||Exploring Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory with Foreign Workers in the Taiwan Industry
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
Critical incident technique
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene factor
According to official statistics, there are currently more than 338,000 foreign workers in Taiwan. Most of them come from Southeast Asian countries likes: Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines and Mongolia. Their culture and language are completely different from those in Taiwan. During the last few years there has been an increase in the numbers of temporary foreign workers in Taiwan industry. Their performance is increasingly instrumental in delivery of economic and social benefits in Taiwan. This research is to enlarge our understanding of Herzberg’s two factors theory as applied to these temporary foreign workers. The objective of this paper is to research the conditions contributing to the motivation by local Taiwanese managers/supervisors of foreign workers.
Qualitative research in the grounded tradition used the critical incidents technique to investigate the foreign workers’ motivation-hygiene factor in Taiwan industry. The result of this study shows that Herzberg’s theory is not entirely applicable to the foreign workers in the Taiwan industry. Motivation factors are found to achievement, recognition, work itself, advancement, possibility of growth and salary, Hygiene factors are company policy and administration, supervision-technical, working conditions and job security. Responsibility, interpersonal relationship with supervisor/manager and peers, personal life, status contributed to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction for Taiwanese managers/ supervisors and foreign workers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Research Motivation 1
1.2 Research Purpose 6
1.3 Research Scope. 6
1.4 Research Process 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Definition Foreign Worker. 10
2.2 Foreign Workers Characteristics, Policy, Employment Situation, Related Law. 12
2.3 Research about Foreign Workers in Taiwan. 17
2.4 Motivation Theories 19
2.5 Early Theories of Motivation 19
2.5.1 Maslow's Need Hierarchy. 19
2.5.2 Theory X and Theory Y. 20
2.6 Contemporary Theories of Motivation. 21
2.6.1 ERG Theory. 21
2.6.2 McClelland's Three Motives. 22
2.6.3 Goal-Setting Theory. 23
2.7 Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory 24
2.8 Managing Motivation and Culture. 28
2.9 Demotivation 29
2.10 Summary of Literature Review 30
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 32
3.1 Introduction 32
3.2 Qualitative Research Method 32
3.3 Grounded Research 33
3.4. Critical Incident Technique. 33
3.5 Data Collection. 35
3.5.1 Criteria. 42
3.6. Data Analysis. 43
3.6.1 Open Coding 43
3.6.2 Axial coding 44
3.6.3 Selective Coding 44
CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 45
4.1 Introduction. 45
4.2 Respondents Information. 46
4.3 Coding Process. 49
4.3.1 Open Coding Process. 49
4.3.2 Axial Coding Process. 50
4.3.3 Selective Coding Process. 54
4.4 Classification of Factors. 58
4.5 The Findings. 58
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 67
5.1 Research Conclusion 67
5.2 Managerial Implications. 68
5.2.1 Managerial Implications for Companies. 68
5.2.2 Managerial Implications for Supervisors/Managers. 69
5.3 Research Limitations and Future Research Suggestions 70
APPENDICES CIT Collection Instrument 77
APPENDIX A CIT Survey Questionnaires 78
APPENDIX B CIT Raw Data 91
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