進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200913352793
論文名稱(中文) 精油薰燒溢散物及其潛在的氣狀及粒狀二次污染物之定性及定量分析研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on the primary products and potential secondary pollutants by evaporating essential oils
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 龔大瑋
研究生(英文) Da-Wei Kung
學號 s7692101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-蘇慧貞
口試委員-蔡朋枝
口試委員-李俊璋
召集委員-李家偉
中文關鍵字 甲醛  臭氧  揮發性有機物質  精油  奈米微粒  環控艙 
英文關鍵字 formaldehyde  ultra-fine particle  volatile organic compounds  Essential oils 
學科別分類
中文摘要 精油,一種被廣泛使用的芳香化學物質,而文獻指出使用精油時可能會產生高濃度之單帖烯類,這類物質逐漸被證實會與強氧化物質反應作用產生二次污染物。由於一般環境中之強氧化物處於低濃度範圍,然而以往之相關研究幾乎著重於高濃度之單帖烯類以及高濃度之強氧化物之反應,對於低濃度之研究甚稀。
本研究欲對其在低濃度時可能之初產物與潛在的二次污染物之排放情形加以特徵化。透過一小型環境控制艙室模擬一般室內環境條件(溫度:22-28℃;相對濕度:40-50%)與控制背景總揮發性有機物質濃度(≦100 ppb)狀態下進行實驗,所測試之精油為薰衣草純精油,而所進行試驗之環境臭氧濃度為估算之室內濃度範圍值(18 ppb;36 ppb),至於精油注入量為一般建議薰香使用之上限量(100 μL),且促進揮發之加熱溫度為40℃。本研究中量測指標物質為懸浮微粒與甲醛,懸浮微粒大小與濃度分佈乃透過即時氣動粒徑儀進行連續監測,甲醛則以DNPH採樣管進行採集並以液相層析儀進行分析。實驗中亦透過空氣採樣袋捕集揮發性有機物質之空氣樣本,並以氣相層析質譜儀進行分析,瞭解薰衣草精油之主要組成物質在空氣中的濃度。
研究結果顯示,精油中之組成物質最多者為芳樟醇(Linalool),且精油與臭氧的接觸與反應的確會造成懸浮微粒與甲醛濃度之上升,於臭氧濃度為18 ppb與36 ppb時其最大之懸浮微粒濃度分別上升至6×103與104 particles/cm3,且其粒徑大小集中在19 nm ~ 100 nm之間,屬於奈米等級之極細粒徑微粒(ultra-fine particle)。另而甲醛之濃度在精油注入的60分鐘後會達到最大值(4.59 ppm於18 ppb臭氧環境;10.67 ppm於36 ppb臭氧環境)。所以薰衣草精油即使在一般低臭氧濃度之環境中使用亦可能產生奈米微粒與甲醛相當量之暴露,然而精油使用手冊等書籍中建議人們要盡可能的靠近薰香源,故人們極有可能於暴露於上述二種二次污染物之環境中,且產生之懸浮微粒極易被吸入肺部,甲醛屬於人類致癌物質,故對其可能之暴露以及其後可能之健康危害應予以重視和注意之。
英文摘要 Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they have been applied into indoor environments through various forms of consuming products by different venues. Some research articles suggested that high levels of terpenes would be emitted into indoor air when evaporating essential oils. Compounds like these are reported to interact easily with environmental oxidants such as ozone, producing a variety of secondary pollutants including secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and formaldehyde. Our study therefore used a chamber study to characterize primary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by evaporating essential oils and potential secondary pollutants including SOAs and formaldehyde yielded from interaction with airborne oxidants. A chamber, equipped with heating plate controller, was adopted for this study. Lavender oil was selected in first-phase test for it was the best-sold type in Taiwan. Ozone was injected into the chamber and controlled at two different levels (18 and 36 ppb) at beginning, and essential oils were evaporating. Particles size and concentrations were continuously monitored during mixing process using aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) real time meter. We also sampled VOCs and formaldehyde using Tedler bag and DNPH tube. The VOCs was analyzed by GC-MS, and the formaldehyde by HPLC. Our findings indicated the size distribution of SOAs when mixed with essential oils and ozone was in the range of fine particles with about 99% particles ≦ 2.5 μm and 96~97% ≦ 1 μm(most of them were between 19 nm and 100 nm). Aerosol concentrations could reach 6×103 and 10 4 particles/cm3 even in low ozone levels (18 ppb and 36 ppb) in the chamber, and formaldehyde concentration would reach 4.59 ppm and 10.67 ppm. Our study provided a strong evidence to suggest that high levels of fine particle and formaldehyde might be produced when co-existing with emission of essential oils emissions and low concentration oxidants in the air, and consequently result in adverse health concerns for those using essential oils in general indoor environments.
論文目次 第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………..12
1-1 研究緣起…………………………………………………….....12
1-2 研究目的………………………………………………………….13
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………..13
2-1 精油的介紹……………………………………………………….13
2-1-1 精油的定義…………………………………………………….13
2-1-2 精油的分類………………………………………………….…13
2-1-3 精油的使用方法與功效………………………………………14
2-2 精油的負面效應………………………………………………...14
2-3 精油的成分與特性………………………………………………15
2-3-1 組成化合物之特性- 結構及反應特性……………………..15
2-3-2 可能的反應產物- 氣狀產物與微粒狀產物………………..15
2-4 室內空氣品質與人體健康效應……………………………….16
2-4-1 揮發性有機物質與其健康危害…………………………….16
2-4-2 懸浮微粒之產生與其健康危害……………………………….16
2-4-3 甲醛及其健康危害………………………………………….17
2-4-4 二次產物混合暴露之健康危害……………………………….18
2-5 目前研究之限制………………………………………………….18
第三章 材料與方法…………………………………………………..20
3-1 研究設計………………………………………………………….20
3-2 研究對象選取…………………………………………………….20
3-3 研究方法………………………………………………………….20
3-3-1 環境條件參數選取…………………………………………….20
3-3-2 實驗系統設備……………………………………………….…20
3-3-2.1 小型環控艙室……………………………………………..21
3-3-2.2 空氣濾淨裝置……………………………………………..21
3-3-2.3 臭氧產生與監測設備……………………………………..21
3-3-2.4 各式採樣 / 監測儀器接合裝置………………………….…22
3-4 精油測試量…………………………………………………………22
3-5 樣本分析設備………………………………………………………23
3-6 採樣分析方法………………………………………………………23
3-6-1 採樣策略…………………………………………………………23
3-6-2 揮發性有機物質採樣分析方法…………………………………23
3-6-3 懸浮微粒監測方法………………………………………………24
3-6-4 甲醛採樣分析方法………………………………………………25
3-6-5 暴露艙內各項量測指標空白測試………………………………26
3-6-6 實驗室品質保證與品質管制……………………………………26
3-6-6.1 揮發性有機物質方面……………………………………….26
3-6-6.2 甲醛方面……………………………………………………..27
第四章 研究結果……………………………………………………….28
4-1 實驗系統設備穩定度與品保管……………………………………28
4-1-1 穩定度結果…………………………………………………….28
4-1-2 揮發性有機物質之品保品管結果…………………………….28
4-1-3 甲醛之品保品管結果……………………………………….…28
4-1-4 各項環控艙內空白測試結果……………………………….…28
4-1-5 各項儀器校正結果…………………………………………….28
4-2 揮發性有機物質量測結果…………………………………………29
4-3 懸浮微粒監測結果…………………………………………………29
4-4 甲醛量測結果………………………………………………………29
第五章 討論…………………………………………………………..30
第六章 結論與建議…………………………………………………..32
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………33
參考文獻 吳佩芝,”家戶環境中過敏原及細菌內毒素暴露變化與相關生物指標之研究”,國立成功大學環境醫學研究所碩士論文,1999

卓芷聿,”芳香療法全書”,商周出版社,第一版,2003。(ISBN: 986774778X)

卓芷聿,”精油全書”,商周出版社,第一版,2002。(ISBN: 9867892089)

溫佑君,”精油圖鑑”,商週出版社,第一版,2003。(ISBN: 9867747739)

趙崇仁,”薰香精油對室內空氣品質的影響”,國立成功大學環境醫學研究所碩士論文,2003。

Arts, J.H.E., Monique, A.J.R., Cees de Heer, 2006.
“Inhaled formaldehyde: evaluation of sensory irritation in relation to carcinogenicity.” Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 44: 144-160.

ASTM D5116-97, 2002
“Standard guide for small-scale environmental chamber determinations of organic emissions from indoor materials/products.” American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). (ISBN: 0803128495)

Atkinson, R., Tuazon, E.C., Aschmann, S.M., 1995
“Products of the Gas-Phase Reactions of O3 with Alkenes.” Environmental Science & Technology 29: 1860-1866

Calogirou, A., Kotzias, D., Kettrup, A.,1995.
“Atmospheric oxidation of linalool.” Naturwissenschaften, 82: 288-289.

Cavanagh, H.M.A. and Wilkinson, J.M., 2002.
“Biological activities of Lavender essential oil.“
Phytotherapy Research 16: 301-308.

Chou, C.C.K. et al., 2006
“The trend of surface ozone in Taipei, Taiwan, and its causes: Implications for ozone control strategies.” Atmospheric Environment 40: 3898–3908

Clifford, P.W., 2002
“Assessing Exposure to Air Toxics Relative to Asthma.” Environmental Health Perspectives 4 (110): 527-537.

Etkin, D.S., 1996
“Volitaile organic compounds in indoor environment.”
Cutter information Co. (ISBN: 1574840142)

Galdi, E. et al., 2004
”Exacerbation of asthma related to Eucalyptus pollens and to herb infusion containing Eucalyptus.” Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 59(3): 220-221.

Grosjean, D., Williams II, E.L., Seinfeld, J.H., 1992
“Atmospheric oxidation of selected terpenes and related carbonyls: gas phase carbonyl products.”
Environmental Science & Technology, 26: 1526-1523

Grosjean, D. and Seinfeld, J.H., 1989
”Parameterization of the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols”,
Atmospheric Environment, 23: 1733-1747.

Hussein, T. et al., 2006
Particle size characterization and emission rates during indoor activities in a house.
Atmospheric Environment 40: 4285–4307

Inouye, S., Takizawa, T., Yamaguchi, H., 2001
“Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 47: 565-573.

ISO 16000-3
“Indoor air - Part 3: Determination of formaldeyhde and other carbonyl compounds - active sampling method.” ISO 16000-3: 2001(E), International Organization for Standardization.

Jens, R., 2002
“Volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L.” Phytochemistry 59: 655-661.

Lamb, B. and Grosjean, D., 1999
“Review of the emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and gas/particle partition of biogenic volatile organic compounds and reaction products.” Document Number CP051-1b-99, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., USA.

Lee, S.C., Lam, S., Fai, H.K., 2001
“Characterization of VOCs, ozone, and PM10 emissions from office equipment in an environmental chamber.” Building and Environment, 36: 837-842.

Miller, B., 2004
“Advanced organic chemistry: reaction and mechanisms”
Pearson Education Inc. (ISBN: 0131219286)

NHMRC(National Health and Medical Research Council): Interim National Indoor Air Quality Goals Recommended, 1996.

Niu, J.L., Tung, T.C.W., Burnett, J., 2001
“Quantification of dust removal and ozone emission of ionizer air-cleaners by chamber testing.” Journal of Electrostatics, 51-52: 20-24.

Nøjgaard, J.K., Christensen, K.B., Wolkoff, P., 2005.
“The effect on human eye blink frequency of exposure to limonene oxidation products and methacrolein.” Toxicology Letters, 156: 241-51.

Oberdorster, G., et al., 2005a.
“Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of a screening strategy.”
Particle and Fiber Toxicology 2: 1-35.

Oberdorster, G., Oberdorster, E., Oberdorster, J., 2005b.
“Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particle.“ Environmental Health Perspectives 113: 823-839.

Pandis S.N. et al., 1991.
”Aerosol formation in the photo-oxidation of isoprene and β-pinene.”
Atmospheric Environment, 25A: 997-1008.

Peng, R.D., Dominici, F.P.B.R., Zeger S.L., Samet J.M., 2005
“Seasonal analyses of air pollution and mortality in 100 US cities.“
American Journal of Epidemiology 161(6): 585-94.

Poling, B.E., Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., 2001
”The properties of gases and liquids”, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill Inc. (ISBN: 0070116822)

Reist, P.C.著,鄭福田等人譯,”微粒導論”,第二版,渤海堂文化公司,1992。(ISBN: 9570296224)

Schneider, R.J., 2006
“Toxicologic considerations of polymer nano-particles: the rules of toxicity still apply.” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 2: 269–312

Shu, Y. et al., 1997
“Products of the gas phase reactions of linalool with OH radicals, NO3 radicals and O3“. Environmental Science & Technology. 31: 896-904.

Singer, B.C. et al., 2006
“Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone.” Atmospheric Environment 35: 6696-6710

Vincent, J.H., 1999
“Particle size-selective sampling of particulate air contaminants”.
American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. (ISBN: 1882417305)

Weschler, C.J. and Shields, H.C., 1989.
“Indoor ozone exposures.“
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 39: 1562-1568.

Weschler, C.J., 2000
“Ozone in indoor environments concentration and chemistry.”
Indoor Air 10: 269-288.

Weschler, C.J., 2004
“New Directions: Ozone-initiated reaction products indoors may be more harmful than ozone itself” Atmospheric Environment 38: 5715-5716.

Wolkoff, P. et al., 1998
“Risk in cleaning: chemical and physical exposure.”
The Science of the Total Environment 215: 135-156

Wolkoff, P. et al., 1999a
“Formation of strong airway irritants in a model mixture of (+)-α-pinene/ozone.”
Atmospheric Environment. 33: 693-698

Wolkoff, P., 1999b
“Photocopiers and indoor air pollution.”
Atmospheric Environment. 33: 2129-2130
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-02-14起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2010-02-14起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw