||The Relationships among Social Capital, Dynamic Capability and New Product Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Research of High-Technology Supplier Industry in Taiwan
||Department of Business Administration (on the job class)
Product Competitive Advantage.
Semiconductor and TFT-LCD manufacturing are two potential star high-technology industries that fully promoted by Taiwan government to compete in the global market. Accompany with intra-industry keen competition on a global scale for ever-shorter product life cycles, suppliers resort to gather and integrate external market intelligence, leverage accessible resources and gain technological distinctiveness to keep pace with desired speed of new product development. In general, customers mostly can provide suppliers valuable ideas about technology innovation in new product joint development. Here, customer social capital specifically emphasizes on long-term cooperation and close customer relationships within an industrial network base on mutual trust and commitment. In any case, social capital predominantly facilitates knowledge spillover and exchange to reduce product innovation uncertainty in dynamic environment. The purpose of this research is to mainly investigate the relationships among social capital, absorptive capacity, organizational competence and product competitive advantage by introducing social capital theory, resources-based view (RBV), and dynamic capability perspectives. Based on a sample survey of 189 effectively returned questionnaires from total 27 supplier firms in Semiconductor and TFT-LCD industries, one LISREL result reveals that social capital efficiently enhances knowledge acquisition, knowledge assimilation and organization responsiveness in a new product innovation race, so as to appropriately reconfigure resources and exploit technological capability on accumulated knowledge base, and favorably develop advance equipment and latest materials to meet market needs and create value for customers. Consequently, such a significant path in this model empirically interprets that new products developed by high-tech suppliers can achieve superior competitive advantage than competitors suppose that they adopt market-pull innovation strategy. In addition, successful new products in new-generation technology progress possess three distinctive features of newness, uniqueness and productivity, which are much consistent with firms’ rare, inimitable, valuable and non- substitutable resources on competitive advantage creation of RBV.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1-1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH MOTIVATION 1
1-2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 5
1-3 RESEARCH PROCEDURE 7
1-4 THE STRUCTURE OF THIS STUDY 9
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2-1 DEFINITION OF RESEARCH VARIABLES 11
2-1-1 Social Capital 11
2-1-1-1 Concept and Definitions of Social Capital 11
2-1-1-2 Sources and Dimensions of Social Capital 14
2-1-1-3 Customer Social Capital 17
2-1-2 Resource-Based View (RBV) 19
2-1-2-1 Concept and Definitions of Resource-Based View 19
2-1-2-2 Evolution of Resource-Based View 22
2-1-3 Dynamic Capability 22
2-1-3-1 Strategic Evolution and Definitions of Dynamic Capability 23
2-1-3-2 Dimensions of Dynamic Capability 25
2-1-4 Absorptive Capacity 28
2-1-4-1 Concept and Definitions of Absorptive Capacity 29
2-1-4-2 Dimensions and Elements of Absorptive Capacity 32
2-1-5 Market Orientation 35
2-1-5-1 Concept of Market Orientation 35
2-1-5-2 Definitions and Dimensions of Market Orientation 36
2-1-5-3 Combination of Absorptive Capacity and Market Orientation Conceptualized as Market Knowledge Competence (MKC) 38
2-1-5-4 Definitions of Market Knowledge Competence 40
2-1-6 Organizational Competence 43
2-1-6-1 Reconfiguration Capability 44
2-1-6-2 Technological Capability 45
2-1-7 Product Competitive Advantage 48
2-1-7-1 Concept of Product Competitive Advantage 48
2-1-7-2 Definitions of Product Competitive Advantage 49
2-1-8 Path Dependence 50
2-1-9 Summary 51
2-2 INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG RESEARCH CONSTRUCTS 53
2-2-1 Interrelationship between Social Capital and Absorptive Capacity 54
2-2-2 Interrelationship between Social Capital and Organizational Competence 56
2-2-3 Interrelationship between Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Competence 59
2-2-3-1 Impact of Absorptive Capacity on Organizational Competence 59
2-2-3-2 Impact of Organizational Competence on Absorptive Capacity 61
2-2-4 Interrelationship between Absorptive Capacity and Competitive Advantage63
2-2-5 Interrelationship between Organization Competence and Competitive Advantage 65
2-2-6 Interrelationship between Dynamic Capability and Competitive Advantage 66
2-2-7 Interrelationships between Firm Age, Firm Size, Technology Sources, Industry Type, Product Categorization, Respondent Position and Research Variables 67
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 70
3-1 THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND CONCEPTUAL MODEL 70
3-2 CONSTRUCT MEASUREMENT 73
3-2-1 Social Capital 73
3-2-2 Absorptive Capacity 75
3-2-3 Organizational Competence 79
3-2-4 Product Competitive Advantage 81
3-2-5 Profile of firm and Respondent 82
3-3 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 83
3-4 SAMPLING PLAN 84
3-5 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 85
3-5-1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 85
3-5-2 Purification and Reliability of the Measurement Variables 85
3-5-3 Analysis of Relationships between Research Variables 85
CHAPTER 4 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY TESTS 87
4-1 INTRODUCTION 87
4-2 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS 87
4-2-1 Survey Frequency and Response Rates 87
4-2-2 Sample Characteristics of Firms and Respondents 89
4-2-3 Measurement Results for Relevant Research Variables 90
4-3 RELIABILITY TESTS 94
4-3-1 Social Capital 95
4-3-2 Absorptive Capacity 96
4-3-3 Organizational Competence 98
4-3-4 Product Competitive Advantage 100
4-4 STASTICS DATA ANALYSIS 101
4-5 CORRELATION ANALYSIS 102
4-6 ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL 104
4-7 REGRESSION ANALYSIS AMONG RESEARCH CONSTRUCTS 109
4-7-1 Regression Analysis from Social Capital to Absorptive Capacity 109
4-7-2 Regression Analysis from Social Capital to Organizational Competence 111
4-7-3 Regression Analysis from Absorptive Capacity to Organizational Competence 112
4-7-4 Regression Analysis from Organizational Competence to Absorptive Capacity 114
4-7-5 Regression Analysis from Absorptive Capacity or/and Organizational Competence to Product Competitive Advantage 115
4-8 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DIMENSIONAL SCALE (MDS) 118
4-8-1 MDS between Firm Age and All Research Variables 118
4-8-2 MDS between Firm Size and All Research Variables 120
4-8-3 MDS between Industry Type and All Research Variables 122
4-8-4 MDS between Respondent Position and All Research Variables 124
4-9 TEST RESULTS OF INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T TEST, ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE 126
4-9-1 Variance Analysis of Different Firm Sizes to All Research Variables 127
4-9-2 Variance Analysis of Different Industries to All Research Variables 128
4-9-3 Variance Analysis of Different Firm Size to All Research Variables 129
4-9-4 Variance Analysis of Different Technology Sources to All Research Variables 130
4-9-5 Variance Analysis of Different Product Types to All Research Variables 132
4-9-6 Variance Analysis of Different Respondent Positions to All Research Variables 133
CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 136
5-1 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS 136
5-2 FUTURE RESEARCH AND SUGGESTIONS 140
APPENDIX A REFERENCES 142
APPENDIX B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 152
1.Ansoff, H. I. (1965). Corporate Strategy, McGraw Hill, New York.
2.Arbuckle, J. L., & Wothke, W. (1999). Amos 4.0 User’s Guide, IL: SmallWaters Corporation press.
3.Barney, J. B. (1986). Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck and business dtrategy. Management Science, 32(10), 1231-1241.
4.Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
5.Barney, J. B., & Hansen, M. H. (1994). Trustworthiness as a source of competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue, 15, 175-190.
6.Barr, A. M. (2002). The functional diversity and spillover effects of social capital. Journal of African Economies, 11(1), 90-113.
7.Blyler, M., & Coff, R. W. (2003). Dynamic capabilities, social capital, and rent appropriation: Ties that split pies. Strategic Management Journal, 24(7), 677-686.
8.Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital, In J.G. Richardson (Ed.). Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, 241-258, NY: Greenwood.
9.Branzei, O., & Vertinsky, I. (2006). Strategic pathways to product innovation capabilities in SMEs. Journal of Business Venturing, 21, 75- 105.
10.Burt, R. (1992). Structural Holes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
11.Burt, R. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative ScienceQuarterly, 42(2), 339-365.
12.Calantone, R., & Copper, R. (1981). A discriminant model for identifying scenarios: Prospects for success. Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 48-60.
13.Chen, S. H. (2002). Strategic choice model for technology alliance: An empirical study of the semiconductor industry in Taiwan, doctoral dissertation, Institute of Business Administration, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan.
14.Clark, K. B., & Fujimoto, T. (1991). Product development performance: Strategy, organization, and management in the world auto industry. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
15.Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95-121.
16.Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
17.Cooper, R. G. (1985). Industrial firms' new product strategies. Journal of Business Research, 12(2), 107-121.
18.Cooper, R. G. (1992). The new prod system: The industry experience. Journal of Production Innovation management, 9(2), 113-127.
19.Daft, R. (1983). Organization theory and design. St. Paul, MN: West.
20.Daghfous, A. (2004). Absorptive capacity and the implementation of knowledge-intensive best practices. Advanced Management Journal, 69(2), 21-27.
21.Day, G. S. (1994). The capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 37-52.
22.Day, G. S., & Wensley, R. (1988). Assessing advantage: A framework for diagnosing competitive superiority. Journal of Marketing, 52(2), 1-20.
23.Deeds, D. L., & Hill, C. W. L. (1996). Strategic alliances and the rate of new product development: An empirical study of entrepreneurial biotechnology firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 11, 41-55.
24.Deeds, D. L., Decarolis, D., & Coombs, J. (1999). Dynamic capabilities and new product development in high technology ventures: An empirical analysis of new biotechnology firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 211-229.
25.Dierickx, I., & Cool, K. (1989). Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Management Science, 35, 1504-1511.
26.Drucker, P. (1973). Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York: Harper & Row.
27.Drucker, P. (1998). The future that has already happened. Futurist, 32(8), 16-18.
28.Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (1998). The rational view: Cooperative strategy and resources of inter-organizational competitive advantage. Academy of management view, 23, 660-679.
29.Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21, 1105-1121.
30.Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social capital, civil society and development. Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7-20.
31.Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implication for strategy formulation. California Management Review, 33(3), 114-136.
32.Grant, R. M. (1996a). Prospering in dynamically competitive environments: Organizational capability as knowledge integration. Organization Science, 7(4), 375-387.
33.Grant, R. M. (1996b). Towards a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue, 17, 109-122.
34.Gulati, R. M., Nohria, N., & Zaheer, A. (2000). Strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 21, Special Issue, 203-215.
35.Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (2000). Knowledge management social dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel. MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall, 2000, 42(1), 71-80.
36.Heeley, M. (1997). Appropriating rents from external knowledge: The impact of absorptive capacity on firm sales growth and research productivity. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson Park, MA: Babson College.
37.Helfat, C. E. (1997). Know-how and asset complementarity and dynamic capability accumulation: the case of R&D. Strategic Management Journal, 18(5), 339-360.
38.Henderson, R., & Cockburn, I. M. (1994). Measuring competence? Exploring firm effects in pharmaceutical research. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue, 15, 63-84.
39.Hill, W. L., & Jones, G. R. (1995). Strategic Management Theory, Boston: Ho-Hugoton Mifflin Company press.
40.Hill, C. W. L., & Matusik, S. F. (1998). The utilization of contingent work, knowledge creation, and competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23, 4-19.
41.Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2003). Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. South-Western College Publishing. 5th ed.
42.Hofer, C. W., & Schendel, D. (1978). Strategy formulation: Analytical concepts, St. Paul: Mn West Publishing.
43.Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literature. Organization Science, 2(1), 88-115.
44.Hunt, S. D., & Morgan, R. M. (1995). The comparative advantage theory of competition. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 1-15.
45.Isobe, T., Makino, S., & Montgomery, D. B. (2003). Performance impact of technological assets and reconfiguration capabilities: The case of small manufacturing firms in Japan. Social Science Research Network, April 2003.
46.Itami, H., & Roehl, T. W. (1987). Mobilizing invisible assets. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
47.Jantunen, A. (2005). Knowledge-processing capabilities and innovative performance: an empirical study. European Journal of Innovation Management, 8(3), 336-349.
48.Jaworski, B. J., & Kohli, A. K. (1993). Market orientation: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 57(July), 53-70.
49.Jayachandran, S., Hewett, K., & Kaufman, P. (2004). Customer response capability in a sense and respond era: The role of customer knowledge process. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(3), 219-233.
50.Jones, G. K., Lanctot, Jr. A., & Teegen, H. J. (2000). Determinants and performance impacts of external technology acquisition. Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 255-283.
51.Joreskog, K., & Sorbom, D. (1993). Structural Equation Modeling with the SIMPLIS Command Language, Chicago: Scientific Software International press.
52.Kale, P., Singh, H., & Perlmutter, H. (2000). Learning and protection of proprietary assets in strategic alliances: Building relational capital. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 217-237.
53.Kim, L. (1997). Imitation to innovation: The dynamics of Korea technological learning. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
54.Kogut, B. (1988). Joint ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Strategic Management Journal, 9(4), 319-332.
55.Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3, 383-397.
56.Kohli, A. K. & Jaworski, B. J. (1990). Market orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 1-18.
57.Kohli, A. K., Jaworski, B. J., & Kumar, A. (1993). MARKOR: A measure of market orientation. Journal of Marketing Research, 30, 467-477.
58.Kotler, P., & Turner, R. (1989). Marketing Management. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall press.
59.LaBahn, D. W., & Krapfel, R. (1999). Early supplier involvement in customer new product development: A contingency model of component supplier intention. Journal of Business Research, 47, 173-190.
60.Lado, A. A., & Wilson, M. C. (1994). Human resource systems and sustained competitive advantage: A competency-based perspective. Academy of Management Review, 19 (4), 699-727.
61.Lane, P. J., & Lubatkin, M. (1998). Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning, Strategic Management Journal, 19, 461-477.
62.Larson, A. (1992). Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: A study of the governance of exchange relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(March),76–104.
63.Leana, C. R., & Van Buren, H. J. V. (1999). Organizational social capital and employment practices. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 538-555.
64.Leonard-Barton, D. (1992). Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development. Strategic Management Journal, 13(Special), 111-125.
65.Leonard-Barton, D. (1995). Wellsprings of knowledge: Building and sustaining the source of innovation, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
66.Levin, R .C., & Reiss, P. C. (1988). Cost-reducing and demand-creating R&D with spillovers. The Rand Journal of Economics, 19(4), 538-555.
67.Levitt, B., & March, J. G. (1988). Organizational learning. In B. Bacharaeh (ed.). Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 319-340.
68.Li, T., & Calantone, R. J. (1998). The impact of market knowledge competence on new product advantage: Conceptualization and empirical examination. Journal of Marketing, 62(4), 13-29.
69.Li, T., & Cavusgil, S. T. (1999). Measuring the dimensions of market knowledge competence in new product development. European Journal of Innovation Management, 2(3), 129-148.
70.Li, X. (1994). The impact of market-oriented strategy on competitiveness in product innovation in the United States software industry. Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, USA.
71.Lorenzoni, G., & Lipparini, A. (1999). The leveraging of interfirm relationships as a distinctive organizational capability: A longitudinal study. Strategic Management Journal, 20(4), 317-338.
72.Lubit, R. (2001). Tacit knowledge and knowledge management: The keys to sustainable competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 29, 164-178.
73.Lukas, B. A., & Ferrell, O. C. (2000). The effect of market orientation on product innovation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 239-247.
74.March, J. (1991). Exploitation and exploration in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87.
75.McGrath, M. E. (2001). Product strategy for high-technology companies, McGraw-Hill. 2nd Ed.
76.Menguc, B., & Auh, S. (2006). Creating a firm-level dynamic capability through capitalizing on market orientation and innovativeness. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(1), 63-73.
77.Miller, D., & Shamsie, J. (1996). The resource-based view of the firm in two environments: the Hollywood film studios from 1936 to 1965. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 519-543.
78.Moorman, C., & Miner, A. S. (1997). The impact of organizational memory on new product performance and creativity. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(1), 91-106.
79.Moran, P., & Galunic, C. (1998). Harnessing social capital for productive resource exchange. Paper presented at Academy of Management Conference, San Diego, CA.
80.Narayanan, V. K. (2004). Managing technology and innovation for competitive advantage. 1st ed. Kansas: Prentice-Hall Inc press.
81.Narver, J. C., & Slater, S. F. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 20-35.
82.Nelson, R. R. (1991). Why do firms differ, and how does it matter? Strategic Management Journal, Special Issue, 12, 61-74.
83.Nicholls-Nixon, C. L. (1995). Responding to technological change! Why some firms do and others die? The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 6(1), 1-16.
84.Nieto, M., & Quevedo, P. (2005). Absorptive capacity, technological opportunity, knowledge spillovers and innovative effort. Technovation, 25, 1141–1157.
85.Nonaka, I. (1991). The knowledge-creating company. Harvard Business Review (November- December, 1991), 96-104.
86.Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14-38.
87.Pavlou, P. A. (2004). IT-enabled dynamic capabilities in new product development: Building a competitive advantage in turbulent environments. Doctoral dissertation, Business Administration, University of Southern California, CA..
88.Palezzato, P. (2000). Learning by using semiconductor manufacturing: The role of local information and problem solving capabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, University of Southern California, Berkeley, CA.
89.Penrose, E. T. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
90.Peteraf, M. A. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3), 179-191.
91.Pisano, G. (1994). Knowledge, integration, and the locus of learning: An empirical analysis of process development. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 85-100.
92.Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1-24.
93.Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 116-145.
94.Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3), 79-91.
95.Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. K. (2000). Co-opting customer competence. Harvard Business Review, 78 (1).
96.Putnam, R. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic tradition in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
97.Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling alone: America declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6(1), 65-78.
98.Putnam, R. (1995). Tuning in, tuning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. Political Science and Politics, 28(4), 664-683.
99.Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
100.Riemer, K. (2004, June). The role of social capital in managing relationships with ecommerce suppliers. Paper presented at the 17th Bled eCommerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia.
101.Rindfleisch, A., & Moorman, C. (2001). The acquisition and utilization of information in new product alliances: A strength-of-ties perspective. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 1-18.
102.Ring, P. S., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1994). Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 19 (1), 90-118.
103.Sandvik, I. L., & Sandvik, K. (2003). The impact of market orientation on product innovativeness and business performance. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20, 355-376.
104.Sandy, D. J. (1999). Pie-expansion efforts: Collaboration process in buyer-supplier relationship. Journal of Marketing Research, Nov, 461-47.
105.Santos-Vijande, M. L., Sanzo-Pe´rez, M. J., A´lvarez-Gonza´lez, L. I., & Va´zquez-Casielles, R. (2005). Organizational learning and market orientation: Interface and effects on performance, Industrial Marketing Management, 34, 187-202.
106.Selznick, P. (1957). Leadership in Administration: A sociological Interpretation. New York: Harper & Row press.
107.Shan, W., Walker, G., & Kogut, B. (1994). Inter-firm cooperation and startup innovation in the biotechnology industry. Strategic Management Journal, 15(5), 387-394.
108.Shenkar, O., & Li, J. (1999). Knowledge search in international cooperative ventures. Organization Science, 10(2), 134-143.
109.Sinkula, J. M. (1994). Market information processing and organizational learning. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 35-45.
110.Slater, S. F. (1996). The challenge of sustaining competitive advantage. Industrial Marketing Management, 25(1), 79- 86.
111.Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (1994). Does competitive environment moderate the market orientation-performance relationship? Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 46- 55.
112.Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (1995). Market orientation and learning organization. Journal of Marketing, 59(3), 63-74.
113.Song, M., & Montoya-Weiss, M. M. (2001). The effects of perceived technological uncertainty on Japanese new product development. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 61-80.
114.Song, X. M., & Parry, M. E. (1996). What separates Japanese new product winners from losers. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 13, 422-439.
115.Song, X. M., & Parry, M. E. (1997). The determinants of Japanese new product success. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(Feb), 64-76.
116.Souder, W. E., Sherman, J. D., & Davies-Cooper, R. (1998). Environmental uncertainty, organizational integration, and new product development effectiveness: A test of contingency. J. Product Innovation Management, 15, 520-533.
117.Spender, J. C. (1996). .Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue, 17, 45-62.
118.Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: An empirical study of intra-firm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464-476.
119.Walker, G., Kogut, B., & Shan, W. (1997). Social capital, structural holes and the formation of an industry network. Organization Science, 8(2), 109-125.
120.Teece, D. J., & Pisano, G. (1994). The dynamic capabilities of firms: An introduction, Ind., and Corp. Change, 3(3), 537-556.
121.Teece, D. J.,. Pisano, G. P., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533.
122.Tsai, H. J. (2003). The moderating effects of social capital and organizational operation mode on intellectual capital and knowledge management. Master’s Thesis, Dept of Business Administration, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
123.Tsai, L. L. (2000). Organization learning and social network market orientation: The role of resource-based view strategy in gaining dynamic capabilities advantage. Doctoral dissertation, Graduate School of Management, I-Shou University, Taiwan.
124.Tsai, W. (2002). Social structure of competition within a multiunit organization: Coordination, competition, and intraorganizational knowledge sharing. Organization Science, 13(2), 179-190.
125.Tyler, B. B. (2001). The complementarity of cooperative and technological competencies: A resource based perspective. J. Engineering and Technology Management, 18, 1-27.
126.Uche Ujari, P. (2002). Firm strategy and innovation: A contingent view of the impact of technology strategy, firm-level absorptive capacity and slack resources on technological innovation, Doctoral dissertation, Benedictine University.
127.Upadhyayula, R. S., & Kumar, R. (2004, June). Social capital as an antecedent of absorptive capacity of firms. Paper presented at DRUID Summer Conference 2004, Theme F: Networks, Clusters and other inter-firm relations as Vehicles for Knowledge Building and Transfer, Elsinore, Denmark.
128.Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 35-67.
129.Van den Bosch, F. A.J., Volberda, H. W., & de Boer, M. (1999). Coevolution of firm absorptive capacity and knowledge environment: Organizational forms and combinative capabilities. Organization Science, 10(5), 551-568.
130.Verhees, F., & Meulenberg, M. (2004). Market orientation, innovativeness, product innovation and performance in small firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(2), 134-154.
131.Von Hippel, E. (1988). The Sources of Innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.
132.Walter, A. (2003). Relationship-specific factors influencing supplier involvement in customer new product development. Journal of Business Research, 56, 721-733.
133.Welsch, H., Liao, J., & Stoica, M. (2003). Absorptive capacity and firm responsiveness: An empirical investigation of growth-oriented firms, Proceedings of 2nd USASBE/SBIDA Conference, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice: Fall, 2003 issue, 1-19.
134.Wernefelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171-180.
135.Wong, S. (2005). Inter-organizational network and firm performance: The case of the bicycle industry in Taiwan. Asian Business & Management, 4, 67–91.
136.Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. J.(2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisition and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6), 587-613.
137.Yang, J. (2005). Knowledge integration and innovation: Securing new product advantage in high technology industry. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 16, 121-135.
138.Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185-203.
139.Zander, U., & Kogut, B. (1995). Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: An empirical test. Organization Science, 6(1), 76-91.