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系統識別號 U0026-0812200913484770
論文名稱(中文) 蕭勤和拉查(Raza)的繪畫比較研究
論文名稱(英文) A Comparative Study of Painting by Hsiao Chin and S. H. Raza
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 藝術研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Art Studies
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 德卡
研究生(英文) SAGAR SUBHASH
電子信箱 sagarnana@yahoo.com
學號 k4694702
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 口試委員-許自貴
指導教授-蕭瓊瑞
口試委員-陳水財
中文關鍵字 點/Bindu  冥想性繪畫  當代藝術  現代主義    Tantra 哲學 
英文關鍵字 Contemporary Art  Zen Philosophy  Western Modernism  Meditative Painting  Bindu  Tantra Philosophy 
學科別分類
中文摘要 「抽象主義」這個字眼如果加以思考的話,其實與「冥想」代表的意義所差無幾,而現代的抽象主義最重要的源頭之一便是古代的東方藝術。許多偉大的抽象主義畫家如梵谷與波拉克,皆受到東方藝術的影響。古老的東方藝術有許多源頭,當中包含了重要的古代東方哲學思想——禪學與印度教思想(Tantra)。禪宗的思想廣及東亞各國,而印度教的哲學則盛行於印度境內。
台灣的抽象主義畫家蕭勤的作品乃受到禪宗思想的啟發,而印度抽象主義畫家雷查(S.H. Raza)的創作理念則多被印度教思想所影響。這兩位藝術家的風格皆各有其獨到之處,他們皆喜沉思冥想,而其畫作亦多反映了其於冥想中所獲得的一種普世皆同的價值觀。蕭勤與雷查的創作源頭既皆為禪學與印度教思想,而這個脈絡的相似性也各自以其獨特的方式展現在他們的畫作當中。
此外,兩位藝術家亦具有相似的生命歷程。他們兩位自1950年起皆曾經居住於歐洲,也同樣是國際性的藝術家。在本論文提綱提出之前,這兩位藝術家並不認識彼此;而在本論文的書寫過程當中,我也因此有機會認識兩位藝術家並且介紹他們認識彼此。
 本論文以蕭勤與雷查畫作之比較研究為方向,分析兩者畫作中的東西方的哲學觀點、繪畫方式與他們的畫作中所反射出的生活的細節,並提供一種解析閱讀其繪畫作品的新觀點。
英文摘要 If one could concern on the word ‘Abstraction’ then the meaning is not less than ‘Meditation’. One of the great sources of abstract modernism is ancient oriental art. Many great painters, for example Jackson Pollock and Van Gogh, were influenced by oriental art. Ancient oriental art has several roots. Among them are the most ancient eastern philosophies in the world, the Zen and Tantra philosophies. Zen philosophy mostly spread in East Asian countries, while the Tantra philosophy was most prevalent in India.
Taiwanese abstract painter Hsiao Chin has inspired from Zen philosophy and Indian abstract painter S. H. Raza has inspired from Tantra philosophy, indeed their entire art is unique. Both of artists are not only meditative persons but also their painting reflects their meditative life with universal values. Since there are many similarities in the method of meditation in both Zen and Tantra, this similarity is distinctly reflected in their paintings.
Also in their art-life, many more incidents have been similar since their younger time. Both of them have been living in Europe since 1950s as successful international painters. At the time the theme of this thesis was conceived, these two great artists did not know each other. It is during the execution of the work required for this thesis that I had the opportunity to meet both of them and introduce them to each other.
This thesis, therefore, present the details of the examination carried out on “A Comparative study of painting by Hsiao Chin (1935) and S. H. Raza (1922)”. This thesis gives an analysis from eastern and western philosophy view points, painting method and impact of routine life in their painting, and a milieu of new thoughts that provide insights to understanding their paintings.
論文目次 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION (介紹 )……………………………..1
1.1 Motivation and Purpose ( 研究動機與目的 )………………….1
1.2 Literature Review ( 文獻回顧 )………………………......3
1.2.1 On Hsiao Chin……………….....3
1.2.1.1 Eastern views on Hsiao Chin’s works…………………………..5
1.2.1.2 Western view on Hsiao Chin’s works……………………..….6
1.2.2 On Syed Haider Raza………………….….7
1.2.2.1 Eastern views on Raza’s works…………………………....10
1.2.2.2 Western view on Raza’s works……………………11
1.3 Participants ( 研究範圍與對象 )…………………….13
1.3.1 Childhood and Family………………………...13
1.3.2 Teachers…………………..……………....14
1.3.3 Early Career……………….…………......15

1.4 Framework ( 研究架構 )…………….....17

1.4.1 Meeting with Mr. Hsiao Chin (10th November 2006)…………..17
1.4.2 Meeting with S. H. Raza (25th February 2007)…………….18
1.5 Significance and Expected Outcome ( 研究的重要性與預期結果 )…………….....20
CHAPTER TWO DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS ( 不同的背景 )..23
2.1 Childhood to art school (1930s to 1950s)……………23
2.2 Early days in Europe (1950s to 1960s) ……………25
2.3 Living in America (1960s)……………26
2.4 Near to vision (1960s to late1970s)…………..27
2.5 Meditative journey begins… (Late 1970s to present)……………...28
2.6 Painting Gallery decade-wise (1940s to 2000s)…………………….31
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY( 研究方法 )………….49
3.1 Line, forms and color……………………49
3.2 Use of calligraphy in painting…………………..50
3.3 Simplicity…………..51
3.4 Space…………….52
3.5 Moods and climates in the painting……………53
CHAPTER FOUR COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS ( 影響 分析 )…54
4.1 Comparison …………………………54
4.1.1 Religious Faith…………………………56
4.1.2 Early Influence of Western Art……………..57
4.1.3 Direct Influence of western Artists……………..57
4.1.4 Influence of Indian philosophy of Bindu (Dot)…………..58
4.2 Analysis……….60
4.2.1 Fauvism and Abstraction ………………61
4.2.2 Abstract Expressionism…………….……61
4.2.3 ‘Zen, Chi’ and ‘Indian Mythology’………………….62
4.2.4 Tantra Indian Philosophy………………..63
4.2.5 ‘Eternal Garden’ and ‘Tree, Bindu (Seed’) (Early 90’s)……………..….65
4.2.6 ‘Beginning of the New World’ and ‘Naad Bindu’ (90’s)…………………66
4.2.7 ‘Birth of New World’ and ‘Germination (New birth')’ (late 90’s)…………….....67
4.2.8 ‘Heart of the Universe’ and ‘Two Hearts’ (2000’s phase)………………67
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION ( 結論 ) ……………..69
CHRONOLOGY ( 年表 )………………………….71
PICTURES ( 圖錄 ) ………………..80
REFERENCES ( 引用文獻 ) ……………. …………96

LIST OF FIGURES ( 作品目錄 )

P. 80- (Fig.1) Untitled Watercolor on paper, 25 X 35 cm, 1940s, (S. H. Raza)
P. 80- (Fig.2) Untitled, Oil on paper, 44 x 51 cm, 1950s, (S. H. Raza)
P. 80- (Fig.3) Mist, Oil on Canvas, 91 x 74 cm, 1960s (S. H. Raza)
P. 80- (Fig4) Untitled, Acrylic on paper, 51 x 51 cm, 1970s (S. H. Raza)
P. 80- (Fig.5) Bindu, Acrylic on Canvas, 121 x 121 cm, 1980s, (S. H. Raza)
P. 80- (Fig.6) Tree, Acrylic on canvas, 100 x 1.25 cm, 1990’s (S. H. Raza)
P. 80- (Fig.7) Yoni Pooja, Acrylic on Canvas, 118 x 118 cm, 2000’s (S. H. Raza)
P. 81- (Fig.8) 素描 紙上墨水 藝術家自藏, 1950’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.9) 抽象 紙上墨水、粉彩, 1950’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.10) 繪畫-A 布上油彩 黃宗宏先生收藏, 1960’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.11) 油彩 畫布 米蘭馬可尼畫廊收藏, 1960’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.12)大方無隅 墨水 畫布 顏一生先生收藏, 1970’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.13) 向馬丁路德金致敬 布上水墨 (米蘭馬爾各尼氏收藏), 1980’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.14) 大限外之一 壓克力顏料 畫布 黃宗宏先生收藏, 1990’s (Hsiao Chin)
P. 81- (Fig.15) Beginning of the rebirth, 2000’s, (Hsiao Chin)
P. 82- (Fig.16) Abstract, Ink and Pastel on Paper, 40 × 27 cm, 1955 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 82- (Fig.17) Rangmala Acrylic on Canvas Board, 18 X 13 cm, 1999, (Raza)
P. 82- (Fig.18) Painting by Paul Klee
P. 83- (Fig.19) Untitled, Acrylic on Canvas, 2005 (Raza)
P. 83- (Fig.20) Absoluteness, Ink on Canvas, 69.8×89.7 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 84- (Fig.21) Spandan, Acrylic on canvas, 75 X 51 cm, 1986 (Raza)
P. 84- (Fig.22) The Green Vibration, 130 × 160 cm, Ink on Canvas, 1964 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 85- (Fig.23) Pen and ink drawing by Raza
P. 85- (Fig.24) Tai- Chi Diagram of Taoism
P. 86- (Fig.25) Painting-DX, Oil on canvas 80 × 95.2 cm, 1959 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 86- (Fig.26) Untitled, Oil on Canvas, 1949 (Mark Rothko)
P. 86- (Fig.27) Bindu 1996 Acrylic on Canvas 121 x 121 cm (Raza)
P. 86- (Fig.28) Completezza, Ink on Canvas, 80X80 cm, 1963 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 87- (Fig.29) Tam Shunya Acrylic on Canvas, 80x 80 cm (Raza)
P. 87- (Fig.30) Everything = Zero, Ink on paper, 35X36 cm, 1978 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 88- (Fig.31) Giant Chinese Dragon, Ink on Canvas, 137×234 cm, 1983 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 88- (Fig.32) Nagas (Snakes), Acrylic on Canvas, 30 x 30 cm, 2003 (Raza)
P. 89- (Fig.33) The Eternal Garden , 183 × 230 cm, Acrylic on Canvas, 1992 ( Hsiao Chin)
P. 89- (Fig.34) Tree, Acrylic on canvas, 100 x 81.25 cm, 2001, (Raza)
P. 90- (Fig.35) Beginning of the New World, Acrylic, 100 X 150 cm, 2000 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 90- (Fig.36) Bindu Naad, Acrylic on Canvas, 60 X 30 cm, 1988 (Raza)
P. 91- (Fig.37) Dawn of the Cosmic 100X120, 2003 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 91- (Fig.38) Prabhat (Morning), Acrylic on Canvas, 40 X 80 in. 2005 (Raza)
P. 92- (Fig.39) Prem Kundlini , Acrylic on Canvas, 80 x 80 cm, 2003 (Raza)
P. 92- (Fig.40) Cosmic Whirlpool, Acrylic on canvas, 150 X150 cm, 1998 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 93- (Fig.41) ‘Birth of New World’ Acrylic on Canvas, 150 X 150 cm, 1996 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 93- (Fig.42) Germination, Acrylic on canvas, 40X 40, 2004 (Raza)
P. 94- (Fig.43) Heart of Universe, Acrylic on Canvas, 110 ×1460 cm 2005 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 94- (Fig.44) Prem, Acrylic on Canvas, 30X30 2006 (Raza)
P. 31- (Fig.45), Hawa Mahal in Jaipur, Watercolor on paper, 27.5 x 35.5 cm, 1946 (Raza)
P. 31- (Fig.46) Flora Fountain, watercolor on Paper, 53 x 62 c, 1945 (Raza)
P. 31- (Fig.47) Untitled, Watercolor on paper, 33 x 38 cm, 1948 (Raza)
P. 31- (Fig.48), Portrait, water color on paper, 1946 (Raza)
P. 31- (Fig.49) Haut de Cagnes, Gouache on Paper 70 x 44, 1951 (Raza)
P. 31- (Fig. 50) Omkareshswar, Gouache 60 x 75, 1946 (Raza)
P. 32- (Fig.51) Waterfall near Mandu-Dhar State, Watercolor on paper, 49 x 36.5 cm (Raza)
P. 32- (Fig.52) Untitled, ink pen on paper, 44 x 51 cm (Raza)
P. 32- (Fig. 53) Untitled, Oil on paper, 44 x 51 cm (Raza)
P. 32- (Fig.54) village, Oil on canvas, 72 x 91 cm, 1958 (Raza)
P. 32- (Fig.55) Untitled, Gouache on paper, 48 X 63 cm, 1955 (Raza)
P. 32- (Fig.56) Woman with a Tree, Oil on Board, 38 x 61 cm, 1953 (Raza)
P. 33- (Fig.57) Mist, Oil on Canvas, 91 x 74 cm, 1961 (Raza)
P. 33- (Fig.58) Solitary place, Acrylic on Canvas, 93 x 58 cm, 1963 (Raza)
P. 33- (Fig.59) Landscape, Oil on Canvas, 37 x 44 cm, 1965 (Raza)
P. 33- (Fig. 60) L'Ete '67, Oil on canvas, 1967 (Raza)
P. 33- (Fig.61) Ciel Rouge Sur Le Lac, Acrylic on Board, 18 x 28 cm, 1961(Raza)
P. 33- (Fig.62) Untitled, Oil on Board, 50 X 23 cm, 1968 (Raza)
P. 34- (Fig.63) Gesture, Acrylic on Board 48 X 71 cm, 1972 (Raza)
P. 34- (Fig.64) Earth, Oil on Canvas, 50 x 50 cm, 1975, (Raza)
P. 34- (Fig.65) Untitled, Acrylic on Board, 48 x 23 cm, 1973 (Raza)
P. 34- (Fig.66) Untitled, Acrylic on paper 7 X 5 inch, 1979 (Raza)
P. 34- (Fig.67) Jaisalmer, Acrylic on Canvas, 102 x 102 cm, 1975 (Raza)
P. 34- (Fig.68) Untitled, Oil on Canvas, 78 X 78 cm, 1977 (Raza)
P. 35- (Fig.69) Bindu, Ink pen on paper, 102 x 60 cm (Raza)
P. 35- (Fig.70) Bindu, Acrylic on Canvas, 80x 80 cm (Raza)
P. 35- (Fig.71) Bindu, (Dot) Acrylic on Canvas, 160 X 80 cm, 1990 (Raza)
P. 35- (Fig.72) Shyam, (An evening) Acrylic on Canvas, 156 X 78 cm, 1999 (Raza)
P. 36- (Fig.73) a) Bindu (dot) b) Nagas (Snakes), Acrylic on Canvas 61 x 30 cm, 2000 (Raza)
P. 36- (Fig.74) Garbha Graha, (Place of Convinced), Acrylic on Canvas 98 X 98 cm, 2000 (Raza)
P. 36- (Fig.75) Jalashaya (House of Water), Acrylic on Canvas 100 x 100 cm, 2000 (Raza)
P. 36- (Fig.76) Resonances, Acrylic on Canvas 118 X 60 cm (Raza)
P. 36- (Fig.77)Kundalini (Coiled Female Snake), Acrylic on Canvas 122 x 122 cm (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.78) The Earth,Seed and the Tree, Acrylic on Canvas 90 X 30 cm, 2001 (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.79) Amar Jiva (Alive, Never Die), Acrylic on Canvas 100 X 200 cm, 2001 (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.80) Polarity, Acrylic on Paper Board 90 X 30 cm, 2001 (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.81) Shanti (Peace) Acrylic on Canvas 120 X 60 cm, 2004 (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.82) Pancha Tatava (5 Principles), Acrylic on Canvas 118 X 60 cm, 2001 (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.83) Rangmala (Line of colors), Oil on Canvas 33 x 33 cm (Raza)
P. 37- (Fig.84) Untitled, Acrylic on Board 11.7 x 11.7 inch, 2005 (Raza)
P. 38- (Fig.85) Self-Portrait, Oil on Canvas, 41×33 cm, 1953 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 38- (Fig.86) Portrait, Oil on Canvas, 36.8×25.7 cm, 1955 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 38- (Fig.87) Figure-3, Oil on Canvas, 32.5 x 20.0 cm, 1955 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 38- (Fig.88) Figure-2, Ink on Paper, 30 x 20 cm, 1954 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 39- (Fig.89) Abstract-2, Ink and Pastel on Paper, 40×29 cm, 1955, (Hsiao Chin)
P. 39- (Fig.90 ) The Trash of Snow, Ink on paper, 40×60 cm, 1960 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 39- (Fig.91) Interior, Oil on Canvas, 150×65 cm, 1958 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 39- (Fig.92) Chinese Opera, Oil on Canvas 38.5 x 51 cm, 1955 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 39- (Fig.93) 140×65 cm, 1959 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 40- (Fig.94 ) The Great Boundary less Site, Ink on Canvas, 79×99 cm, 1961, (Hsiao Chin)
P. 40- (Fig.95) Luxuriant, Ink on Canvas, 70×80 cm, 1961 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 40- (Fig.96) Completeness, Ink on Canvas, 140×120 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 40- (Fig.97) Dynamic Movement, Ink on Canvas, 70×89.cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 40- (Fig.98) Luna, Acrylic on Paper, 40 x 53cm, 1959 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 41- (Fig.99) Ink on the Canvas, 200X145 cm, 1961 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 41- (Fig.100) Untitled, Ink on the Canvas, 70X60 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 41- (Fig.101) Untitled, Ink on Canvas, 80X60 cm, 1996 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 41- (Fig.102) Yin and Yang, Ink on Canvas, 70X80 cm, 1963 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 41- (Fig.103) Untitled, Ink on Canvas, 85X60 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 41- (Fig.104) Untitled, Ink on Canvas, 50X60cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 42- (Fig.105) Descent, Ink on Canvas, 54X54 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 42- (Fig.106) Serenity, Ink on Canvas, 80X70 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 42- (Fig.107) Relaxation, Ink on Canvas, 150X70 cm, 1963 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 42- (Fig.108) Elevation, Ink on Canvas, 150X50 cm, 1962 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 42- (Fig.109) Four more two, Acrylic on Canvas, 80X100 cm, 1963 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 42- (Fig.110) Untitled, Ink in Canvas, 80X70 cm, 1963 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 43- (Fig.111) Sun series, Ink on Canvas, 1964 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 43- (Fig.112) Sun-3, Ink on Canvas, 100.5×130 cm, 1964 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 43- (Fig.113) Sun-6, Ink on Canvas, 114×146 cm, 1964 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 43- (Fig.114) To the Limit, Acrylic on Canvas, 130×160 cm, 1966 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 43- (Fig.115) UNTITLED, Acrylic on Canvas, 200×400 cm, 1966 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 44- (Fig.116) Flying Saucer Acrylic on Canvas, 200 cm 1967 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 44- (Fig.117) 存在 金屬, Presence, 60×60 cm, 1974 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 44- (Fig.118) Profound Meditation, Acrylic on Canvas, 88×88 cm 1975 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 44- (Fig.119) Challenge-4 Acrylic on Canvas, 130×100 cm, 1974 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 45- (Fig.120) Mortal Man as Buddha Ink on Paper, 38.5×26.5 cm, 1976 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 45- (Fig.121) Eternal Tao, Ink on Paper, 26.5×38.5 cm, 1977 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 45- (Fig.122) Descent, Ink on Canvas, 102×55 cm, 1977 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 45- (Fig.123) Chi 63, Ink on Canvas, 150 x 195 cm. 1982 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 45- (Fig.124 ) Inner Peace, Ink on Paper, 26.5×38.5 cm, 1977 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 45- (Fig.125) Zen-65, Ink on Canvas, 100×145 cm, 1981 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 46- (Fig.126) Enormous Cosmic Whirlpool, Ink on Canvas, 225×225 cm, 1983 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 46- (Fig.127) Sublimation to Infinity-1, Acrylic on Canvas, 128×202 cm, 1987 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 46- (Fig.128) Giant Black Cloud-2, Acrylic on Canvas, 128×202 cm, 1985 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 46- (Fig.129) Enormous Cosmic Whirlpool, Ink on Canvas, 225×225 cm,1983 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 47- (Fig.130) Beyond the Great Threshold, Acrylic, 63×126 cm, 1995 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 47- (Fig.131) Samadhi-29, 110×130 cm, Acrylic on Canvas, 1996 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 47- (Fig.132) Whirlpool of the rebirth, Acrylic on Canvas, 220X 220 cm, 2001 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 47- (Fig.133) Evoluzione Cosmic, Acrylic on canvas, 200 x 200 cm, 2001 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 48- (Fig.134) La gioia della vita-12, Acrylic on Canvas, 60×60 cm, 2000 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 48- (Fig.135) Eruption of Cosmic, Acrylic on Canvas, 130×100 cm 2002 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 48- (Fig.136) Two Universe, Acrylic on Canvas, 160×100 cm, 2004 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 48- (Fig.137) Heart of Universe, Canvas, 110×1460 cm, Acrylic on Canvas, 2005 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 48- (Fig.138) L’energia del buco nero, Acrylic on Canvas, 96×126 cm, 2005 (Hsiao Chin)
P. 48- (Fig.139) Onde magnetic Cosmiche, Acrylic on Paper, 212×96 cm, 2005 (Hsiao Chin)
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Anne Bancroft, ‘Zen :direct pointing to reality’, London ;Thames and Hudson, 1980
Joseph D. Parker, ‘Zen Buddhist landscape arts of early Muromachi Japan’, Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1999
Robert M. Pirsig, ‘Zen and the art of motorcycle maintenance’, Toronto :Bantam Books, 1975
James H. Austin, ‘Zen and the brain: toward an understanding of meditation and consciousness’, Cambridge, Mass. :MIT Press, 1998
R. H. Blyth, ‘Zen in English literature and Oriental Classics’, Tokyo :Hokuseido, 1942
Christopher Marano, ‘Zen wisdom :knowing and doing’, Taipei, Taiwan :Dharma Drum, 1999
Tomio Hirai, ‘Zen meditation and psychotherapy’, Tokyo ;Japan Publications, 1989
Michael Abrash, ‘Zen of code optimization’, Scottsdale, Ariz. :Criolis Group Books, 1994
Hugo M Enomiya Lassalle, ‘en unter Christen :Ostl. Meditation u. christl. Spiritualitat’, Graz :Verlag Styria, 1974
Battaglia, John R., ‘Zen, Taoism, and American nature writing Spiritualism and philosophy in works by Aldo Leopold, Edward Abbey, Annie Dillard, and Wendell Berry’, University of Kansas, 1998
Gregory Battcock , ‘Minimal art :a critical anthology’, Berkeley :University of California Press, 1995
Wen Kuan Chu, ‘Tao and Longevity: Mind-Body Transformation’, Samuel Weiser, York Beach, 1984
Stephen Little, Shawn Eichman, ‘Taoism and the Arts of China’ University of California Press, 2001

Web References

http://www.tacocity.com.tw/hchin
http://www.persimmon-mag.com/summer2003/feature3.htm
http://alisan.com.hk/Hsiao_Chin.html
http://web.artprice.com/artistdetails.aspx?idarti=NTY5OTAwNTUwNDA5NDg
www.contemporaryindianart.com
www.artfacts.net
www.tribuneindia.com
www.vadehraart.com
www.paletteartgallery.com
www.shraza.net/work.html
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