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系統識別號 U0026-0812200912072362
論文名稱(中文) GPS之VMS即時動態定位精度分析
論文名稱(英文) Accuracy Evaluation of GPS Positioning by Virtual Master Station RTK
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 鄧雅群
研究生(英文) Ya-Qun Deng
電子信箱 TIM19810619@YAHOO.COM.TW
學號 l4692117
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 85頁
口試委員 口試委員-翁錦堂
口試委員-劉啟清
口試委員-饒瑞鈞
指導教授-曾清凉
中文關鍵字 VMS-RTK  虛擬主站  精度分析 
英文關鍵字 VMS-RTK  Virtual Master Station  Accuracy analys 
學科別分類
中文摘要 傳統單一主站的即時動態定位RTK(Real Time Kinematic)因電離層、對流層、軌道誤差等系統誤差的影響,使得移動站只能在主站約10公里量測才能達到公分級精度。VMS-RTK定位利用區域網形的GPS網絡誤差模型取代單點GPS誤差模型,即利用多個主站組成的GPS網路來估計一個地區的GPS誤差模型,並為GPS網絡覆蓋地區的RTK用戶提供系統誤差即時內插的數據。VMS-RTK(Virtual Master Station-Real Time Kinematic)即使在超過10公里的距離施測,仍有很高的定位精度。另一方面,經由這項技術可以減少儀器的需求和人員的派遣,降低成本的負擔。因此這項技術也使得GPS測量變得更有效率。
實驗結果顯示VMS-RTK在所規劃30公里間距主站無論是內插網形或外插網形其定位精度平面精度可達3公分,高程6公分以內。


英文摘要 Conventional single-master station Real-Time Kinematic(RTK) positioningis affected by systematic errors such as ionospheric and tropospheric errors, so that rover must be located within about 10 Km of the reference station in order to acquire centimeter-level accuracy. VMS-RTK makes a reservation and utilizes GPS network error model of regional network shape to replace single GPS error model, namely make use of GPS network that a lot of master station make up to estimate GPS error model of an area, and support VMS-RTK users GPS network offer the systematic data that are inserted immediately of error in covering area. More than 10 kilometers distance of VMS-RTK(Virtual Master Station-Real Time Kinematic)have high positioning accuracy. On the other hand, can reduce the sending of demand and personnel for the instrument via this technology, burden of lowering costs. So this technology makes GPS measurement more efficient.
Test results show no matter the Master Station of interval of 30 kilometers planned are inserting the shape of the network or outside and inserting the shape of the network inside that the horizontal positioning accuracy of VMS-RTK is within 3 cm, and within 6 cm for the height component.


論文目次 摘 要.......................................................................Ⅱ
Abstract.....................................................................Ⅲ
誌 謝.......................................................................Ⅳ
目 錄........................................................................V
表目錄......................................................................VII
圖目錄.....................................................................VIII

第一章、緒論.................................................................10
1.1、前言....................................................................10
1.2、背景分析及國外相關研究之系統建置........................................12
1.3、國外相關研究方法........................................................16
1.4、研究方法................................................................18
第二章、GPS即時動態定位(RTK)...............................................19
2.1、GPS觀測量...............................................................19
2.1.1、虛擬距離觀測量........................................................19
2.1.2、載波相位觀測量........................................................21
2.2、GPS的誤差來源...........................................................23
2.2.1、衛星軌道誤差..........................................................23
2.2.2、衛星時錶誤差..........................................................24
2.2.3、天線相位中心偏差......................................................24
2.2.4、電離層延遲誤差........................................................24
2.2.5、對流層延遲誤差........................................................25
2.2.6、多路徑效應............................................................25
2.3、GPS的相對定位...........................................................25
2.3.1、一次差分(Single-Difference).........................................26
2.3.2、二次差分(Double-Difference).........................................27
2.4、L1 + L2載波相位觀測量之線性組合.........................................28
2.5、單主站RTK定位原理.......................................................30
第三章、VMS演算法............................................................33
3.1、VMS-RTK定位原理.........................................................34
3.2、VMS-RTK定位數學模式.....................................................35
3.2.1、GPS觀測方程式.........................................................35
3.2.2、電離層的影響..........................................................37
3.2.3、對流層的影響..........................................................38
3.2.4、主站之間週波未定值及系統誤差改正量求解................................39
3.2.5、建立虛擬主站的觀測數據................................................41
3.2.6、系統誤差內插模式......................................................42
3.2.7、組成虛擬觀測量........................................................43
3.2.8、移動站坐標之求解......................................................45
第四章、實驗與成果分析.......................................................47
4.1、各主站儀器架設簡介......................................................48
4.2、主站網坐標解算..........................................................51
4.3、實驗成果分析............................................................52
4.3.1、A1網形之計算成果......................................................61
4.3.2、A2網形之計算成果......................................................64
4.3.3、A3網形之計算成果......................................................66
4.3.4、A4網形之計算成果......................................................68
4.3.5、B1網形之計算成果......................................................70
4.3.6、B2網形之計算成果......................................................72
4.3.7、B3網形之計算成果......................................................74
4.3.8、B4網形之計算成果......................................................76
第五章、結論與建議...........................................................79
5.1、結論....................................................................79
5.2、對後續研究之建議........................................................80
參考文獻.....................................................................81
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