ 0.02 %。以台灣能源平衡表為基準,評析79至94年汽油總使用量,結果顯示差異介於-24.2至11.6 %。以本研究為基準,評析92年各車種汽油使用量,差異介於-23.3至34.0 %。以IPCC為基準,評析79至94年CO2總排放量比較差異,差異介於-25.9至11.6 %。評析92年各車種CO2排放量,差異介於-26.2至23.5 %。
  研究顯示,汽油車排放CO2推估所需排放係數以IPCC準則配合利用本土數值(如:車用汽油熱值)進行估算;活動強度以國內交通部提供推估公式,並利用本土數值(如:各車種燃料使用量、燃料總使用量、燃油效率、燃料使用比例、里程數、車輛數、車輛使用率、小貨車汽柴油使用比例)進行估算各車種汽油使用量,據以推估國內汽油車CO2排放量,應為較能確切台灣特性之方法。
英文摘要   Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been concerned in the last decade. The emissions attributed to transport sector shows a significant portion, therefore, many countries establish control strategy in this sector. Emissions of GHG from mobile sources are calculated form gasoline consumption by Energy Bureau in Taiwan. This approach is unable to estimate the accurate GHG emission that attributed from various vehicles, such as passenger car, motorcycle, heavy-duty vehicle and so on. Therefore, it will be difficult to establish control strategies of high emitter for Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA).
  This study was investigated methodology of estimating gasoline vehicles CO2 emissions, evaluated the influence of emission coefficients and activities on gasoline vehicles CO2 emissions. The gasoline vehicles were included passenger cars, taxi, private light-duty trucks, business light-duty trucks, and motorcycles. Moreover, methodologies develop by IPCC, GHG Protocol, U.S.A., Australia, Japan, Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communications, and TEPA were evaluated in present study.
  Using IPCC parameter as the basic, to evaluate the difference of calorific values and emission factors that used in other counties as mention previously. Calorific values were form 32.3 to 34.9 MJ/L, and the differences between IPCC and other countries were from -6.1 to 1.5 %. Emission factors were ranged from 2234 to 2358 gCO2/L, and the differences between IPCC and others were from -5.3 to 0 %. Conducted mass balance to estimate emission factor of 92, 95, and 98 leadless gasoline, the result shows that all factors were greater than IPCC. The values were from 2368 to 2478 gCO2/L, and the difference between IPCC and others were from -5.7 to 10.6 %. Comparison CO2 emission factors (gCO2/km and gCO2/L) of passenger car and motorcycle with the emission factors of HC, CO, and NOx, the results showed that reducing CO2 emission factor may increased NMHC/HC and CO emissions.
  Using IPCC methodology as the basic, conducted Taiwan’s gasoline calorific value to evaluate the fuel calorific value (kcal/L), carbon content in per energy used (tC/TJ), oxidized carbon rate, and emission factor. The results implied that the fuel calorific values were ranged from 7714 to 7800 kcal/L and the difference of IPCC and other methods were from -1.1 to 0 %. Carbon content in per energy use was from 18.2 to 18.9 tC/TJ and the difference of IPCC and other methods were from -3.8 to 0 %. The emission factors were 2155 to 2241 gCO2/L and the difference of IPCC and other methods were between -3.8 to 0.02 %. Using Taiwan’s Energy Balances as the basic, evaluated total gasoline consumption between 1990 and 2005. The result shows that the difference of Energy Balances and other methods were between -24.2 to 11.6%.
  Furthermore, using this research methodology as the basic, reviewed that gasoline consumption of different kind gasoline vehicles in 2003. The difference of this research methodology and others were between -23.3 to 34.0%. Using IPCC methodology as the basic, reviewed that total CO2 emissions between 1990 and 2005. The difference of IPCC and other methods were between -25.9 to 11.6%. Review total CO2 emissions of different kind gasoline vehicles in 2003 and the difference of IPCC and other methods were between -26.2 to 23.5%.
  The results show that emission factor of gasoline vehicles CO2 may calculated by cooperate with localized data, such as gasoline heating value, and IPCC methodology. The activity data are cooperate with localizes data (such as gasoline consumption of different gasoline vehicles, total gasoline consumption, fuel economy, gasoline consumption ratio, distance traveled, vehicle amount, vehicle utility percentage, and gasoline/diesel utility ratio of light-duty truck) to estimate gasoline consumption of different gasoline vehicles with Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communications methodology, and to estimate gasoline vehicles CO2 emissions in Taiwan. This approach should be precisely calculating CO2 emission for gasoline vehicles in Taiwan.
論文目次 中文摘要............I
Abstract............III
誌謝..............VI
目錄..............VIII
表目錄.............XI
圖目錄..............XIV
第一章 前言..........1-1
1.1 研究緣起..........1-1
1.2 研究目標...........1-3
第二章 文獻回顧...........2-1
2.1 溫室氣體與環境..........2-1
2.1.1 全球氣候變化...........2-1
2.1.2 各國溫室氣體排放量.......2-2
2.1.3 全國排放清單..........2-2
2.2 我國運輸部門排放特性........2-8
2.3 國內外汽油車溫室氣體盤查方法......2-10
2.3.1 跨政府氣候變遷專家小組(IPCC) .....2-10
2.3.2 溫室氣體盤查議定書(GHG Protocol) .....2-11
2.3.3 美國聯邦政府.........2-12
2.3.4 澳洲............2-13
2.3.5 日本............2-16
2.3.6 台灣............2-17
2.4 國內外盤查方法所需參數之實測值.......2-28
2.4.1 油品成份..........2-28
2.4.2 排放係數.........2-28
2.4.3 燃油效率...........2-28
2.5 美國加州溫室氣體排放標準......2-31
第三章 研究方法............3-1
3.1 研究架構............3-1
3.2 排放量推估程序..........3-3
3.2.1 排放係數設定...........3-3
3.2.2 活動強度設定..........3-4
3.3 實車測試值............3-7
3.3.1 小客車............3-7
3.3.2 機車............3-7
3.4 排放量推估程序........3-8
第四章 結果與討論..........4-1
4.1 國內外汽油車盤查方法異同評析.......4-1
4.1.1 盤查方法..........4-1
4.1.2 排放係數設定...........4-3
4.1.3 活動強度設定..........4-4
4.2 排放係數差異評析...........4-11
4.2.1 實測值與理論值排放係數比較.........4-11
4.2.2 CO2與傳統污染物排放係數比較.......4-20
4.3 活動強度差異評析.........4-61
4.3.1 行駛里程............4-61
4.3.2 燃油效率..........4-61
4.3.3 車輛數與車輛使用率.......4-61
4.3.4 汽油使用量..........4-62
4.4 汽油車輛CO2排放方法推估結果比較分析.......4-70
4.4.1 套用國內汽油熱值之國內外排放係數推估方法使用參數差異評析....4-70
4.4.2 套用國內活動強度參數之國內外活動強度推估方法使用參數差異評析..4-70
4.4.3 套用國內數值之排放量推估方法使用參數差異評析......4-71
4.5 台灣地區汽油車輛CO2排放推估方法分析......4-86
第五章 結論與建議.........5-1
5.1 結論...............5-1
5.2 建議...............5-3
參考文獻.................Ref-1
附錄 1.................1
附錄 2...............1
自述................1
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