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系統識別號 U0026-0812200913492836
論文名稱(中文) 朝向「純粹的獨特」: 約翰.符傲思 <<法國中尉的女人>>中的自然
論文名稱(英文) Towards a “True Uniqueness”: Nature in John Fowles’s The French Lieutenant’s Woman
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 吳政儀
研究生(英文) Coral Wu
電子信箱 k2692106@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 k2692106
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 149頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯克 
口試委員-賴俊雄
口試委員-張淑麗
中文關鍵字 外在自然  自然  反後現代主義  純粹的獨特  狂野  內在自然 
英文關鍵字 wildness  a true uniqueness  external nature  internal nature  nature  anti-postmodernism 
學科別分類
中文摘要 符傲思曾說過: 「我小說的關鍵在於我與自然的關係」。受到這段陳述的影響,此篇論文旨在重新檢視後現代主義對於<<法國中尉的女人>>的評論,並從自然的觀點來重新詮釋此小說。符傲思越軌的、實驗式的敘事,在後現代主義者看來,是一種後現代教義背書: 即世間上一切事物都為社會、文化以及語言上的建構。而他後設小說式的、反思式的寫作風格也被視為是一種自我解構的美學,呼應後現代小說另一個精神: 即文本之外無他物。然而,藉由深入探討符奥思對於自然的態度以及他與自然的關係,我們可以發現,他與後現代主義的關係其實並無後現代批評家認為的那樣強烈。除此之外,藉由將小說放入自然的觀點中來看,我們亦能發現符傲思的寫作目的不在於傳達某種意識形態或論述,而是將他的寫作與狂野的自然做連結。
粗略來說,對符傲思而言,自然不如約翰.艾爾康(John Alcorn) 所言的「渥茲華斯」(Wordsworthian )或「艾默生」(Emersonian)式的自然—亦存在於約翰.洛克 (John Locke)知識論世界裡的自然。符傲思的自然充滿著「繁殖」與「變化」,而這個世界,是人類永遠也不可能杜撰,或是全然了解的。符傲思在此想要表達的是自然的另一個面向—一個已超越人類的知識建構體系、拒絕被束縛與石化的世界。對符傲思而言,這個面向的自然不單單指外在、物質性的自然,但也代表著內在的自然—也就是狂野的、神秘的、無可預知的人性。在<<法國中尉的女人>>中,自然有兩個面向。第一個指的是外在自然環境(external nature),也就是the Undercliff。第二個面向是指人類內在的自然(internal nature),也就是符傲思的寫作以及查理斯的蛻變。在此小說中,這兩個面向不是個別被塑造出來地,而是緊密的聯結在一起。小說中的外在自然,鼓舞並決定小說中的內在自然,甚至引領整個敘述到達小說的終極的目標,也就是重新連結內在自然與外在自然。在小說結尾,書中角色與作者本身都達到了「純粹的獨特性」。 此獨特性超越社會、文化、和語言的建構。
英文摘要 Inspired by Fowles’s statement that the key to his fiction lies in his relationship with nature, my thesis aims to re-examine the postmodernist criticism of his The French Lieutenant’s Woman and to re-interpret the novel from the point of view of nature. In postmodernist criticism of FLW, Fowle’s deviant, experimental narrative is regarded as an endorsement of the postmodernist dogma that everything is socially, culturally, and linguistically constructed. And his self-reflexive, metafictional writing style is regarded as a sort of self-deconstructive aesthetics in which there is nothing outside the text. However, by digging into Fowles’s attitude toward nature and his relationship with it, one can find that his association with postmodernism is in fact not as strong as the postmodernist critics think. By putting his novel in the broader context of nature, one can see that his writing aims to show the process by which he connects his writing to wild nature, not to a certain ideology or discourse.
Roughly speaking, for Fowles, nature is not the equivalent of the Wordsworthian or Emersonian Nature, which as John Alcorn says,“is located still within the epistemological world of John Locke” (3). Rather, it refers to a world full of “proliferation” and“varieties”(Alcorn 6) that the human mind can never fabricate or fully understand. What Fowles tries to show in The French Lieutenant’s Woman is another dimension of nature—a dimension that is beyond human construction and that thus refuses to stay fixed or fossilized. However, this dimension of nature is not limited merely to external, physical landscapes but exists in internal nature as well—
in the wild, mysterious, unpredictable human nature. In FLW, nature has two facets—
external nature (the Undercliff) and internal nature (Fowles’s writing and Charles’s transformation). These two facets of nature are not shaped separately in the novel but closely connected to each other. The external nature functions to inspire and determine the internal nature and even directs the whole narrative to the novel’s ultimate aim—to reconnect internal nature to external nature. At the end of the FLW, not only the character but also the author himself achieves a “true uniqueness”—a uniqueness that is beyond social, cultural, and linguistic construction.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Introduction: Nature and Anti-Postmodernism in The French Lieutenant’s Woman . . .1

Chapter I: Fowles’s Theory of Nature and Nature in The French Lieutenant’s Woman
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Chapter II: The Undercliff versus Winsyatt: The French Lieutenant’s Woman as a Post-Pastoral Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

Chapter III: Reconnecting Internal Nature to External Nature: Fowles’s Writing and Characterization in The French Lieutenant’s Woman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

Conclusion: Towards a “True Uniqueness”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130

Works Cited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
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