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系統識別號 U0026-0812200912041928
論文名稱(中文) 衝動性、酒精效果預期對酒精使用行為的影響:比較男女大學生的差異性
論文名稱(英文) Impulsivity and Expectancy in Risk for Alcohol Use:Comparing Male and Female College Students
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 傅安婷
研究生(英文) An-Ting Fu
學號 s8692405
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 口試委員-程炳林
召集委員-程千芳
指導教授-柯慧貞
中文關鍵字 衝動性  性別  飲酒相關問題  飲酒行為  酒精效果預期  Acquired Preparedness Model 
英文關鍵字 Alcohol Use  Alcohol Related Problems  Acquired Preparedness Model  Alcohol Outcome Expectancy  Impulsivity  Gender 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景 國內大學生相關的飲酒行為調查缺乏,然飲酒衍生的相關問題有逐年增加的傾向,實有必要針對此狀況進行瞭解。近來整合性模式:Acquired Preparedness Model(APM),被提倡與驗證,模式中強調衝動性性格特質影響學習(酒精效果預期)歷程,進而影響之後的行為表現。但過去研究中仍有些議題有待釐清,包括:1. 負向效果預期的角色。2. 性別角色的結果仍不一致。3. 不同文化背景的適用性。故本研究擬藉APM模式對台灣大學生飲酒行為進行瞭解,並比較男、女在此模式的差異性。

研究目的 本研究的目的為以Acquired Preparedness 模式(APM)為基礎,探討大學生酒精使用行為,同時檢驗男女大學生在APM模式的差異性。

研究方法 (1)受試者:在91年,以南部大專院校學生為母群體,依學院、學制分層,再以叢集抽樣法抽取系級,共抽出5,137人,其中,4,332名參與研究(回收率84.33%);於92年進行追蹤,共追蹤到1,377(追蹤率38.42%)。(2)研究工具:同意書及個人資料表、簡式衝動性量表、酒精效果預期量表、中文版最近三個月飲酒量與飲酒頻率問卷、飲酒問題問卷等量表。(3)研究程序:91年11月至12月間對抽樣學生進行第一階問卷施測,於92年11月至12月間,進行追蹤問卷施測。施測前皆強調資料保密性,資料分析後給予參與研究同學結果回饋、衛教單及紀念小禮物。 (4)資料處理:由描述性統計瞭解樣本特性。利用結構方程模式分析男性與女性大學生APM模式適合度,再以多樣本結構方程模式驗證男、女大學生APM模式中結構模式的差異性。

研究結果 分析無遺漏值(完整填答)之1,122有效問卷,其中男性為438人、女性684人。研究中,模式具有尚理想的整體適配度。結果顯示APM模式分別可以解釋男、女大學生,16%與11%的飲酒行為、25%與30%的飲酒問題;在男大學生中,正向酒精效果預期中介衝動性到飲酒行為;負向酒精效果預期的中介角色不存在,但其對飲酒行為有直接效果、飲酒行為對飲酒問題也具有直接效果;在女大學生中,正向酒精效果預期可中介衝動性到飲酒行為,正向酒精效果預期同時也中介衝動性到飲酒問題,衝動性同時對飲酒行為與飲酒問題具有直接效果,負向酒精效果預期的中介角色不存在,但其對飲酒行為有直接效果,而飲酒行為對飲酒問題也具有直接效果。此外,男、女模式在Γ矩陣的恆等性成立,但在B矩陣有差異,其中,男性正向酒精效果預期對飲酒行為的正向效果,與負向酒精效果預期對飲酒行為的負向效果皆大於女性。

結論與建議 本研究採用縱貫式研究設計,結果支持APM適用於解釋男、女大學生飲酒行為。未來在應用上,無論男、女性,酒精效果預期皆為重要的介入因素,且比起女性,正負向酒精效果預期對男性飲酒行為的效果更大,應用上可針對學生加強宣導飲酒的傷害性與潛在危險性,對酒精正向效果的預期部分,進行矯正與發展替代該效果的活動,避免飲酒傷害的產生。此外,在女性部分,衝動性對飲酒行為與問題具直接影響,介入上需加入衝動控制、衝動管理等相關配套課程,藉以有效降低飲酒行為與問題。

英文摘要 Objective: This was a longitudinal study designed to examine the acquired preparedness model in both male and female college students in Taiwan. The acquired preparedness model described the impulsivity traits influence the alcohol outcome expectancy and predict the alcohol use behaviors. Alcohol outcome expectancy was a mediator between impulsivity traits and alcohol use.

Method: 3,584 students were included and impulsivity traits were assessed in 2002. In 2003, 1,377 were traced and self-reported alcohol outcome expectancy, drinking behavior, and alcohol related problems were assessed. A total of 1,122 valid participants in the final analysis (male=438, female=684). We analyzed the data separately by gender. Structural Equation Model was used.

Results: Male students have higher social enhancement expectancy, less negative outcome expectancies, more alcohol consumption and more alcohol related problems than their female counterparts. The positive, not negative, outcome expectancy for alcohol mediated impulsivity’s effect on alcohol use as well as alcohol use had a direct effect on alcohol related problems in males and females. Moreover, impulsivity did not influence the negative outcome expectancies in both groups.

Conclusions: This longitudinal data supported the acquired preparedness model for the risk in alcohol use among Chinese college students, providing a reference for designing prevention and intervention strategies guided towards both genders.

論文目次 第一章 緒論………………………………………………………1
第一節、大學生飲酒問題…………………………………………1
壹、國內酒精使用現況……………………………………………1
貳、大學生酒精使用現況…………………………………………2
參、大學生飲酒相關問題…………………………………………3
第二節、大學生飲酒的心理社會理論模式………………………3
第三節、Acquired Preparedness模式理論與研究……………5
壹、衝動性與大學生飲酒行為……………………………………5
貳、酒精效果預期與大學生酒精使用……………………………8
參、衝動性、酒精效果預期與酒精使用關係……………………12
第四節、研究目的與假設…………………………………………14
壹、研究目的………………………………………………………14
貳、研究假設………………………………………………………15

第二章 研究方法…………………………………………………16
第一節、研究架構…………………………………………………16
第二節、研究對象…………………………………………………17
第三節、研究工具…………………………………………………17
壹、同意書及基本資料表…………………………………………18
貳、簡式衝動性量表………………………………………………18
參、酒精效果預期量表……………………………………………18
肆、中文版最近三個月飲酒量與飲酒頻率問卷.……………… 19
伍、飲酒問題問卷…………………………………………………20
第四節、研究程序 ……………………………………………… 20
第五節、資料處理 ……………………………………………… 21
壹、基本資料分析…………………………………………………21
貳、變項相關分析…………………………………………………21
參、驗證男女大學生的Acquired Preparedness模式…………21

第三章 研究結果…………………………………………………24
第一節、樣本之基本資料分析...……………………………… 24
第二節、衝動性、酒精效果預期與酒精使用的相關性 ……… 24
男大學生的相關分析………………………………………………24
女大學生的相關分析………………………………………………25
第三節、驗證男女大學生的Acquired Preparedness模式……25
壹、男大學生Acquired Preparedness模式分析………………26
貳、女大學生Acquired Preparedness模式分析………………35
參、男女大學生Acquired Preparedness模式比較……………45

第四章 討論………………………………………………………47
第一節、本研究之主要發現解釋…………………………………47
壹、樣本基本資料分析探討………………………………………47
貳、衝動性、酒精效果預期與飲酒行為的關係探討……………47
第二節、本研究之限制與未來研究方向…………………………52
壹、本研究之限制…………………………………………………52
貳、未來研究方向…………………………………………………53
第三節、本研究之理論貢獻與應用價值…………………………54
壹、理論貢獻性……………………………………………………54
貳、應用價值………………………………………………………54

第五章 參考文獻…………………………………………………56

附錄…………………………………………………………………96
附錄一 同意書…………………………………………………… 96
附錄二 基本資料表……………………………………………… 97
附錄三 簡式衝動性量表………………………………………… 101
附錄四 酒精效果預期量表……………………………………… 102
附錄五 飲酒行為量表…………………………………………… 103
附錄六 飲酒問題量表…………………………………………… 104
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