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系統識別號 U0026-0812200912132301
論文名稱(中文) 在精密時間協定下以無線感測網路為基礎之分散式量測系統
論文名稱(英文) A Wireless Sensor Network Based Distributed Measurement System under Precision Time Protocol
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 劉仁傑
研究生(英文) Ren-Jay Liu
電子信箱 Ren-Jay@csie.ncku.edu.tw
學號 p7693161
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 口試委員-李強
口試委員-謝孫源
口試委員-蘇銓清
指導教授-楊中平
召集委員-王朝興
中文關鍵字 無線感測網路、時間同步、IEEE 1588、分散式系統、IEEE 802.15.4 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Sensor Networks  Time Synchronization  IEEE 802.15.4  distributed system  IEEE 1588 
學科別分類
中文摘要 時間同步在無限網路感測是一個很重要的議題,特別是在分散式測量系統。IEEE 1588標準協定是定義精確的時鐘同步協定使用在網路量測與控制。在這篇論文中,我們提出了一個Hierarchy Reference Broadcast Synchronization (HRBS)演算法,是應用在IEEE標準802.15.4上的無線感測網路。我們提出的架構結合了PTP協定和HRBS演算法,它的工作分成三個步驟:首先,網路伺服器透過GPS可以取得世界標準時間,並且使用PTP協定讓網路上其它的裝置的時間校正成和網路伺服器的時間相同。第二步驟,其中一個被PTP校正過的裝置和無線感測網路上的一個感測器相連接,並且將它的時間傳給這個感測器。我們使用HRBS將所有在無線感測網路上的感測器做時間同步,我們使用Linux主機和Chipcon CC2430 Demonstration Kits開發平台來做實驗,最後我們分析PTP和HRBS的準確率和效能評估。發展成一個基於PTP下的分散式無線感測網路測量系統。
英文摘要 Time synchronization is an important aspect in wireless sensor networks, especially in distributed measurement system. IEEE 1588 is a standard for precise clock synchronization for network measurement and control systems in LAN environment. In the thesis, we present a time synchronization mechanism, named Hierarchy Reference Broadcast Synchronization (HRBS), for wireless sensor networks based on IEEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed system architecture is a hybrid of PTP protocol and HRBS algorithm. It works in three steps. In the first step, the Internet server receives the UTC (universal time coordinated) time from GPS. PTP synchronization is used to translate its clock value to the server’s clock by other devices in LAN. The second step, one of the synchronized devices is connect to the sensor node in the wireless sensor network. The synchronized device sent its time stamp to this sensor node. We use HRBS protocol to synchronize all sensor nodes clock in the wireless sensor network. Our implement is using the Linux PCs and Chipcon CC2430 Demonstration Kits. In the finally, we evaluate the PTP and the HRBS time synchronization accuracy and performance. We develop into a wireless s ensor network base on the distributed measurement system under precise time protocol.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
LIST OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vii
LIST OF TABLES x
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks 1
1.1.1 Components of a Sensor Node 1
1.1.2 Sensor Network Applications 4
1.2 Motivation 5
1.2.1 The Need for Synchronized Time in Ethernet 5
1.2.2 The Need for Synchronized Time in Wireless Sensor Network 6
1.3 Organization of This Thesis 6
CHAPTER 2 Related Works 7
2.1 Basic Concepts of Time Synchronization 7
2.1.1 Decomposition of Packet Delay 7
2.1.2 Traditional Time Synchronization Approaches 9
2.2 Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Network 11
2.2.1 Challenges in Wireless Sensor Network 11
2.2.2 Existing Time Synchronization Approaches for WSN 12
2.2.2.1 Reference Broadcast Synchronization 13
2.2.2.2 Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Network 14
2.2.2.3 Hierarchy Referencing Time Synchronization 16
CHAPTER 3 Technology Background 18
3.1 IEEE 1588 – Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Network Measurement and Control System 18
3.1.1 Operational overview 19
3.1.2 PTP Message Exchange 21
3.1.3 IEEE 1588 Clock Offset Measurement 22
3.1.4 IEEE 1588 Network Delay Measurement 23
3.1.5 IEEE 1588 with Switch 26
3.2 IEEE 802.15.4 Standard 27
CHAPTER 4 Proposed HRBS Algorithm for WSN 31
4.1 Basic Idea and Assumption 31
4.2 HRBS – Hierarchy Reference Broadcast Synchronization 32
4.3 Estimating Clock Skew 34
CHAPTER 5 Hardware Architecture 36
5.1 System Hardware Architecture 36
CHAPTER 6 Software Architecture 40
6.1 System Software Architecture 40
6.1.1 EPIA MII Software Architecture 40
6.1.2 CC2430DK Software Architecture 42
6.2 Summary 43
CHAPTER 7 Implementation 44
7.1 System Architecture Overview 44
7.2 Implementation Setup 45
7.2.1 Source of Standard Time 45
7.2.2 Communication 47
7.2.2.1 Time Stamp Layer 47
7.2.2.2 Operation of the Network Driver 49
7.2.2.3 TCPdump 51
7.2.2.4 PTP Stack 53
7.2.3 Wireless Sensor Network 55
CHAPTER 8 Experimental Results 60
8.1 IEEE 1588 Synchronization Accuracy 60
8.2 IEEE 1588 Accuracy Issues 62
8.3 CC2430 Synchronization Accuracy 64
8.4 CC2430 Synchronization Accuracy Issues 65
8.5 Simulate Calculation 67
CHAPTER 9 Conclusion and Future Work 70
9.1 Conclusion 70
9.2 Future Work 70
REFERENCES 71
Annex A PTP Protocol 77
A.1 Protocol model of a clock 77
A.2 Protocol model of a subdomain of PTP clocks 79
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