||The Influences of Team Heterogeneity, Organizational Slack, Strategy Orientation, and Innovation on New Product Development Projects’ Performance
||Department of Business Administration
NPD project performance
本研究的母體是以中華徵信所所公佈的5000 大企業為主要調查對象。採取分層隨機抽樣，分為五層以亂數表選取之，每層抽取140家公司，共計發放700 份問卷，問卷詢問對象為公司之新產品開發相關人員及專案負責人或主管，並以公司為單位一家廠商寄出一份樣本。回收之有效問卷為118份，問卷之回收率為16.8%。
The growth and development of a firm depend on its ability to introduce new products over time. Product development teams provide an excellent setting in which to test the relationship of demographic characteristics of cohorts within a population and their performance. According to organization theory, slack may be especially helpful to maintain performance and ensure survival during the turbulent environment. Under the resourced-based view, firms seek for the optimal utilization of resources that most often mirror the capability needed for the introduction of product innovations. Besides, NPD projects vary greatly in their degree of newness from the perspective of the developing firm. Although the new product development is worth discussing, little has been done in the literature in examining the relationships among these variables, and the performance of new product development from a viewpoint of a project level. Therefore, through extensive literature review this study providing an integrative research framework to identify the key determinants and to examine the relationships among these determinants and the performance of NPD project. Hypotheses were proposed and then examined through an empirical study.
A random stratified sampling method was used to choose 140 firms, listed as top 5,000 firms of Taiwan in the China Credit Information Service Incorporation, in each of the five levels. From the 700 mailed questionnaire mailed in the study, 118 completed, usable questionnaires were collected, yielding a response rate of 16.8%.
According to the results of the regression analyses, the major findings of this study include: First, there is a curvilinear, inverted U-shaped relationship between team heterogeneity and project performance. Secondly, the impact on project performance is partially supported with respect to organizational slack, strongly supported with respect to strategy orientation, and supported with respect to innovativeness. Thirdly, the innovativeness has the moderating effects with the linkage of market-orientation and project performance of NPD.
摘 要 IV
誌 謝 V
Table of Contents VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures IX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Research Objectives 5
1.3 Structure of the Research 6
1.4 Research Procedure 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review and Hypotheses 8
2.1 NPD Project Performance 8
2.2 Team Heterogeneity 13
2.3 Organizational Slack 20
2.4 Strategy Orientation 23
2.5 Innovativeness 28
2.3 Organizational Slack 32
2.4 Strategy Orientation 35
2.5 Innovativeness 40
Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology 43
3.1 Research Framework 44
3.2 Research Hypotheses 45
3.3 Construct Measurement 46
3.3.1 Team Heterogeneity 46
3.3.2 Organizational slacks 49
3.3.3 Strategy orientation 50
3.3.4 Innovativeness 52
3.3.5 Project performance 54
3.3.6 Control Variables 55
3.4 Data Collection and Sampling 56
3.5 Returned Questionnaire and Characteristics of Respondents. 58
3.5.1 Characteristics of Respondents 58
3.5.2 Non-response Bias 59
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure 60
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 60
3.6.2 Factor Analysis 60
3.6.3 Item-to-total Correlation 60
3.6.4 Internal Consistency Analysis (Cronbach’s alpha) 61
3.6.5 Correlation Analysis 61
3.6.6 Multiple Regression Analysis and Moderated Hierarchical Regression Analysis 61
Chapter 4 Analysis and Results 63
4.1 Reliability Test 63
4.2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis 68
4.3 Regression Results 70
4.3.1 Regression Analysis for the Relationship between Team Heterogeneity and NPD Project Performance. 70
4.3.2 Regression Analysis for the Relationship between Organizational Slack and NPD Project Performance. 72
4.3.3 Regression Analysis for the Relationship between Strategy Orientation and NPD Project Performance. 72
4.3.4 Regression Analysis for the Relationship between Innovativeness and NPD Project Performance. 73
4.3.5 The Moderating Effect of Innovativeness between Strategy Orientation and NPD Project Performance 73
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Suggestions 75
5.1 Research Result 75
5.2 Discussion and Implications 77
5.3 Limitation of This Research 79
Appendix Survey Questionnaire 86
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