進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200913404150
論文名稱(中文) 銠(III)與銥(III)環金屬錯合物之光物理、電化學性質以及理論計算研究
論文名稱(英文) Photophysical, Electrochemical and Theoretical Studies of Cyclometalated Rhodium(III) and Iridium(III) Complexes
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 化學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemistry
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 游育晟
研究生(英文) Yu-Cheng Yu
學號 l3694408
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 224頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃文亮
指導教授-王小萍
口試委員-黃守仁
口試委員-徐新光
中文關鍵字 有機電激發光元件  光物理  密度泛函理論  電化學 
英文關鍵字 OLED  photophysical properties  electrochemistry  DFT calculation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究主要分成兩個部份。其中,第一部份利用不同推拉電子特性的
2,2'-dipyridylamine (HDPA)、deprotonated form of 2,2'-dipyridylamine (DPA)、
2,2'-dipyridylketone (dpk)、acetyl acetone (acac)、2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpym)
和2,3-di-pyridin-2-yl-pyrazine (dpp)配位子,其氮配位基可與銠三價金屬和
2-phenylpyridine (ppy) 形成六種混配基型環金屬錯合物,[Rh(ppy)2(L)]
[L = HDPA (1)、DPA (2)、dpk (3)、acac (4)、bpym (5)和dpp (6)],
而後進行X-ray單晶結構、光物理與電化學性質研究,並藉由密度泛函理論計算來了解
其軌域組成。我們發現錯合物1和4只在77K下放光(主要是triplet ligand centered
(3LC) [pi-pi*(ppy)]磷光,最大放光波長分別為460 nm 和 462 nm)。同樣地,
錯合物2的放光型態主要為triplet ligand centered (3LC) [pi-pi*(DPA)]磷光,
其最大放光波長為480nm (77K),而錯合物3、5與6的放光型態則主要為triplet
ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (3LLCT) [pi(ppy)-pi*(dpk, bpym, or dpp)]磷光
,最大放光波長在77K和室溫下分別為520 nm、510 nm、506 nm以及555 nm、555 nm、
551 nm。另外在電化學方面,除了錯合物2主要氧化在DPA配位子上的氧化峰為擬可逆
(+0.081V vs. Fc/Fc+)以外,其餘銠(III)錯合物氧化在ppy配位子上的氧化峰皆不可逆
(+1.115V for 1、+1.191V for 3、+0.733V for 4、+1.185V for 5、+1.182V for 6
vs. Fc/Fc+),然而在還原部份,除了錯合物2和4未觀察到還原峰外,其餘皆還原在
N^N配位子上(-1.853V for 1、-1.308V for 3、-1.510V for 5和-1.532V for 6
vs. Fc/Fc+)。

第二部份主要是研究含有2,2'-dipyridylamine (HDPA) or deprotonated form of
2,2'-dipyridylamine (DPA)的銥(III)環金屬錯合物,利用不同的N^C配位子來調控放
光能量,使其最大放光波長分佈於藍光,綠光,紅光範圍內。首先,合成4種銥(III)
錯合物,[Ir(mppz)2(HDPA)][PF6] (1)、[Ir(mppz)2(DPA)] (2)、
[Ir(pba)2(HDPA)][PF6] (3)和[Ir(Q)2(HDPA)][PF6] (4) (mppz =
3-methy-l- phenylpyrazole、pba = 4-(2-pyridyl)benzaldehyde、Q =
2,3-diphenylquinoxaline),之後以X-ray繞射、質譜、紅外線光譜和核磁共振光譜
來鑑定其組成及結構,並探討其光物理及電化學性質,另外再藉由密度泛函理論計算
來了解其軌域組成。錯合物1的放光型態主要為混合3MLCT和3LLCT (3MLLCT)
[dpi(mppz2Ir)-pi*(HDPA)]磷光,最大放光波長在77K為432 nm。錯合物2的放光型態
主要為triplet ligand centered (3LC) [pi-pi*(DPA)]磷光(480 nm at 77K;
499 nm at 298K)。錯合物3和4的放光型態則為混合3LC和3MLCT (3LC/3MLCT)
[dpi(Ir)-pi*(pba or Q)]磷光,最大放光波長在77K和298K下分別為525 nm、624 nm
以及533 nm、625 nm。在電化學方面,除了錯合物2擬可逆的氧化峰主要為氧化在
DPA配位子上(+0.100V vs. Fc/Fc+)以外,其餘銥(III)錯合物可逆或擬可逆的
氧化峰皆氧化在d軌域上(+0.904V for 1、+1.060V for 3、+1.034V for 4 vs.
Fc/Fc+)。在還原部份,除了錯合物2未觀察到還原峰外,錯合物1和3還原在HDPA配位子上
(-1.923V for 1、-1.759V for 3 vs. Fc/Fc+),而錯合物4則還原在Q配位子上
(-1.410V, -1.645V, -1.888V)。
英文摘要 The research performed in this work constitutes two major parts.
The first section involves photophysical and electrochemical properties of
six new cyclometalated rhodium(III) complexes. Six new cyclometalated
rhodium(III) complexes of the formula [Rh(ppy)2(L)], ppy = 2-phenylpyridine
and L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine (HDPA) (1), deprotonated form of
2,2'-dipyridylamine (DPA) (2), 2,2'-dipyridylketone (dpk) (3),
acetyl acetone (acac) (4), 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpym) (5), and
2,3-di-pyridin-2-yl-pyrazine (dpp) (6) have been synthesized and
subjected to X-ray diffraction crystal structural, photophysical and
electrochemical studies. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations
have also been performed to get rationalizations of the optical orbitals
and redox orbitals concerning photophysical and electrochemical data.
Complexes 1 and 4 show triplet ligand centered (3LC) [pi-pi*(ppy)]
phosphorescence only at 77K (460 nm for complex 1 and 462 nm for complex 4).
Similar to complexes 1 and 4, the complex 2 also displays triplet ligand
centered (3LC) [Pi-pi*(DPA)] phosphorescence only at 77 K (480 nm) Whereas,
complexes 3, 5, and 6 exhibit triplet ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (3LLCT)
[pi(ppy)-pi*(dpk, bpym, or dpp)] phosphorescence at 77K (520 nm for
complex 3; 510 nm for complex 5; 506 nm for complex 6 ) and at room
temperature (555 nm for complex 3 and 5; 551 nm for complex 6).
All rhodium(III) complexes have similar irreversible oxidation potentials
that are assigned as oxidation at ppy ligand (+1.115 V for complex 1;
+1.191 V for complex 3; +0.733 V for complex 4; +1.185 V for complex 5;
+1.182 V for complex 6 vs. Fc/Fc+) except the complex 2 has quasi-reversible
oxidation of potential at +0.081 V vs. Fc/Fc+ which is ascribed to oxidation
at DPA ligand. However, these rhodium complexes exhibit different
characteristics in reduction processes: irreversible for complex 1 at
-1.853 V and reversible for complexes 3, 5, and 6 at -1.308 V, -1.510 V,
and -1.532 V, respectively, that are attributed to reduction at N^N ligands
(HDPA, dpk, bpym, and dpp).

The second part is focused on bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes
containing 2,2'-dipyridylamine (HDPA) or deprotonated form of
2,2'-dipyridylamine (DPA). The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure,
luminescent and electrochemical properties of four new cyclometalated
iridium(III) complexes, [Ir(mppz)2(HDPA)][PF6] (1), [Ir(mppz)2(DPA)] (2),
[Ir(pba)2(HDPA)][PF6] (3), and [Ir(Q)2(HDPA)][PF6] (4) where mppz =
3-methy-l-phenylpyrazole, pba = 4-(2-pyridyl)benzaldehyde, Q =
2,3-diphenylquinoxaline, are reported. DFT calculations have also been
performed to verify the optical orbitals and redox orbitals concerning
photophysical and electrochemical data. Complex 1 shows the mixing of
triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer and triplet ligand-to-ligand
charge-transfer (3MLLCT) [dmppz2Ir→*(HPDA)] phosphorescence
only at 77K (432 nm). Complex 2 displays triplet ligand centered (3LC)
[pi-pi*(DPA)] phosphorescence both at 77 K (480 nm) and 298 K (499 nm).
Whereas, complexes 3 and 4 exhibit mixing of triplet ligand-centered and
triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3LC/3MLCT) [dpi(Ir)-pi*(pba or Q)]
phosphorescence at 77K (525 nm for complex 3; 624 nm for complex 4)
and 298K (533 nm for complex 3; 625 nm for complex 4). All iridium(III)
complexes have similar reversible or quasi-reversible oxidation potentials
that are assigned as oxidation at d orbitals (+0.904 V for complex 1;
+1.060 V for complex 3; +1.034 V for complex 4 vs. Fc/Fc+) except complex 2
has reversible oxidation of potential at +0.100 V vs. Fc/Fc+ which is
ascribed to oxidation at DPA ligand. However, these iridium(III) complexes
exhibit different characteristics in reduction processes: irreversible
for complexes 1 and 3 at -1.923 V and -1.759 V and reversible for complex 4
at -1.410 V, -1.645 V, and -1.888 V, that are attributed to reduction at
HDPA and Q, respectively. No reductive wave was seen for complex 2 in the
solvent window.
論文目次 Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………… I
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………II
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………IV
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………IX
List of Figures………………………………………………………………… XI

I.Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties of New Cyclometalated
Complexes of Rhodium(III) Containing 2-phenylpyridine. The Experimental
and Theoretical study

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………1
2. Experimental Section…………………………………………………………6
2-1 Instrumentation……………………………………………………………… 6
2-2 Measurement Technique……………………………………………………… 9
2-3 Materials………………………………………………………………………11
2-4 Synthesis………………………………………………………………………11
3. Results…………………………………………………………………………18
3-1 Synthesis………………………………………………………………………18
3-2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra…………………………………… 19
3-3 Mass Spectrometry……………………………………………………………19
3-4 Crystallographic Characterization………………………………………24
3-5 Absorption Spectra………………………………………………………… 34
3-6 Emission Spectra…………………………………………………………… 45
3-7 Electrochemistry…………………………………………………………… 60
3-8 Theoretical Approach……………………………………………………… 75
4. Discussion…………………………………………………………………… 85
4-1 Assignment of the Absorption Bands…………………………………… 85
4-2 Assignment of the Emission Bands……………………………………… 87
4-3 Correlative Studies of Redox and Optical Orbitals…………………89
5. Conclusions……………………………………………………………………92
6. References…………………………………………………………………… 93

II.Color Tuning of Luminescent Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes
Containing 2,2'-Dipyridylamine Ligand and Its Derivatives in Blue,
Green and Red Phosphorescence

1. Introduction………………………………………………………………… 97
2. Experimental Section………………………………………………………102
2-1 Materials…………………………………………………………………… 102
2-2 Synthesis…………………………………………………………………… 102
3. Results and Discussion……………………………………………………107
3-1 Synthesis…………………………………………………………………… 107
3-2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra……………………………………108
3-3 Mass Spectrometry………………………………………………………… 108
3-4 Crystallographic Characterization…………………………………… 111
3-5 Absorption Spectra…………………………………………………………116
3-6 Emission Spectra……………………………………………………………129
3-7 Electrochemistry……………………………………………………………141
3-8 Theoretical Approach………………………………………………………151
3-9 Comparison of the Emissive and Nonradiative States for
Ir(III) complexes………………………………………………………… 158
4. Conclusions………………………………………………………………… 160
5. References……………………………………………………………………162

Supplementary Information…………………………………………………… 166
參考文獻 I.Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties of New Cyclometalated
Complexes of Rhodium(III) Containing 2-phenylpyridine. The Experimental
and Theoretical study

1.P. J. Steel, J. Organomet. Chem., 1991, 408, 395.
2.F. O. Garces, K. A. King, R. J. Watts, Inorg. Chem., 1988, 27, 3464.
3.C. Arz, P. S. Pregosin, C. Anklin, Magn. Reson. Chem., 1987, 25, 158.
4.A. Zilian, U. Maeder, A. von Zelewsky, H. U. Gudel, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
1989, 111, 3855.
5.U. Mäder, T. Jenny, A. von Zelewsky, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1986, 69, 1085
6.S. Sprouse, K. A. King, P. J. Spellane, R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
1984, 106, 6647.
7.Y. Ohsawa, S. Sprouse, A. K. King, M. K. Dearmond, K. W. Hanck,
R. J. Watts, J. Phys. Chem., 1987, 91, 1047.
8.V. Balzani, F. Bolletta, M. Ciano, M. Maestri, J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60,
447.
9.V. Balzani, F. Bolletta, Comments Inorg. Chem., 1983, 2, 211.
10.P. H. Reveco, J. H. Medley, A. R. Garber, N. S. Bhacca, J. Sebin,
Inorg. Chem., 1985, 24, 1096.
11.E. C. Constable, J. M. Holmes, J. Organomet. Chem., 1986, 301, 203.
12.D. Sandrini, M. Maestri, M. Ciano, U. Maeder, A. Von Zelewsky,
Helv. Chim. Acta, 1990, 73, 1306.
13.M. Maestri, D. Sandrini, V. Balzani, U. Maeder, A. von Zelewsky,
Inorg. Chem., 1987, 26, 1323.
14.F. Barigelletti, D. Sandrini, M. Maestri, V. Balzani, A. von Zelewsky,
L. Chassot, P. Jolliet, U. Maeder, Inorg. Chem., 1988, 27, 3644.
15.M. G. Colombo, A. Zilian, H. U. Güdel, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112,
4581.
16.A. Zilian, H. U. Güdel, Inorg. Chem., 1992, 31, 830.
17.C. Giesbergen, M. Glasbeek, J. Phys. Chem., 1993, 97, 9942.
18.J. H. van Dimen, R. Hage, J. G. Haasnoot, H. E. B. Lempers, J. Reedijk,
J. G. Vos, L. D. Cola, F. Barigelletti, V. Balzani, Inorg. Chem.,
1992, 31, 3518.
19.E. C. Constable, T. A. Leese, D. A. Tocher, Polyhedron, 1990, 9, 1613.
20.S. Campagna, S. Serroni, A. Juris, M. Venturi, V. Balzani, New J. Chem.,
1996, 20, 773.
21.J. H. van Diemen, J. G. Haasnoot, R. Hage, J. Reedijk, J. G. Vos,
Inorg. Chem., 1991, 30, 4038.
22.G. Calogero, G. Giuffrida, S. Serroni, V. Ricevuto, S. Campagna,
Inorg. Chem., 1995, 34, 541.
23.J. L. Kisko, J. K. Barton, Inorg. Chem., 2000, 39, 4942.
24.U. Maeder, A. von Zelewsky, H. Stoeckli-Evans, Helv. Chim. Acta,
1992, 75, 1320.
25.G. Frei, A. Zillan, A. Raselli, H. U. Güdel, H. Bürgi, Inorg. Chem.,
1992, 31, 4766.
26.D. Sandrini, M. Maestri, V. Balzani, U. Maeder, A. von Zelewsky,
Inorg. Chem., 1988, 27, 2640.
27.P. Didier, I. Ortmans, A. K. Mesmaeker, R. J. Watts, Inorg. Chem.,
1993, 32, 5239.
28.M. G. Colombo, T. C. Brunold, T. Riedener, H. U. Güdel, Inorg. Chem.,
1994, 33, 545.
29.L. Ghizdavu, O. Lentzen, S. Schumm, A. Brokdorb, C. Moucheron,
A. K. Mesmaeker, Inorg. Chem., 2003, 42, 1935.
30.M. Maestri, D. Sandrini, V. Balzani, L. Chassot, P. Jolliet,
A. von Zelewsky, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1985, 122, 375.
31.P. Reveco, R. H. Schmehl, W. R. Cherry, F. R. Fronczek, J. Selbin,
Inorg. Chem., 1985, 24, 4078.
32.W. L. Huang, J. R. Lee, S. Y. Shi, C. Y. Tsai, Transit. Met. Chem.,
2003, 28, 381.
33.T. Matsumoto, R. A. Periana, D. J. Taube, H. Yoshida, J. Catal.,
2002, 206, 272.
34.J. N. Demas, G.N. Crosby, J. Phys. Chem., 1971, 75, 991.
35.K. Nakamaru, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1982, 55, 2697.
36.C. Adamo and V. Barone, Chem., Phys. Lett., 1997, 274, 242.
37.M. J. Frisch, et al., Gaussian 98 Revision A.11, Gaussian, Inc.,
Pittsburgh, PA, 2001.
38.R.E. Stratmann, G. E. Scuseria, M. J. Frisch, J. Chem. Phys., 1998,
109, 8218.
39.R. Bauernschmitt, R. Ahlrichs, Chem. Phys. Letters, 1996, 256, 454.
40.M. E. Casida,C. Jamorski, K. C. Casida, D. R. Salahub, J. Chem. Phys.,
1998, 108, 4439.
41.P. J. Hay, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2002, 106, 1634.
42.M. Polson, S. Fracasso, V. Bertolasi, M. Ravaglia and F. Scandola,
Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 1950.
43.F. Weigert, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges., 1920, 1, 100.
44.S. I. Vavilov, V. L. Levshin, Z. Phys., 1923, 16, 136.
45.F. Perrin, J. Phys. Radium. 1926, 7, 390.
46.A. Jablonski, Z. Phys., 1936, 96, 236.
47.A. C. Albrecht, W. T. Simpson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77, 4454.
48.A. C. Albrecht, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1961, 6, 84.
49.L. J. Andrews, Inorg. Chem., 1978, 17, 3180.
50.J. T. Merrill, M. K. DeArmond, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 2045.
51.M. C. Tseng (曾梅菁), doctoral dissertation of Department of Chemistry,
National Cheng Kung University, 2006.
52.M. C. Tseng, W. L. Su, Y. C. Yu, S. P. Wang, W. L. Huang,
Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2006, 359, 4144.
53.T. J. Durnick, A. H. Kalantar, J. Chem. Phys., 1977, 66, 1914.
54.M. Maestri, M. Balzani, C. Deusche.-Cornioley, A. Zelewsky,
Adv. Photochem., 1992, 17, 1.
55.D. E. Morris, Y. Ohsawa, D. P. Segers, M. K. Dearmond, Inorg. Chem.,
1984, 23, 3010.
56.G. Giuffrida, G. Guglielmo, V. Ricevuto, S. Campagna, M. Ciano,
Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1992, 194, 23.
57.W. L. Huang (黃文亮), doctoral dissertation of Department of Chemistry,
North Carolina State University, 1980.
58.K. K. -W. Lo, C. -K. Chung, N. Zhu, Chem. Eur. J., 2003, 9, 475.
59.K. K. -W. Lo, C. -K. Li, K. -W. Lau, N. Zhu, Dalton Trans., 2003, 4682.
60.Q. Zhao, S. Liu, C. Wang, M. Yu, L. Li, F. Li, T. Yi, C. Huang,
Inorg. Chem. 2006, 45, 6152.
61.M. Busby, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, Lan P. Clark, M. Motevalli,
F. Hartl, Vlček, A., Jr., Inorg. Chem., 2004, 43, 4523.

II.Color Tuning of Luminescent Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes
Containing 2,2'-Dipyridylamine Ligand and Its Derivatives in Blue,
Green and Red Phosphorescence

1.S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee,
C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, M. E. Thompson, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
2001, 123, 4304.
2.S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, R. Kwang, I. Tsyba,
M. Bortz, B. Mui, R. Bau, M. E. Thompson, Inorg. Chem., 2001, 40, 1704.
3.A. B. Tamayo, B. D. Alleyne, P. Djurovich, S. Lamansky, I. Tsyba,
N. N. Ho, R. Bau, M. E. Thompson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 7377.
4.J. P. Duan, P. P. Sun, C. H. Cheng, Adv. Mater., 2003, 15, 224.
5.M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley,
M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, Nature, 1998, 395, 151.
6.M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest,
Appl. Phys. Lett., 1999, 75, 4.
7.D. F. O'Brien, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest,
Appl. Phys. Lett., 1999, 74, 442.
8.V. V. Grushin, N. Herron, D. D. LeCloux, W. J. Marshall, V. A. Petrov,
Y. Wang, Chem. Commun., 2001, 1494.
9.C. W. Tang, S. A. Van Slyke, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1987, 51, 913.
10.I. D. Parker, J. Appl. Phys., 1994, 75, 1656.
11.G. Hughes, M. R. Bryce, J. Mater. Chem., 2005, 15, 94.
12.S. R. Forrest, Nature, 2004, 428, 911.
13.N. R. Armstrong, R. M. Wightman, E. M. Gross, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.,
2001, 52, 391.
14.L. Edman, M. A. Summers, S. K. Buratto, A. Heeger, J. Phys. Rev. B,
2004, 70, 115212.
15.J. Slinker, D. Bernards, P. L. Houston, H. D. Abruna, S. Bernhard,
G. G. Malliaras, Chem. Commun., 2003, 2392.
16.J. Lee, D. Yoo, M. F. Rubner, Chem. Mater., 1997, 9, 1710.
17.E. S. Handy, A. J. Pal, M. F. Rubner, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1999, 121, 3525.
18.H. Rudmann, S. Shimada, M. F. Rubner, J. Am Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 4918.
19.N. Takane, W. Gaynor, M. F. Rubner, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc.,
Div. Polym. Chem., 2004, 45, 349.
20.H. Rudmann, S. Shimada, M. F. Rubner, J. Appl. Phys., 2003, 94, 115.
21.H. Rudmann, M. F. Rubner, J. Appl. Phys., 2001, 90, 4338.
22.H. Rudmann, S. Shimada, M. F. Rubner, D. W. Oblas, J. E. Whitten,
J. Appl. Phys., 2002, 92, 1576.
23.G. Kalyuzhny, M. Buda, J. McNeill, P. Barbara, A. J. Bard,
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 6272.
24.F. G.. Gao, A. J. Bard, Chem. Mater., 2002, 14, 3465.
25.M. Buda, G. Kalyuzhny, A. J. Bard, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 6090.
26.F. G.. Gao, A. J. Bard, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 7426.
27.F. F. Fan, A. J. Bard, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2003, 107, 1781.
28.C. Liu, A. J. Bard, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 4190.
29.S. Bernhard, J. A. Barron, P. L. Houston, H. D. Abruna,
J. L. Ruglovsky, X. Gao, G. G. Malliaras, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
2002, 124, 13624.
30.S. Bernhard, X. Gao, G. G. Malliaras, H. D. Abruna, Adv. Mater.,
2002, 14, 433.
31.H. S. Joshi, R. Jamshidi, Y. Tor, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 1999, 38, 2772.
32.H. Meng, W. Huang, J. Org. Chem., 2000, 65, 3894.
33.M. K. Nazeeruddin, R. H-Baker, D. Berner, S. Rivier, L. Zuppiroli,
M. Graetzel, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 8790.
34.Wei. Lu, B. –X. Mi, M. C. W. Chan, Z. Hui, C. –M. Che, N. Zhu,
S. –T. Lee, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 4958.
35.C. Adachi, C. Kwong, P. Diurovich, V. Adamovich, M. A. Baldo,
M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2001, 79, 2082.
36.J. Li, P. I. Djurovich, B. D. Alleyne, I. Tsyba, N. H. Ho, R. Bau,
M. E. Thompson, Polyhedron, 2004, 23, 419.
37.K. K.-W. Lo, C.-K. Chung, N. Zhu, Chem. Eur. J., 2003, 9, 475.
38.G. L. Zhang, Z. H. Liu, H. Q. Guo, Chin. Chem. Lett., 2004, 15, 1349.
39.M. C. Tseng, W. L. Su, Y. C. Yu, S. P. Wang, W. L. Huang,
Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2006, 359, 4144.
40.C. H. Yang, S. W. Li, Y. Chi, Y. M. Cheng, Y. S. Yeh, P. T. Chou,
G. H. Lee, C. H. Wang, C. F. Shu, Inorg. Chem., 2005, 44, 7770.
41.T. J. Durnick, A. H. Kalantar, J. Chem. Phys., 1977, 66, 1914.
42.M. G. Columbo, H. U. Güdel, Top. Curr. Chem., 1994, 171, 143.
43.J. A. King, R. J. Watts, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109, 1589.
44.F. O. Graces, J. A. King, R. J. Watts, Inorg. Chem., 1988, 27, 3464.
45.K. K. Lo, J. S. Chan, C. Chung, V. W. Tsang, N. Zhu, Inorg. Chim. Acta,
2004, 357, 3109.
46.F. Neve, M. La Deda, A. Crispini, A. Bellusci, F. Puntoriero,
S. Campagna, Organometallics, 2004, 23, 5856.
47.A. B. Tamayo, S. Garon, T. Sajoto, P. I. Djurovich, I. M. Tsyba,
R. Bau, M. E. Thompson, Inorg. Chem., 2005, 44, 8723.
48.A. P. Wilde, R. J. Watts, J. Phys. Chem., 1991, 95, 622.
49.P. Didier, I. Ortmans, A. Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, R. J. Watts,
Inorg. Chem., 1993, 32, 5239.
50.I. Ortmans, P. Didier, A. Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, Inorg. Chem., 1995, 34,
3695.
51.I. M. Dixon, J. –P. Collin, J. –P. Sauvage, L. Flamigni, S. Encinas,
F. Barigelletti, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2000, 29, 385.
52.F. M. Hwang, H. –Y. Chen, P –S Chen, C. –S. Liu, Y. Chi, C. –F. Shu,
F. –I. Wu, P. –T. Chou, S. –M. Peng, G.. –H. Lee, Inorg. Chem.,
2005, 44, 1344.
53.J.-K. Yu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Cheng, P.-T. Chou, S.-M. Peng, G.-H. Lee,
A. J. Carty, Y.-L. Tung, S.-W. Lee, Y. Chi, C.-S. Liu, Chem.-Eur. J.,
2004, 10, 6255.
54.P.-C. Wu, J.-K. Yu, Y.-H. Song, Y. Chi, P.-T. Chou, S.-M. Peng,
G.-H. Lee, Organometallics, 2003, 22, 4938.
55.P. Coppo, E. A. Plummer, L. De Cola, Chem. Commun., 2004, 1774.
56.T. H. Kwon, H. S. Cho, M. K. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. J. Kim, K. H. Lee,
S. J. Park, I. S. Shin, H. Kim, D. M. Shin, Y. K. Chung, J. I. Hong,
Organometallic, 2005, 24, 1578.
57.C. M. Flynn, Jr., J. N. Demas, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 1960.
58.M. C. Tseng (曾梅菁), doctoral dissertation of Department of Chemistry,
National Cheng Kung University, 2006.
59.D. E. Morris, Y. Ohsawa, D. P. Segers, M. K. Dearmond, Inorg. Chem.,
1984, 23, 3010.
60.T. Sajoto, P. I. Djurovich, A. Tamayo, M. Yousufuddin, R. Bau,
M. E. Thompson, R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Inorg. Chem., 2005, 44, 7992.
61.L. S. Forster, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2002, 227, 59.
62.M. K. Brennaman, T. J. Meyer, J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. A,
2004, 108, 9938.
63.R. S. Lumpkin, E. M. Kober, L. A. Worl, Z. Murtaza, T. J Meyer,
J. Phys. Chem., 1990, 94, 239.
64.I. M. Dixon, J. –P. Collin, J. –P. Sauvage, L. Flamigni, S. Encinas,
F. Barigelletti, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2000, 6, 385.
65.G. C. Choi, J. E. Lee, N. G. Park, Y. S. Kim, Mol. Liq. Cryst.,
2004, 424, 173.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-07-03起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2010-07-03起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw