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系統識別號 U0026-0812200912120873
論文名稱(中文) 成人依附類型與人際衝突事件及其衝突知覺與解決策略對大學生憂鬱的影響
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Adult Attachment, Conflict Resolutions, and Interpersonal Conflicts on Depressive Symptoms in College Students
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 賴雅純
研究生(英文) Ya-Chun Lai
電子信箱 zanzuki.lai@msa.hinet.net
學號 S8692102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 97頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
召集委員-林以正
口試委員-鄭中平
中文關鍵字 成人依附、人際衝突、衝突知覺、衝突解決策略、憂鬱症狀 
英文關鍵字 Adult attachment  Interpersonal conflict  Conflict resolution  Conflict perception  Depressive symptom 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景 憂鬱症對個體常造成日常生活功能、人際功能及事業功能上的缺損,國內外研究發現13.1%~35.8%大學生有不同程度之憂鬱症狀,因此對憂鬱症狀的病理機制的了解成為重要研究議題。Bowlby (1969)所提出的依附理論為憂鬱的人際取向提供一個架構,許多研究已證實懼怕型依附及過度專注型依附與憂鬱有關,但其中機制並不清楚,根據文獻回顧發現認知因子為依附與憂鬱關係間可探討之中介變項,因此本研究欲探討在面對衝突時,成人依附透過對衝突之知覺影響憂鬱,然而根據認知素質-壓力派典,衝突知覺可能會受人際衝突事件調節。因此本研究假設懼怕型依附與過度專注型依附透過衝突知覺影響憂鬱,且此中介關係受有無衝突事件調節;並進而建立大學生人際架構之憂鬱預測模型。

研究方法 (1)受試者為南部大專院校學生,使用分層與叢集隨機抽樣,第一年共抽出5,137位,而有3,741位大學生(回收率73%)參與本研究,共2,858份問卷完整填答,第二年追蹤到1,522筆資料,共1,067份問卷完整填答,僅將完整填答者納入後續分析;(2)研究工具為個人資料表、人際關係問卷中文版、衝突知覺與解決策略量表、生活事件量表中之人際衝突事件題目及柯氏憂鬱量表;(3) 本研究採用追蹤一年縱貫式問卷調查法,研究程序為2003年與2004年11月起六週時間對所抽樣學生進行問卷調查;(4)統計分析利用SPSS視窗11.5版進行描述統計、ANOVAs與階層式迴歸分析,並利用lisrel 8.7版進行結構方程模式建立憂鬱模型。

研究結果 結果顯示懼怕型與過度專注型依附面對衝突具較高威脅知覺及較低建設性知覺;而相較安全型依附,懼怕型採較多逃避策略,過度專注型採較多順從、情緒過度表達及逃避策略。此外,在橫斷式資料中,安全型透過建設性知覺影響憂鬱的中介效果未達顯著;懼怕型依附與過度專注型依附透過威脅知覺影響憂鬱,且此中介關係受有無人際衝突事件所調節;而在縱貫式資料中,若控制第一年憂鬱後,發現懼怕型與過度專注型依附透過威脅知覺影響第二年憂鬱之中介效果以及人際衝突事件對威脅知覺之調節作用均僅達顯著邊緣。最後,本研究欲建立完整人際架構之憂鬱預測模式,發現負向自我、他人概念對第一年憂鬱具有直接效果;威脅知覺中介負向自我概念到負向解決策略的關係;負向自我概念透過威脅知覺、負向衝突解決策略對當時憂鬱症狀與隔年憂鬱症狀具有間接效果,然威脅知覺對隔年憂鬱的直接效果僅達顯著邊緣。

結論與建議 在學術貢獻性部分,本研究探討成人依附對憂鬱影響的成因機制,並突破之前研究方法學上的限制,以分層叢集抽樣出代表性大學生樣本,建立探討預測憂鬱的模式,了解成人依附、衝突知覺、衝突解決策略及人際衝突事件如何對憂鬱產生影響。在應用貢獻性部分,釐清憂鬱可能之病因,對大學生進行三級預防之介入,對於諮商輔導工作及預防憂鬱的產生有所貢獻。



英文摘要 Objective
Past studies have found that depression may damage daily functions and interpersonal or occupational abilities. Prevalences of various depression severity in college students, ranging from 13.1% to 35.8%, were reported. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms of depressive symptoms might be an important issue for more in-depth research. Bowlby’s attachment theory attempted to explain the etiology of depression. According to the diathesis-stress model, the interaction between stressor and cognitive characteristic could increase an individual’s negative affects. In order to establish a depression model, the present longitudinal study was designed to examine whether the mediating effect of conflict perception on the adult attachment-depression relationship was moderated by interpersonal conflict events through a comprehensive interpersonal frame, and to further clarify the formation of depressive symptoms.

Method
A total of 2,858 students were recruited in 2004 and 1,067 were followed up one year later. All participants were assessed with questionnaires on depressive symptoms, attachment styles, conflict perception and resolutions, and interpersonal conflict events. ANOVAs, hierarchical regression analyses, and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data.

Results
Individuals who evidenced preoccupied or fearful attachment perceived more threats and less benefit than did those who endorsed a secure attachment. Compared to individuals who endorsed a secure attachment, those evidencing a fearful attachment took more withdrawal strategies while those evidencing preoccupied attachment took more compliance, emotional engagement, and withdrawal strategies. The cross-sectional data was able to show that the mediating effect of threatening perception on the adult attachment-depression relationship would be moderated by interpersonal conflict events, but the longitudinal data failed to express similar results. SEM showed that the depression model fitted the longitudinal data well. Perception of self and others had direct impacts on current depressive symptoms. The threatening perception mediated the association between perception of self and conflict resolutions. Perception of self had indirect effects on current and future depressive symptoms via negative conflict perception and conflict resolutions. However, the direct effect of threatening perception on future depressive symptom was marginally significant.

Discussion
The results supported the hypothesis that fearful or preoccupied attachment and negative conflict perception served as vulnerabilities to depression, and interpersonal conflict events acted as a stressor among Taiwan college students. Furthermore, under a strong theoretical framework, we attempted to establish a depression model through an interpersonal frame. Our findings suggested that prevention programs guided towards the college student population should focus on modifying negative conflict perceptions to reduce the probability of developing depression.



論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要........................................................................................................P.Ⅰ
英文摘要........................................................................................................P.Ⅲ
致謝................................................................................................................P.Ⅴ
目錄................................................................................................................P.Ⅵ
表目錄............................................................................................................P.Ⅸ
圖目錄............................................................................................................P.Ⅹ
附錄目錄........................................................................................................P.XI

第一章 研究背景...............................................................................................P.1
 第一節 大學生憂鬱問題的重要性...............................................................P.1
  壹、憂鬱的定義........................................................................................P.1
  貳、大學生憂鬱盛行率及其影響............................................................P.2
 第二節 憂鬱的特異質-壓力模式..................................................................P.3
  壹、憂鬱的特異質-壓力模式...................................................................P.3
  貳、與憂鬱有關之壓力源.........................................................................P.4
  參、與憂鬱有關之素質.............................................................................P.5
  肆、小結.....................................................................................................P.6
 第三節 人際衝突事件對憂鬱的影響............................................................P.6
  壹、人際衝突事件的定義與測量.............................................................P.6
  貳、人際衝突事件對憂鬱之影響.............................................................P.6
  参、小結.....................................................................................................P.7
 第四節 所選擇的特異質對憂鬱的影響........................................................P.7
  壹、成人依附類型對憂鬱之影響.............................................................P.7
  貳、依附類型對人際衝突、衝突知覺與衝突解決策略的關係.............P.13
  参、衝突知覺對憂鬱之影響.....................................................................P.14
  肆、衝突的解決策略對憂鬱之影響.........................................................P.15
  伍、衝突知覺與衝突解決策略的關係.....................................................P.16
 第五節 人際衝突事件、成人依附類型、衝突知覺與解決策略對憂鬱的影響模式........................................................P.16
 第六節 研究目的與假設...............................................................................P.17
  壹、研究目的......................................................................................P.17
  貳、研究問題與假設................................................................................P.17
第二章 研究方法.......................................................................................P.20
 第一節 參與者.......................................................................................P.20
 第二節 研究工具.....................................................................................P.20
  壹、個人資料表....................................................................................P.20
  貳、柯氏憂鬱量表..................................................................................P.20
  參、人際關係問卷..................................................................................P.21
  肆、生活事件量表..................................................................................P.21
  伍、衝突知覺與解決策略量表........................................................................P.22
 第三節 研究程序.....................................................................................P.24
 第四節 統計分析.....................................................................................P.25
第三章 研究結果.......................................................................................P.28
 第一節 量表相關變項分析.............................................................................P.28
 第二節 不同成人依附類型在衝突知覺上的差異................................................P.29
 第三節 不同成人依附類型在衝突解決策略上的差異............................................P.29
 第四節 調節性中介模式分析................................................................P.30
  壹、橫斷式研究.........................................................................P.30
  貳、縱貫式研究.........................................................................P.31
 第五節 大學生人際取向之憂鬱模型..........................................................P.32
  壹、模型適合度考驗.....................................................................P.32
  貳、潛在變項間的效果...................................................................P.34
  参、潛在變項間的中介效果檢驗...........................................................P.37
第四章 討論、結論與建議....................................................................P.39
 第一節 討論..............................................................................P.39
  壹、成人依附類型與憂鬱之相關...........................................................P.39
  貳、成人依附類型在衝突知覺與衝突解決策略上之差異.......................................P.39
  参、調節性中介模式.....................................................................P.40
  肆、人際架構之憂鬱模式.................................................................P.41
 第二節 研究限制與優勢....................................................................P.42
  壹、研究限制...........................................................................P.42
  貳、研究優勢...........................................................................P.43
 第三節 結論與建議........................................................................P.43
  壹、學術貢獻性.........................................................................P.43
  貳、應用貢獻性.........................................................................P.43
第五章 參考文獻............................................................................P.45




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