進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200914001481
論文名稱(中文) 使用事件相關電位探討旁側夾擊作業下的錯誤歷程
論文名稱(英文) Error Processing Study in Flanker Task by Using ERPs
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 張旭民
研究生(英文) Hsu-min Chang
電子信箱 s8692106@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 s8692106
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 49頁
口試委員 口試委員-柯慧貞
口試委員-蕭富仁
召集委員-謝淑蘭
指導教授-蔡景仁
中文關鍵字 前扣帶皮質(ACC)  錯誤相關正波(Pe)  N2  錯誤  旁側夾擊作業  事件相關電位(ERPs)  錯誤相關負波(ERN/Ne) 
英文關鍵字 error positivity (Pe)  N2  error  anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)  flanker task  event-related potentials (ERPs)  error-related negativity (ERN)  error negativity 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目的:錯誤歷程與事件相關電位(event-related potentials, ERPs)的錯誤相關負波(error-related negativity, ERN)/錯誤負波(error negativity, Ne)、錯誤正波(error positivity, Pe)和N2成份波有關,但國內相關研究較少。本研究的第一個目的是想探討中文講者進行旁側夾擊作業時,困難度如何影響訊息處理。第二個目的是想利用ERPs測量Ne、Pe、N2等成份波是否受到作業反應和旁側夾擊干擾的影響。方法:本研究以21位健康中文講者為研究對象(男14位,女7位),平均年齡36歲,平均教育年數為14年。研究中,測量實驗參與者進行英文字版本旁側夾擊作業時的錯誤率、反應時間和ERPs成份波的振幅與潛時。結果:實驗參與者隨著作業難度升高而有較長的反應時間和較高的錯誤率,即旁側夾擊效果。但特別的是,在不同字母相同反應的刺激情境中,實驗參與者的錯誤反應時間最長,而錯誤率最低。此外,實驗參與者在犯錯之後,會進行行為調整,以降低錯誤率。事件相關電位結果則顯示,錯誤反應中有振幅較大、潛時較長的Ne和Pe,二者皆分佈在額葉頭皮處;而N2並沒有顯著地受到旁側夾擊作業難度的干擾。結論:雖然本研究的錯誤率未能適當控制,但是研究結果支持中文講者的錯誤率和反應時間受到衝突作業干擾;錯誤反應中出現的Ne與Pe和之前研究一致,然而N2和反應衝突之間的關係未獲證實。
英文摘要 Objectives: Event-related potentials (ERPs) that include an error-related negativity (ERN)/ error negativity (Ne), a later error-positivity (Pe), and N2 in flanker task have been implemented to explore error processing. But there are few related studies in Taiwan. The first aim of present study was in an attempt to obtain how Eriksen flanker task with varied difficulties influences information processing among Mandarin speakers. The second aim was to use ERPs recording to assess response consequence and flanker effect on neurophysiological indexes. Methods: The behavior data and ERPs were recorded from 21 physically and mentally healthy participants, including 14 men and 7 women with mean age 36 years (range 21-55 years), mean educational level 14 years (range 6-19 years), while they were doing Eriksen flanker task with English capitals. Results: Error rate and reaction time (RT) increased along with the difficulty of flanker effect. Specifically, correct RT of incongruent trials was the slowest and error rate of that was the highest. Post-error slowing was also observed. The Ne, maximum at the frontocentral electrode site, occurred ~70 ms after the error response, and following frontal Pe was observed. However, N2, peaking around 200 ms after stimulus, did not implicate the degree of conflict on the flanker task. Conclusion: Although the error rate was not well-controlled, the results indicate that the Eriksen flanker task by using English letters can be implemented among Mandarin speakers for the study of error processing.
論文目次 中文摘要 …………………………………………ii
ABSTRACT …………………………………………iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ………………………………iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………v
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………vii
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………viii
CAHPTER
1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………1
Background ……………………………………1
Error ………………………………………………2
Definition of Error …………………………2
Functions of Error ………………………3
Flanker Task …………………………………5
Event Related Potentials (ERPs) …………6
Error and ERPs ………………………………9
ERN/Ne ………………………………………9
Pe ……………………………………………11
N2 ……………………………………………12
Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Error ………13
Methodological Issues of Error Study ………14
Objectives ……………………………………15
2 PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS …………………16
Participants ………………………………………16
Methods ……………………………………………16
Materials …………………………………………16
Procedure …………………………………………17
Measurement of ERPs …………………………19
EEG Acquisition ………………………………19
EEG Artifact Rejection and Averaging …19
Statistical Analyses ……………………………20
Behavioral Data Analyses …………………20
EEG Data Analyses ……………………………21
3 RESULTS ……………………………………………22
Behavioral Performance ……………………………23
Accuracy ……………………………………………23
Reaction Time ……………………………………23
Post-error Slowing ………………………………24
ERP Components …………………………………25
Response-locked ERP ………………………………25
Ne ……………………………………………………26
Pe ……………………………………………………26
Stimulus-locked ERP ………………………………31
N2 ……………………………………………………31
4 DISCUSSION ………………………………………33
Behavioral Performance ……………………………34
ERP Findings ……………………………………35
Prospect …………………………………………38
Summary ………………………………………………39
LIST OF REFREENCES …………………………………40
參考文獻 曾志朗。 (民96,3月)。 熟能生巧之生物註腳。 科學人, 61, 8-9。
Adams, J. A. (1968). Response feedback and learning. Psychological Bulletin, 70(6), 486-504.
Alain, C., McNeely, H. E., He, Y., Christensen, B. K., & West, R. (2002). Neurophysiological evidence of error-monitoring deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Cereb. Cortex, 12(8), 840-846.
Angel, R. W. (1976). Efference copy in the control of movement. Neurology, 26(12), 1164-1168.
Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1-3), 7-15.
Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (1996). Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex, 6(2), 215-225.
Bernstein, P. S., Scheffers, M. K., & Coles, M. G. H. (1995). "Where did I go wrong?" A psychophysiological analysis of error detection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21(6), 1312-1322.
Beste, C., Saft, C., Andrich, J., Gold, R., & Falkenstein, M. (2006). Error processing in Huntington's disease [Electronic Version]. PLoS ONE, 1, e86. Retrieved Mar 28, 2007 from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1762335.
Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652.
Botvinick, M. M., Cohen, J. D., & Carter, C. S. (2004). Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(12), 539-546.
Botvinick, M. M., Nystrom, L. E., Fissell, K., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (1999). Conflict monitoring versus selection-for-action in anterior cingulate cortex. Nature, 402(6758), 179-181.
Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Gray, J. R., Molfese, D. L., & Snyder, A. (2001). Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: effects of frequency, inhibition and errors. Cereb. Cortex, 11(9), 825-836.
Burgio-Murphy, A., Klorman, R., Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Holahan, J., et al. (2007). Error-related event-related potentials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, reading disorder, and math disorder. Biological Psychology, 75(1), 75-86.
Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(6), 215-222.
Bush, G., Vogt, B. A., Holmes, J., Dale, A. M., Greve, D., Jenike, M. A., et al. (2002). Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex: a role in reward-based decision making. PNAS, 99(1), 523-528.
Carbonnell, L., & Falkenstein, M. (2006) Does the error negativity reflect the degree of response conflict? Brain Research 1095(1), 124-130.
Carter, C. S., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Noll, D., & Cohen, J. D. (1998). Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance. Science, 280(5364), 747-749.
Chiu, P. H., & Deldin, P. J. (2007). Neural evidence for enhanced error detection in major depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(4), 608-616.
Cohen, J. D., Botvinick, M., & Carter, C. S. (2000). Anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex: who's in control? Nature Neuroscience, 3(5), 421-423.
Cohen, N. J. (1981). Neuropsychological evidence for a distinction between procedural and declarative knowledge in human memory and amnesia. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, San Diego, 1981). ProQuest Digital Dissertations, AAT8111888.
Coles, M. G. H., Scheffers, M. K., & Holroyd, C. B. (2001). Why is there an ERN/Ne on correct trials? Response representations, stimulus-related components, and the theory of error-processing. Biological Psychology, 56(3), 173-189.
Cooke, J. D., & Diggles, V. A. (1984). Rapid error correction during human arm movements: evidence for central monitoring. Journal of Motor Behavior, 16(4), 348-363.
Dehaene, S., Posner, M. I., & Tucker, D. M. (1994). Localization of a neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 5(5), 303-305.
Dikman, Z. V., & Allen, J. J. B. (2000). Error monitoring during reward and avoidance learning in high- and low-socialized individuals. Psychophysiology, 37(1), 43-54.
Dochin, E., & Coles, M. G. H. (1988). Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11(3), 355-372.
Dywan, J., Mathewson, K. J., & Segalowitz, S. J. (2004). Error-related ERP components and source monitoring in older and younger adults In M. Ullsperger & M. Falkenstein (Eds.), Errors, conflicts, and the brain: Current opinions on performance monitoring (pp. 184-192). Leipzig: Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions und Neurowissenschafen.
Engst, F. M., Martin-Loeches, M., & Sommer, W. (2006). Memory systems for structural and semantic knowledge of faces and buildings. Brain Research, 1124(1), 70-80.
Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16(1), 143-149.
Error. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved Nov 1, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9032945
Error. (2007). In Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary.Retrieved Nov 1, 2006, from Merriam-Webster Online: http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/error
Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., & Hoormann, J. (1995). Event-related potential correlates of errors in reaction tasks. In G. Karmos, M. Molnár, V. Csépe, I. Czigler & J. E. Desmedt (Eds.), Perspectives of event-related potentials research (pp. 287-296). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., Hoormann, J., & Blanke, L. (1991). Effects of crossmodal divided attention on late ERP components. II. Error processing in choice reaction tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 78(6), 447-455.
Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., Horrmann, J., & Blanke, L. (1990). Effects of errors in choice reaction tasks on the ERP under focused and divided attention. In C. H. M. Brunia, A. W. K. Gaillard & A. Kok (Eds.), Psychophysiological Brain Research (pp. 192-195). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.
Falkenstein, M., Hoormann, J., Christ, S., & Hohnsbein, J. (2000). ERP components on reaction errors and their functional significance: a tutorial. Biological Psychology, 51(2-3), 87-107.
Falkenstein, M., Hoormann, J., & Hohnsbein, J. (2001). Changes of error-related ERPs with age. Experimental Brain Research, 138(2), 258-262.
Frank, M. J., Woroch, B. S., & Curran, T. (2005). Error-related negativity predicts reinforcement learning and conflict biases. Neuron, 47(4), 495-501.
Franken, I. H. A., van Strien, J. W., Franzek, E. J., & van de Wetering, B. J. (2007). Error-processing deficits in patients with cocaine dependence. Biological Psychology, 75(1), 45-51.
Gehring, W. J., Coles, M. G. H., Meyer, D. E., & Donchin, E. (1995). A brain potential manifestation of error-related processing. In G. Karmos, M. Molnár, V. Csépe, I. Czigler & J. E. Desmedt (Eds.), Perspectives of Event-Related Potentials Research (Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Supplement, No 44). (pp. 261-272). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Gehring, W. J., & Fencsik, D. E. (2001). Functions of the medial frontal cortex in the processing of conflict and errors. J. Neurosci., 21(23), 9430-9437.
Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M. G. H., Meyer, D. E., & Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4(6), 385-390.
Gehring, W. J., Himle, J., & Nisenson, L. G. (2000). Action-monitoring dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 11(1), 1-6.
Gordon, P. (2004). Numerical cognition without Words: Evidence from Amazonia. Science, 306(5695), 496-499.
Green, M. (2003). Human error in medicine. Retrieved Jan. 10, 2007, from http://www.expertlaw.com/library/malpractice/medical_error.html
Herrmann, M. J., Römmler, J., Ehlis, A.-C., Heidrich, A., & Fallgatter, A. J. (2004). Source localization (LORETA) of the error-related-negativity (ERN/Ne) and positivity (Pe). Cognitive Brain Research, 20(2), 294-299.
Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. (2002). The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109(4), 679-709.
Holroyd, C. B., Dien, J., & Coles, M. G. H. (1998). Error-related scalp potentials elicited by hand and foot movements: evidence for an output-independent error-processing system in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 242(2), 65-68.
Holroyd, C. B., Nieuwenhuis, S., Yeung, N., Nystrom, L., Mars, R. B., Coles, M. G. H., et al. (2004). Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex shows fMRI response to internal and external error signals. Nature Neuroscience, 7(5), 497-498.
Holroyd, C. B., Yeung, N., Coles, M. G. H., & Cohen, J. D. (2005). A mechanism for error detection in speeded response time tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(2), 163-191.
Homo sapiens. (2007). In Encyclopeadia Britannica. Retrieved Nov 1, 2006, from
Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040899
Hsieh, S., Cheng, I. C., & Tsai, L.-L. (2007). Immediate error correction process following sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 16(2), 137-147.
Jasper, H. H. (1958). Report of the committee on methods of clinical examination in electroencephalography 1957 Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10(2), 370-375.
Kaiser, J., Barker, R., Haenschel, C., Baldeweg, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (1997). Hypnosis and event-related potential correlates of error processing in a stroop-type paradigm: a test of the frontal hypothesis. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 27(3), 215-222.
Klorman, R., Brumaghim, J. T., Salzman, L. F., Strauss, J., Borgstedt, A. D., McBride, M. C., et al. (1990). Effects of methylphenidate on processing negativities in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychophysiology, 27(3), 328-337.
Knight, R. T. (1991). Evoked potential studies of attention capacity in human frontal lobe lesions. In H. S. Levin, H. M. Eisenberg & A. L. Benton (Eds.), Frontal lobe function and dysfunction (pp. 139-153). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kopp, B., Rist, F., & Mattler, U. (1996). N200 in the flanker task as a neurobehavioral tool for investigating executive control. Psychophysiology, 33(3), 282-294.
Ladouceur, C. D., Dahl, R. E., & Carter, C. S. (2004). ERP correlates of action monitoring in adolescence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 329-336.
Leuthold, H., & Sommer, W. (1999). ERP correlates of error processing in spatial S-R compatibility tasks. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110(2), 342-357.
Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology November, 81(5), 922-934.
Mathalon, D. H., Bennett, A., Askari, N., Gray, E. M., Rosenbloom, M. J., & Ford, J. M. (2003). Response-monitoring dysfunction in aging and Alzheimer's disease: an event-related potential study. Neurobiology of Aging, 24(5), 675-685.
McCarthy, G., & Wood, C. C. (1987). Intracranial recordings of endogenous ERPs in humans. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Supplement, 39, 331-337.
Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24(1), 167-202.
Miller, J. (1982). Divided attention: evidence for coactivation with redundant signals. Cognitive Psychology, 14(2), 247-279.
Näätänen, R. (1992). The mismatch negativity (MMN). In Attention and brain function (pp. 136-200). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nieuwenhuis, S., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Blom, J., Band, G. P. H., & Kok, A. (2001). Error-related brain potentials are differentially related to awareness of response errors: Evidence from an antisaccade task. Psychophysiology, 38(5), 752-760.
Norman, D. A. (1988). The design of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.
Otten, L. J., & Rugg, M. D. (2005). Interpreting event-related brain potentials. In T. C. Handy (Ed.), Event-related potentials: A methods handbook. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
Pailing, P. E., & Segalowitz, S. J. (2004). The effects of uncertainty in error monitoring on associated ERPs. Brain and Cognition, 56(2), 215-233.
Pailing, P. E., Segalowitz, S. J., Dywan, J., & Davies, P. L. (2002) Error negativity and response control. Psychophysiology, 39(2), 198-206.
Palmer, B., Nasman, V. T., & Wilson, G. F. (1994). Task decision difficulty: effects on ERPs in a same-different letter classification task. Biological psychology, 38(2-3), 199-214.
Paulesu, E., McCrory, E., Fazio, F., Menoncello, L., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S. F., et al. (2000). A cultural effect on brain function. Nature Neuroscience, 3(1), 91-96.
Pineda, J. A., & Swick, D. (1992). Visual P3-like potentials in squirrel monkey: effects of a noradrenergic agonist. Brain Research Bulletin, 28(3), 485-491.
Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J. S., Cain, M. S., Thakkar, K. N., Rauch, S. L., & Manoach, D. S. (2005). Rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex make dissociable contributions during antisaccade error commission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(43), 15700-15705.
Pope, A. (1711). An Essay on Criticism. Retrieved December 16, 2006, from http://poetry.eserver.org/essay-on-criticism.html
Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1966). Errors and error correction in choice-response tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(2), 264-272.
Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1967). Time to detect errors as a function of factors affecting choice-response time. Acta Psychologica, 27, 131-142.
Rabbitt, P. M. A., Cumming, G., & Vyas, S. (1978). Some errors of perceptual analysis in visual search can be detected and corrected. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30(2), 319 - 332.
Rabbitt, P. M. A., & Rodgers, B. (1977). What does a man do after he makes an error? an analysis of response programming. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29(4), 727 - 743.
Rahman, S., Sahakian, B. J., Cardinal, R. N., Rogers, R. D., & Robbins, T. W. (2001). Decision making and neuropsychiatry. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(6), 271-277.
Rasmussen, J. (1983). Skills, rules, and knowledge; signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE Transactions on System, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-13(3), 257-266.
Reason, J. (1987). The Chernobyl errors. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 40, 201-206.
Reason, J. (1990). Human error. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ridderinkhof, K. R., de Vlugt, Y., Bramlage, A., Spaan, M., Elton, M., Snel, J., et al. (2002). Alcohol consumption impairs detection of performance errors in mediofrontal cortex. Science, 298(5601), 2209-2211.
Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Kurzbuch, A. R., & Münte, T. F. (2002). Time course of error detection and correction in humans: neurophysiological evidence. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22(22), 9990-9996.
Ross, P. E. (2006, August). The expert mind: studies of the mental processes of chess grandmasters have revealed clues to how people become experts in other fields as well. Scientific American, 295, 64-71.
Salisburya, D. F., O'Donnella, B. F., McCarley, R. W., Shentonc, M. E., & Benavageb, A. (1994). The N2 event-related potential reflects attention deficit in schizophrenia. Biological Psychology, 39(1), 1-13.
Schachar, R. J., Chen, S., Logan, G. D., Ornstein, T. J., Crosbie, J., Ickowicz, A., et al. (2004). Evidence for an error monitoring deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(3), 285-293.
Schacter, D. L., & Graf, P. (1986). Effects of elaborative processing on implicit and explicit memory for new associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(3), 432-444.
Scherg, M. (1990). Fundamentals of dipole source potential analysis. In F.Grandori, M. Hoke & G. L. Romani (Eds.), Auditory evoked magnetic fields and electric potentials. (pp. 40-69). Basel: Karger.
Senders, J. W., & Moray, N. P. (1991). Human error: Cause, prediction, and reduction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoicates.
Sharbrough, F., Chatrian, G.-E., Lesser, R. P., Lüders, H., Nuwer, M., & Picton, T. W. (1991). American Electroencephalographic Society Guidelines for Standard Electrode Position Nomenclature. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 8(2), 200-202.
Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., J., J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiartic Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(suppl. 20), 22-33.
Shima, K., & Tanji, J. (1998). Role for cingulate motor area cells in voluntary movement selection based on reward. Science, 282(5392), 1335-1338.
Squire, L. R. (1992). Memory and the hippocampus: a synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological Review, 99(2), 195-231.
Stemmer, B., Segalowitz, S. J., Witzke, W., & Schönlee, P. W. (2003). Error detection in patients with lesions to the medial prefrontal cortex: an ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 42(1), 118-130.
Stemmer, B., Witzke, W., & Schönle, P. W. (2001). Losing the error related negativity in the EEG of human subjects: an indicator for willed action. Neuroscience Letters, 308(1), 60-62.
Swick, D., & Turken, A. U. (2002). Dissociation between conflict detection and error monitoring in the human anterior cingulate cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(25), 16354-16359.
Tsai, L.-L., Young, H.-Y., Hsieh, S.-l., & Lee, C.-S. (2005). Impairment of error monitoring following sleep deprivation. Sleep, 28(6), 707-713.
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124-1131.
Ullsperger, M., & Szymanowski, F. (2004). ERP correlates of error relevance. In M. Ullsperger & M. Falkenstein (Eds.), Errors, Conflicts, and the Brain. Current Opinions on Performance Monitoring (pp. 171-177). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.
Ullsperger, M., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2004). Neuroimaging of performance monitoring: error detection and beyond. Cortex, 40(4-5), 593-604.
van Veen, V., & Carter, C. S. (2002). The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(4), 593-602.
van Veen, V., Cohen, J. D., Botvinick, M. M., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2001). Anterior cingulate cortex, conflict monitoring, and levels of processing. NeuroImage, 14(6), 1302-1308.
Vidal, F., Burle, B., Bonnet, M., Grapperon, J., & Hasbroucq, T. (2003). Error negativity on correct trials: a reexamination of available data. Biological Psychology, 64(3), 265-282.
Vidal, F., Hasbroucq, T., Grapperon, J., & Bonnet, M. (2000). Is the `error negativity' specific to errors? Biological Psychology, 51(2-3), 109-128.
Wiersema, J. R., van der Meere, J. J., & Roeyers, H. (2005) ERP correlates of impaired error monitoring in children with ADHD. Journal of Neural Transmission 112(10), 1417-1430.
Wise, R. A. (2004). Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(6), 483-494.
Yasuda, A., Sato, A., Miyawaki, K., Kumano, H., & Kuboki, T. (2004). Error-related negativity reflects detection of negative reward prediction error. NeuroReport, 15(16), 2561-2565.
Yeung, N., Botvinick, M. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural basis of error detection: conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 111(4), 931-959.
Yeung, N., & Cohen, J. D. (2006). The impact of cognitive deficits on conflict monitoring: predictable dissociations between the error-related negativity and N2. Psychological Science, 17(2), 164-171.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2007-08-30起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2007-08-30起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw