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系統識別號 U0026-0812200913504154
論文名稱(中文) 基於光流的固定翼無人飛行載具於未知環境之避障
論文名稱(英文) Optical Flow-based Obstacle Avoidance for Fixed Wing UAV in Uncertain Environment
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 曾笠哲
研究生(英文) Li-Che Tseng
電子信箱 p4694432@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 p4694432
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 53頁
口試委員 口試委員-蕭富元
指導教授-蕭飛賓
口試委員-詹劭勳
中文關鍵字 無人飛行載具  光學流  避障系統  影像處理 
英文關鍵字 Obstacle Avoidance System  UAV  Optical Flow  Image Processing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,有關於無人飛行載具的發展越來越多,且也越飛越遠,而其在未知環境中的安全性議題也備受關注。有鑑於此,無人飛行載具於未知環境的避障將會是ㄧ項重要的研究。
對於小型無人飛行載具上的避障系統而言,首要問題即是載重,其次是體積,再者是耗電問題。因此並不能利用大型載具的系統來改良,勢必需要設計一針對小型載具的避障系統。
本文將探討如何運用單顆攝影機即時擷取其畫面,計算其光學流(Optical Flow),並運用色彩繪製分離出不同流速,利用不同的流速估測出前方是否有障礙物,並設計控制率使其能躲避障礙物,且
製作一台能自主飛行的飛控板於3D即時場景上進行軟體與硬體迴路的模擬,並分析光學避障運用於小型無人飛行載具之可行性。
英文摘要 Due to the vast application prospects of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems, safety flight in uncertain environments has become a hot issue in these days. For this reason above all, obstacle avoidance problem has proven its significance of study in UAV applications.
For a small size of UAV obstacle avoidance system must be light, small, and less power consumption, therefore, special considerations for safety flight must be taken into account in order to apply such system on small vehicles.
This paper presents the optical flow technique by employing a single CCD camera as sensing images. The computation of the optical flow images was used to estimate the quantitative obstacle distance in front of the camera and then to design some control laws to avoid the obstacles. Hardware-in-loop simulation was also performed to prove the applicability of this system. The feasibility of the application of this system on UAV is also discussed.
論文目次 中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………II
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………… III
Contents……………………………………………………………………………IV
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………VIII
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………IX
1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………1
1.1. Introduction to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV)…………………………1
1.2. Motivation and Objective…………………………………………………2
1.3. Literature Review………………………………………………………2
1.4. Thesis Outline………………………………………………………………7
2. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING……………………………………………8
2.1. Flow in the Image…………………………………………………………8
2.2. Optical Flow Computation……………………………………………9
2.3. Image Differentiation……………………………………………………13
2.4. Image Mask………………………………………………………………14
3. OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE METHOD………………………………………16
3.1. Obstacle Estimation……………………………………………………16
3.2. Color Mapping……………………………………………………………17
3.3. Avoidance Algorithm……………………………………………………19
4. OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE SYSTEM………………………………………21
4.1. System Architecture………………………………………………………21
4.2. System Hardware…………………………………………………………22
4.3. Fuzzy Logic Controller…………………………………………………30
5. SIMULATION EXPERIMENT……………………………………………35
5.1. Uncertain Simulation Environment……………………………………….35
5.2. Software in-the Loop Simulation…………………………………………36
5.3. Hardware in-the Loop Simulation………………………………………39
6. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………49
6.1. Concluding Remarks………………………………………………………49
6.2. Future Prospect……………………………………………………………50
Reference……………………………………………………………………………51
VITA………………………………………………………………………………53
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2. M. Irani, B. Rousso and S. Peleg, ”Recovery of Ego-Motion Using Image Stabilization”, Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1994.
3. S. Ellis and N. K. Hraber, ”Vision-Based 3D Navigation For An Autonomous Helicopter”, University of Southern California, May 2006.
4. G. L. Barrows, J. S. Chahl and M. V. Srinivasan, ”Biomimetic Visual Sensing and Flight Control”, Visual Sciences Australian National University ACT, 2601, Australia, 2003.
5. 何忠興, ”平移運動影像之伺服追循系統”, 國立中山大學機械與機電工程學系,碩士論文, 2003年6月.
6. A. J. Lipton, ”Local Application of Optic Flow to Analyse Rigid versus Non-Rigid Motion”, the Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1999.
7. W. E. Green, P. Y. Oh, K. Sevcik and G. Barrows, ”Autonomous Landing for Indoor Flying Robots Using Optic Flow”, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA and Centeye Inc., 2003 .
8. P. J. Roberts, ”Fixed Wing UAV Navigation and Control through Integrated GNSS and Vision”, Airborne Avionics Research Group, Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite System, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, 2005 .
9. S. Griffiths, J. Saunders, A. Curtis and T. McLain, ”Obstacle and Terrain Avoidance for Miniature Aerial Vehicles”, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, USA, 2005.
10. Microchip, http://www.microchis.com
11. 楊憲東,“自動飛行控制原理與實務”,全華科技圖書,台北市,中華民國九十一年四月
12. X-PLANE by Laminar Research, http://www.x-plane.com
13. Microsoft DirectX, http://www.microsoft.com/directx
14. C. H. Wu, “The Design of a Real-time Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Platform with Wind Effects”, Master thesis, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, June 2006.
15. CENTEREYE, http://www.centeye.com/
16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucas_Kanade_method
17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture_problem#The_aperture_problem
18. http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2421.htm
19 T. L. Liu, ”The Development of a Target-Lockup Optical Remotely Sensing System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle”, Master thesis, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, June 2004
20 C. C. Chen, ”Moving Ground Target Auto-Tracking CCD Imaging System Development for UAV”, Master thesis, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, June 2006
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