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系統識別號 U0026-0812200912072158
論文名稱(中文) 油品成分對機車引擎排放氣態污染物影響研究
論文名稱(英文) Effects of Fuel Formulation on Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycle
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 張安伶
研究生(英文) An-Ling Chang
學號 P5693116
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 180頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡俊鴻
口試委員-張能復
口試委員-鄭福田
口試委員-江鴻龍
口試委員-張艮輝
中文關鍵字 引擎動力計  機車  汽油成份  揮發性有機物  基準污染物 
英文關鍵字 VOC  exhaust emission  air toxic  motorcycle  gasoline composition  engine dynamometer 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究探討汽油油品成份與機車引擎排氣基準污染物(CO、CO2、NO、THC)及揮發性有害空氣污染物(1,3butadiene、n-Hexane、Benzene、Toluene、Ethylbenzene、Xylene、Styrene、Formaldehyde、Acetaldehyde、Acrolein)所致影響。排放測試實驗乃以四行程125cc機車引擎新品為對象,於引擎動力計藉由控制機車引擎轉速,模擬操作冷啟動惰轉條件測試程序乃添加不同油品成份(氧含量、硫含量、芳香烴及苯含量)為燃料,藉由連續自動監測分析儀即時量測尾氣排放基準污染物濃度,以Tedlar採樣袋和醛酮吸附管(Cartridge)進行採樣,利用GC/MS及HPLC定性定量揮發性有機物及醛酮化合物成分及濃度。實驗設計乃以四種油品成分二水準(24=16)實驗設計方法進行,並以市售95無鉛汽油與測試油品實驗結果比較,探討不同成份汽油所致機車引擎污染物排放係數(g/L-fuel),並探討不同成分對不同空氣污染物排放之影響,油品成分為氧含量3.3wt%->2.5wt%;硫含量150ppmw->50ppmw;芳香烴含量28vol%->22vol%;苯含量0.63vol%->0.43vol%。
研究結果顯示,市售汽油為燃料之空氣污染物排放係數,大多高於研究配製汽油所致排放係數(CO、NO、THC、1,3butadiene、n-Hexane、Benzene、Toluene、Ethylbenzene、Xylene、Styrene)。於油品成份影響上,降低汽油含硫量(由150 ppmw降低至50 ppmw)對THC、NO、1,3butadiene(且有顯著減量比例)、n-Hexane、Ethylbenzene、Xylene、Styrene排放亦有減量效果,對CO及CO2則無明顯影響,對Toluene發現有增加的趨勢;降低油品含氧量(由3.3 wt%降低至2.5 wt%)使CO、1,3butadiene(顯著)、Acetaldehyde排放增加;對n-Hexane、Toluene、Ethylbenzene、Styrene有減量之效果,對於其他污染物則不明顯。降低油品中芳香烴含量(由28%降至22%)使CO、Benzene(顯著)排放減少,對Toluene、Ethylbenzene、Xylene、Styrene、Formaldehyde亦有減量效果,唯可將Acetaldehyde(顯著)及Acrolein排放量增加;降低汽油含苯量目標物種排放係數影響不明顯,應與測試油品苯含量極低 (0.4%~0.6%)有關。
此外機車引擎於冷啟動惰轉情況下,機車尾氣排放之各族NMHC成分比例為烷烴(57%~35%)>烯烴(44%~18%)>芳香烴(32%~8%)>醛酮化合物(35%~1.7%)。不同油品造成NMHC族群比例差異極大;氧含量越多,烯烴類排放係數越小(顯著);芳香烴含量越多,烷烴及醛酮化合物排放係數有減少趨勢(中度負相關,不顯著)。
以等效減量值加權計算發現降低硫含量能有效減少基準污染物排放量;以降低致癌性為主要考量則應減少硫含量及苯含量;以油品改良方式減少危害性則以降低硫含量為主。整體而言,欲對油品成分改良以促使機車引擎尾氣污染物排放減量,首先著手減量芳香烴含量及硫含量,減少油品中的此二種成分可以減少最多種的有害污染物,但仍須注意減少這些成分會增加排放的污染物(減少芳香烴有使NO增加之趨勢;減少硫含量有使甲苯增加之趨勢)。

英文摘要 Exhaust from motorcycle strongly depends on engine type and fuel formulation. This research has been conducted to investigate the effects of gasoline composition on the profiles of exhaust gas, including legislated exhaust emissions (CO, THC, NO, and CO2) and air toxics (1,3butadiene, n-Hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) from a motorcycle engine dynamometer. The test fuel designed to 4 characters (oxygenate content, sulfur, aromatic, and benzene) with 2 level (hight and low level) is 16 different type (24=16). The fuel content on oxygenate molecule is from 3.3 to 2.5 wt%, sulfur from 50 to 150 ppmw, aromatics from 22 to 28 vol%, and benzene from 0.63 to 0.43 vol%. All blended gasolines were used to power a 4-stoke with 125cc displacement engine which was linked to an engine dynamometer and tested under idleing test mode with cold-start. The legislated exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxides, were measured by monitor (SPTC AUTOCHEK 4/5 and EGA300). The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls compounds were sampled by sampling bags and DNPH-Cartridge, and were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, respectively.
The test results indicated that commercial 95 RON unleaded gasoline caused the hightest exhaust emission factor among test fuels, for CO, NO, THC, 1,3butadiene, n-Hexane, benzene, toluene、ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene. Test data shows that the THC, NO, 1,3-butadiene (significant), n-Hexane, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene emissions increase as sulfur content in fuel raises from 50 to 150ppmw, but CO and CO2 emission had no clear effect with sulfur content. Gasoline with lower aromatics content also caused lower emission of CO, benzene (significant), toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, formaldehyde, but caused higher NO, acetaldehyde (significant), and acrolein. The content of benzene has no significant effect in all emissions because of the test fuel with low extremely benzene content (0.4%~0.6%).
The fraction of NMHC groups exhaust from motorcycle engine in order are alkanes (57%~35%), alkenes (44~18%), aromatics (32%~8%) and carbonyls (35%~1.7%). Different gasoline composition cause significant NMHC composition proportion. Gasoline with higher oxygenate cause lower alkenes emission factor (significant), and gasoline with higher aromatics also cause lower alkanes and carbonyls (non significant).
Moreover, decrease the sulfur content in gasoline has the greatest emission reduction for legislated exhaust emissions evaluated by equivalent emission abatement (EEA). For air toxics exhaust emissions, decrease the sulfur and benzene content in gasoline has the greatest carcinogenic risk reduction and decrease the sulfur content in gasoline may decreased the noncancer chronic healthy hazard.
By the domination of gasoline to control air pollution for motorcycle, the first stage should be reducing the aromatics and sulfur content, because they can cause the most kind of air pollutants emission reduction. But we still pay some attention to it may cause some air pollutants increase, that is to reduce aromatics content in fuel may increase NO emission, and to reduce sulfur content may increase toluene emission.

論文目次 目錄
中文摘要i
Abstract iii
誌 謝 v
目 錄 vi
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xii
第一章 前 言 1-1
1-1 研究缘起 1-1
1-2 研究目標 1-3
第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
2-1 汽油組成特性與管制規範 2-1
2-1-1 石油煉製與組成分類 2-1
2-1-2 汽油參數定義 2-2
2-1-3 各國油品標準及規範 2-3
2-1-4 台灣油品管制現況及油品結構 2-8
2-2 機車引擎尾氣污染物成分與形成機制 2-11
2-2-1 汽油車排放氣態污染物之形成機制 2-11
2-2-2 油品成分對汽油車排放氣態污染物影響研究 2-12
2-3 機車引擎尾氣污染物種類及危害特性 2-19
2-3-1 基準污染物 2-19
2-3-2 揮發性有機物族群 2-20
2-3-3 醛酮類族群 2-25
2-4 機車引擎啟動負荷對排放氣態污染物影響 2-27
2-4-1 引擎轉速及負荷 2-27
2-4-2 冷熱車啟動方式 2-28
2-4-3 廢氣排放控制系統 2-29
第三章 研究方法 3-1
3-1 研究架構 3-1
3-2 機車引擎與油品篩選及測試條件 3-2
3-2-1 機車引擎篩選 3-2
3-2-2 油品成分摻配設計 3-3
3-3 機車引擎動力計操作及尾氣採樣測定程序 3-4
3-3-1 動力計簡介 3-4
3-3-2 動力計操作及引擎調整前處理 3-5
3-3-3 機車排氣之分析儀測定 3-5
3-3-4 機車引擎尾氣之採樣程序 3-8
3-3-4 機車引擎尾氣之分析程序 3-11
3-4 實驗之品保品管 3-14
3-4-1 測試油品品質QA/QC 作業 3-14
3-4-2 採樣程序QA/QC 作業 3-15
3-4-3 分析儀QA/QC 作業 3-16
3-4-4 分析程序QA/QC 作業 3-17
3-5 機車引擎尾氣空氣污染物排放係數推估 3-20
3-5-1 機車引擎尾氣基準污染物排放係數計算 3-20
3-5-2 機車引擎尾氣有害污染物排放係數計算 3-22
3-5-3 機車引擎尾氣污染物排放係數計算校正 3-23
3-5-4 儀器分析排放係數不定性百分比 3-24
3-6 統計方法及權重推估 3-25
3-6-1 有害污染物權重 3-25
第四章 結果與討論 4-1
4-1 機車引擎尾氣氣態污染物排放特徵解析 4-1
4-1-1 基準污染物排放特徵解析 4-1
4-1-2 基準污染物排放係數解析 4-4
4-2 油品成分對機車引擎排放基準污染物影響 4-12
4-2-1 油品成分對基準污染物排放係數影響解析 4-12
4-2-2 油品成分對基準污染物排放係數影響統計資料分析 4-14
4-3 氣態有機污染物排放係數解析 4-19
4-3-1 氣態有機污染物排放係數解析 4-19
4-3-2 油品成分對氣態有機污染物排放係數影響統計資料分析 4-22
4-4 有害空氣污染物排放係數解析 4-31
4-4-1 VOCs 有害空氣污染物排放係數解析 4-31
4-4-2 Carbonyls 有害空氣污染物排放係數解析 4-34
4-5 油品成分對機車引擎排放有害污染物影響 4-46
4-5-1 油品成分對有害污染物排放係數影響解析 4-46
4-5-2 油品成分對有害污染物排放係數影響統計資料分析 4-51
4-6 油品佳化對機車引擎污染排放影響評析 4-67
4-6-1 以污染物權重方法解析 4-67
第五章 結論與建議 5-1
5-1 結論 5-1
5-2 建議 5-3
參考文獻
附錄

表目錄
表2.1.1 各類碳氫化合物辛烷值 2-32
表2.1.2 美國聯邦汽油規範--1990 年基準汽油標準 2-33
表2.1.3 聯邦新配方汽油要求(1995-1997)-Phase I 2-34
表2.1.4 美國聯邦2000 年新配方汽油性能標準 2-34
表2.1.5 加州新配方汽油(CaRFG)規範 2-35
表2.1.6 歐盟指令98/70/EC 2000 年及2005 年之汽油規格標準 2-36
表2.1.7 台灣地區汽油成分及性能管制標準 2-37
表2.1.8 台灣地區油品管制標準與其他各國之比較 2-37
表2.2.1 AQIRP 油品成份變化對汽車尾氣排放污染物之減量比例. 2-38
表2.2.2 硫含量降低對不同層次車輛技術之排氣減量效果 2-38
表2.2.3 油品成分對污染物影響(氧含量減少) 2-39
表2.2.4 油品成分對污染物影響(硫含量減少) 2-39
表2.2.5 油品成分對污染物影響(芳香烴含量減少) 2-40
表2.2.6 油品成分對污染物影響(苯含量減少) 2-40
表2.3.1 美國EPA 所列移動源毒性空氣污染物(MSATs) 2-41
表2.3.2 本研究所選定之VOCs 毒性污染物特性 2-41
表2.4.1 四行程125cc 機車廢氣控制系統機構及功能 2-42
表3.1.1 民國93 年1-6 月國產機車內銷市場規格統計表 3-27
表3.1.2 測試機車引擎特徵資料 3-27
表3.2.1 本研究四項油品參數應用complex model 之輸入值 3-27
表3.2.2 Complex Model 輸入參數一覽表 3-28
表3.2.3 17 組油品成份設定值應用複合模式所致減量比例結果 3-28
表3.3.1 Cartridge 吸附管規格表 3-29
表3.4.1 油品目標成分採樣值及階層 3-29
表3.4.2 引擎排放污染物再現性測試精密度(RSD) 3-30
表3.4.3 各儀器之校正係數 3-30
表3.4.4 分析揮發性有機物檢量線及品保品管資料 3-31
表3.5.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉各車次調整係數、NMHC 佔THC 百分比及排放風量推估 3-35
表3.5.2 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉各車次各污染物儀器分析濃度不定性百分比 3-36
表3.5.3 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉各車次各污染物儀器分析排放係數不定性百分比 3-37
表3.6.1 移動源有害空氣污染物之環境空氣限值 3-38
表4.1.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉基準污染物排放濃度及排序(濃度高->濃度低) 4-8
表4.1.2 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉基準污染物排放係數(g/L-fuel)及排序(係數大->係數小) 4-9
表4.2.1 各油品成分比較組別一覽表 4-16
表4.2.2 油品成分對於基準污染物排放之影響 4-16
表4.3.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉NMHC 族群各污染物排放濃度(mg/m3)及排序(濃度高->濃度低) 4-25
表4.3.2 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉NMHC 族群各污染物排放係數(mg/L-fuel)及排序(係數大->係數小) 4-26
表4.3.3 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉各族群污染物排放係數(mg/L-fuel)佔NMHC 百分比及排序(大->小) 4-27
表4.3.4 油品成分對於NMHC 各族群排放係數之影響 4-28
表4.3.5 油品成分對於NMHC 各族群佔NMHC 排放比例之影響 4-28
表4.4.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉有害污染物排放濃度(mg/m3)及排序(濃度高->濃度低) 4-36
表4.4.2 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉有害污染物排放係數(mg/L-fuel)及排序(係數大->係數小) 4-38
表4.4.3 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉有害污染物排放係數(mg/L-fuel)佔NMHC 百分比及排序(大->小) 4-40
表4.5.1 油品成分對於有害污染物排放係數之影響 4-55
表4.5.2 油品成分對於有害污染物佔NMHC 排放比例影響 4-56
表4.6.1 各油品等效減量值、致癌性評估、危害性評估排序 4-70

圖目錄
圖2.1.1 煉油廠煉製流程簡圖 2-42
圖2.1.2 各國汽油成份標準比較(a)歐美(b)亞洲國家 2-43
圖2.2.1(a) 1,3-butadiene 形成機制 2-44
圖2.2.1(b) formaldehyde 形成機制 2-44
圖2.2.1(c) BTEX 形成機制 2-44
圖2.3.1 醛酮類化合物於大氣中之反應過程 2-45
圖3.1.1 研究工作流程圖 3-39
圖3.3.1 機車引擎動力計配置 3-40
圖3.3.2 動力計控制器 3-40
圖3.3.3 機車引擎排氣測試系統配置 3-40
圖3.3.4 醛酮化合物採樣時間流程圖 3-41
圖3.3.5 2,4-DNPH silica-cartridge 構造圖 3-42
圖3.3.6 醛酮化合物Cartridge 萃取流程圖 3-43
圖3.4.1 引擎排放污染物再現性測試 3-44
圖3.5.1 機車引擎二次空氣系統圖 3-45
圖4.1.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉CO 排放係數各油品比較 4-10
圖4.1.2 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉THC 排放係數各油品比較 4-10
圖4.1.3 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉NO 排放係數各油品比較 4-11
圖4.1.4 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉CO2 排放係數各油品比較 4-11
圖4.2.1 油品成分與CO 排放係數關係 4-17
圖4.2.2 油品成分與THC 排放係數關係 4-17
圖4.2.3 油品成分與NO 排放係數關係 4-18
圖4.2.4 油品成分與CO2 排放係數關係 4-18
圖4.3.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉NMHC 排放係數各油品比較 4-29
圖4.3.2 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉NMHC 排放比例各油品比較 4-29
圖4.3.3(a) 油品成分與NMHC 排放係數關係 4-30
圖4.3.3(b) 油品成分與NMHC 組成百分比係數關係 4-30
圖4.4.1 機車引擎冷啟動惰轉有害空氣污染物排放係數各油品比較 4-42
圖4.5.1(a) 油品成分與1,3-Butadiene 排放係數關係 4-57
圖4.5.1(b) 油品成分與1,3-Butadiene 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-57
圖4.5.2(a) 油品成分與n-Hexane 排放係數關係 4-58
圖4.5.2(b) 油品成分與n-Hexane 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-58
圖4.5.3(a) 油品成分與Benzene 排放係數關係 4-59
圖4.5.3(b) 油品成分與Benzene 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-59
圖4.5.4(a) 油品成分與Toluene 排放係數關係 4-60
圖4.5.4(b) 油品成分與Toluene 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-60
圖4.5.5(a) 油品成分與Ethylbenzene 排放係數關係 4-61
圖4.5.5(b) 油品成分與Ethylbenzene 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-61
圖4.5.6(a) 油品成分與Xylene 排放係數關係 4-62
圖4.5.6(b) 油品成分與Xylene 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-62
圖4.5.7(a) 油品成分與Styrene 排放係數關係 4-63
圖4.5.7(b) 油品成分與Styrene 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-63
圖4.5.8(a) 油品成分與Formaldehyde 排放係數關係 4-64
圖4.5.8(b) 油品成分與Formaldehyde 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-64
圖4.5.9(a) 油品成分與Acetaldehyde 排放係數關係 4-65
圖4.5.9(b) 油品成分與Acetaldehyde 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-65
圖4.5.10(a) 油品成分與Acrolein 排放係數關係 4-66
圖4.5.10(b) 油品成分與Acrolein 佔NMHC 百分比關係 4-66
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