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系統識別號 U0026-0812200913584229
論文名稱(中文) 結合廣義Hoek-Brown破壞準則及變形分析法於邊坡穩定分析
論文名稱(英文) Slope Stability Analysis Using Generalized Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion and Deformation Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 周晏勤
研究生(英文) Yen-Chin Chou
電子信箱 n4889106@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n4889106
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 149頁
口試委員 口試委員-Ernie Pan
指導教授-陳時祖
指導教授-陳昭旭
口試委員-李德河
口試委員-廖志中
中文關鍵字 變形分析法  邊坡穩定分析  非線性  異質性  廣義Hoek-Brown破壞準則  動態規劃法  強度折減法 
英文關鍵字 generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion  slope stability  strength reduction technique  non-linear  dynamic programming method  deformation analysis  non-homogeneous 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文結合廣義Hoek-Brown破壞準則及變形分析法於邊坡穩定分析,即破壞準則選用廣義Hoek-Brown準則(GHB),再以變形分析法之數值程式(FLAC3D),搭配動態規劃法(DPM)與強度折減法(SRT),來探討邊坡之安全係數與滑動面,目的是希望建立一邊坡穩定分析法能具有非線性破壞準則的特性,能發揮變形分析法考慮到變形量的優點,且能求得安全係數及可能滑動面。本文完成的工作項目有:(1)推導GHB對MC參數之轉換式,並使用FISH語言內建於FLAC3D中;(2)以Fortran撰寫動態規劃法程式;(3)結合變形分析法與動態規劃法、強度折減法進行邊坡案例分析,比較二種方法之優劣點,再採用動態規劃法做更進一步的案例分析。
本文以二個前人研究的均質邊坡案例,作為本文撰寫之程式的驗證與操作程序說明,並以五組自行假設之數值案例來說明本研究方法與程式應用在有外加載重及非均質邊坡的可行性。由二前人研究的數值案例分析結果顯示,無論使用極限平衡法,或以變形分析法結合強度折減法或結合動態規劃法,所獲得之安全係數皆很接近,極限平衡法或動態規劃法所獲得之滑動面很靠近,且皆在強度折減法所得之貫穿塑性破壞帶中穿越。又非線性(GHB-to-MC)以及相等線性(GHB-to-EMC)所得之結果也很靠近,因此可證明本論文所撰寫之程式是正確的。比較動態規劃法和強度折減法之優劣點後,發現主要有三項優點:(1)至目前為止,雖然這二種方法皆無應用於非均質邊坡之研究報告,但動態規劃法只要知道應力分佈狀況,就可求得正確答案,以目前之變形分析技術而言,求取非均質材料物體內之應力分佈已是很成熟之技術,因此以基本原理而言,動態規劃法直接應用於非均質邊坡不會有適用性之疑問,而強度折減法則必需做些假設,例如所有地層之強度皆以相同之比例折減,才能得到計算結果;(2)強度折減法必需用不同之折減值計算多次才能獲得答案,而動態規劃法則是一次搞定;(3)強度折減法得到的滑動面是一個寬帶狀的塑性破壞區,而動態規劃法得到的則是一個明確的滑動面。所以本文決定採用動態規劃法做後續之案例研究。
案例三是個坡頂有載重之均質邊坡,分析結果顯示,外加載重後,滑動面形狀就不再是圓弧形,且非線性與線性方法計算所得之安全係數也有明顯差別。案例四是具有二個水平地層的邊坡,計算結果顯示各個地層各自具有圓弧形之滑動面,因此在地層交界處可能有轉折處產生,且上下地層顛倒後,其安全係數之差異性很大。案例五是一個具有風化表層之順向坡,動態規劃法所獲得之結果與Stabl5程式中block分析法所得結果相近,但其滑動面之彎曲部份更為平滑及自然。案例六是一個具有軟弱夾層之順向坡,案例七是案例六上方加上一水平地層,這二個案例是一般極限平衡法必需做很多假設及多次試誤計算後才可能得到安全係數及滑動面之案例,但動態規劃法仍能在一次計算過程獲得頗為合理之答案。
本研究之結論是使用變形分析法結合動態規劃法在複雜地質條件之邊坡中,能一次運算後獲得最小安全係數及其對應之滑動面,且不需預先做許多假設。又在某些條件下,使用非線性分析法(本文中之GHB-to-MC)是有必要的。因此本研究所發展出來之分析方法是具有廣泛應用性的。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to provide a new approach so that the deformation characters and non-linear strength properties of the geologic materials can be taken into account in a slope stability analysis method, which provides the answer of the minimum safety factor and the corresponding sliding plane. In other words, this method must uses a basic deformation method plus some additional function to calculate the safety factor and sliding planes just like the ordinary limit equilibrium method. This research uses the generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion to define the non-linear strength property, and this failure criterion is incorporated in to the deformation analysis code, FLAC3D, by Fish. Two approaches are adapted to calculate the safety factor and sliding planes, the first one is so called “strength reduction method” and the second one is so called “dynamic programming method”. The basic idea of strength reduction method is to find the reduction ratio of the strength which produces the failure of the slope, then the safety factors can be calculated from the reduction ration, and the plastic zone at failure condition contains the sliding plane. The dynamic programming method, which is originated from operation research study, is to connect the grid points on the slopes with minimum passage (safety factor) to form the sliding plane, and the factor safety is calculated based on the stress and strength distribution of the slope, which is provided by the deformation method. The code of dynamic method is written by this research.
After the completion of the computer codes, two published cases studies which are slopes with homogeneous materials are used to test the goodness of the computer codes, the result shows a very close answer, and the computer codes are accepted for further case studies. By comparison of the characteristics of dynamic programming and strength reduction methods, only the former method is adapted for further cases studies for its flexibility, convenience, and precise.
Five more cases are studied. The first one is a homogeneous slope with heavy surcharge on its top, it shows the benefit of using non-linear strength criterion. The second case is a slope with two horizontal layers, the third case is a dip slope with a weathered layer, the fourth case is a dip slope with a soft inter-layer, and the fifth one is the third and fourth cases with a caped horizontal layer. These cases studies show that the adapted method can calculate the minimum safety factors of the complex geology slopes, and find the corresponding sliding planes.
The merits of this approach combining dynamic programming method, non-linear strength criterion and deformation analysis are that (1) no more assumptions of slip surface are needed including the shape and locations (2) the safety factor and sliding planes of the slopes with complex geology, which are difficult to be analyzed by ordinary limit equilibrium method, can be easily done by this method. (3) the non-linear strength property of geologic materials are taken into account in this method.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目 錄 VII
表 目 錄 XI
圖 目 錄 XIII
第1章 緒論 1
第2章 文獻回顧 7
2.1 邊坡穩定分析法 7
2.1.1 極限平衡法 8
2.1.2 變形分析法 12
2.1.3 斷裂力學法 18
2.1.4 其他方法 25
2.1.5 小結 31
2.2 非線性破壞準則 32
2.2.1 Hoek-Brown破壞準則 33
2.2.2 應用於邊坡穩定分析 38
2.2.3 應用於承載力分析 39
2.2.4 應用於隧道分析 41
2.2.5 小結 42
第3章 研究方法 43
3.1 破壞準則與安全係數 43
3.1.1 Mohr-Coulomb準則 43
3.1.2 廣義HB準則參數轉換等效MC強度參數 44
3.1.3 廣義HB準則參數轉換MC強度參數 46
3.1.3 安全係數 52
3.2 極限平衡法 53
3.3 變形分析法與強度折減法、動態規劃法 54
3.3.1 變形分析法 54
3.3.2 強度折減法 54
3.3.3 動態規劃法 57
3.4 程式介紹 61
第4章 程式驗證 63
4.1 案例一 63
4.2 案例二 70
4.2.1 GHB-to-EMC模式的分析結果 71
4.2.2 GHB-to-MC模式的分析結果 78
4.2.3 各方法與模式之結果比較 83
4.3 小結 85
第5章 數值案例分析 87
5.1 案例三 87
5.2 案例四 100
5.3 案例五 110
5.4 案例六 122
5.5 案例七 125
5.6 小結 129
第6章 結論與建議 131
6.1 結論 131
6.2 建議 133
參考文獻 135
自述 149
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