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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911561153
論文名稱(中文) 微囊藻毒素在淨水處理程序流佈之研究
論文名稱(英文) Occurrence of Microcystins in Water Treatment Processes
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 蘇郁婷
研究生(英文) Yu-Ting Su
學號 p5693114
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 131頁
口試委員 口試委員-曾怡禎
口試委員-蔣本基
口試委員-張怡怡
指導教授-林財富
口試委員-葉宣顯
中文關鍵字 微囊藻  藍綠細菌  澄清湖  石門淨水場  牡丹水庫  太湖  微囊藻毒素 
英文關鍵字 Cyanobacteria  Chen-Chin Lake  Shi-Men water treatment plant  Tai Lake  Mu-Dan reservoir  microcysis spp.  microcystin 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究以台灣地區三個代表性處理程序之淨水場為對象,包括含傳統淨水程序(石門淨水場)、傳統淨水程序含浮除與慢濾(太湖淨水場)、及高級淨水處理(澄清湖淨水場),進行水源及處理流程監測與分析。探討其微囊藻及毒素流佈狀況、環境因子影響情形、以及藻類毒素去除效能比較。研究中並對金門太湖水庫進行密集採樣,以了解其微囊藻及毒素分佈情況,以供自來水處理技術及管制應用之參考。
研究中對於五種微囊藻毒素進行HPLC及LC/MS定性與定量,並製備檢量線。研究結果發現,藻類計數結果部份水庫表水樣品微囊藻數及葉綠素-a超過世界衛生組織警戒建議值,但是毒素濃度並未超過世界衛生組織之指引值。由於淨水場取水口一般較深,淨水場原水中微囊藻數及毒素濃度通常比同一水庫表水略低。牡丹長期監測結果顯示,主要藻類代謝物如microcystins毒素及2-MIB臭味物質濃度等,隨著季節有變化之趨勢,在較溫暖之季節,其濃度值也相對較高。2-MIB、microcystins毒素及十餘種水質參數迴歸分析結果顯示,微囊藻毒素濃度與水溫具有明顯的相關性。澄清湖因為豪雨、清除底泥影響,濁度值非常高,微囊藻毒素約在110 ng/L之下。
太湖水源短期密集採樣分析結果,太湖取水口代表性藻臭物質2-MIB濃度日變化僅約20%以內;相對而言,微囊藻毒素則明顯隨著時間變化有高達數倍的差距。金門太湖藻華地區發生地點與風向有密切關係。部分藻華MC-LR濃度高於世界衛生組織飲用水建議值1 μg/L。進行胞外分析,發現胞外藻毒濃度,約11%-35 %之間,顯示出大部分的微囊藻毒素是存在於細胞體內,微囊藻毒素與微囊藻數目和葉綠素-a成顯著性正相關。
淨水程序調查結果顯示。石門淨水場毒素平均去除效果均約在66%左右,太湖淨水場去除效率範圍約在54%到84%間,澄清湖淨水場由於2005年毒素濃度相當低,因此約較2004年90%以上之去除果而言偏低,僅在85 %左右。石門淨水場各淨水流程對於微囊藻毒素均有去除效果,但是仍以加氯後到混凝沉澱前去除效果最為明顯,應該是混凝的過程中去除顆粒狀之藻體及其藻體內所含之毒素,以及氯與溶解性毒素反應而降低。太湖淨水場同時含有浮除及慢濾的處理單元,浮除處理程序先將微囊藻藻體去除,溶解性的藻類毒素在慢砂濾處理程序獲得到較大的去除效果。澄清湖淨水場,2005年去除率雖較低,但清水濃度為全部淨水場濃度值最低的,大部分於20 ng/L之下,6月份及9月份甚至為低於偵測極限。


英文摘要 Microcystins, their associated toxin producers, and a few algal metabolites in three typical drinking water systems were monitored and interpreted for their relationships in this study. Two conventional and one advanced water treatment plants (WTPs) were examined, in which Shi-Men WTP represents typical conventional processes, Tai-Lake WTP represents conventional processes with flotation and slow sand filtration, and Chen-Chin Lake (CCL) WTP represents advanced treatment processes. A liquid chromatography with both photo diode array (PDA) detector and mass spectrometer (MS) was employed for the analysis of five typical microcystins in both source water and process water in the three WTPs.
Long-term monitoring data for the source water of Shi-Men WTP, Mu-Dan reservoir, indicated that the concentrations of microcystins and another algal metabolites, 2-MIB, followed the trend that higher concentrations were present in warmer seasons. Strong correlations among 2-MIB concentration, microcystin concentration, and ambient temperature were found in the water samples collected from the reservoir.
Four intensive water sampling were conduced in Tai-Lake for detecting cyanobacteria, microcysis spp., chlorophyll-a, microcystins and 2-MIB concentrations. Most of the parameters measured varied significantly at different depths and different time, and only 2-MIB concentration remained almost constant. This may imply that 2-MIB was likely to uniformly distribute in the reservoir water. In addition, a good correlation between microcystis spp. and microcystins concentrations was found, indicating that the probable relationship between the toxins and their producers. In a few algal blooms observed in Tai-Lake, the microcystins concentration was as high as near 10 μg/L. The extracellular concentrations of total microcystins were between 11%-35%, suggesting that most of the toxins were cell-bound.
For the removal efficiency of microcystins in the three WTPs, about 66% in average were observed for Shi-Men WTP, 54-84 % were for Tai-Lake WTP, and around 85 to >90 % were for CCLWTP. The processes for particulate removal, including floatation and coagulation-sedimentation, can effectively remove cell-bound microcystins. The slow filtration unit and residual chlorine were the two important processes to remove dissolved microcystins.


論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XII


第一章 前言
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 藻類毒素簡介 4
2-1-1 淡水水體中藍綠藻毒素之分類及來源 5
2-1-2 微囊藻毒素之介紹 8
2-1-3 藍綠藻環境生長條件 12
2-1-3-1個別環境因子對於藍綠藻生長影響 14
2-1-3-2環境中長期觀察藍綠細菌變化 15
2-2 國內外淡水水體中藻類毒素流佈情形 18
2-3 藻類毒素之危害性 20
2-4 淨水場各流程去除效果之比較 22
2-4-1 顆粒性藻毒水處理效果 22
2-4-2 溶解性藻毒水處理效果 23
2-4-3 其他高級淨水程序 25
2-4-4 各項處理程序彙整 27
2-5 國內外分析藻類毒素之比較 29
2-6 台灣淡水水體相關調查 33
第三章 研究材料與方法
3-1 採樣水源及淨水場介紹 36
3-1-1 金門地區地理位址及相關水質資料 38
3-1-2 澄清湖地理位址及相關水質資料 41
3-3-3 牡丹水庫地理位址及相關水質資料 43
3-3-4 採樣頻率與採樣位置 45
3-2 水質分析項目及方法 47
3-3 藻類毒素化學分析方法 48
3-3-1 固相萃取技術(Solid Phase Extraction:SPE) 48
3-3-2 高壓液相層析質譜儀(Liquid Chromatography / Mass
Spectrometry;LC/MS) 51
3-4 其他相關水質分析方法 54
3-4-1 水中土霉味物質分析 54
3-4-2 葉綠素-a分析方法 56
3-4-3 藻類分析方法 57
3-5 資料之解析 60
第四章 研究結果與討論
4-1 藻類毒素之定性與定量 62
4-1-1 停留時間與特徵m/z值 62
4-1-2 微囊藻毒素檢量線之置備 64
4-1-3 方法偵測極限(MDL)之測定 66
4-1-4 品保與品管之規範 68
4-1-5 LC/PDA與LC/MS分析結果討論 71
4-1-5-1 標準品分析結果 71
4-1-5-2 真實樣品分析結果 71
4-2 水庫監測結果與分析 75
4-2-1 牡丹水庫歷次監測結果 76
4-2-2 澄清湖歷次監測結果 79
4-2-3 太湖歷次監測結果 79
4-2-3-1 太湖第一次採樣結果 79
4-2-3-2 太湖第二次及第三次採樣結果 81
4-2-3-3 太湖第四次採樣結果 86
4-2-3-4 太湖藻華研究 89
4-2-3-5 太湖歷次採樣資料解析 93
4-3 各淨水流程比較 98
4-3-1 牡丹石門淨水場淨水流程 99
4-3-2 澄清湖淨水場淨水流程 101
4-3-3 太湖淨水場淨水流程 105
第五章 結論與建議
5-1 結論 111
5-2 建議 112
參考資料 113
作者自述 131

表目錄
表2-1 藍綠藻毒素種類及其產生藻種 6
表2-2 藍綠菌毒素種類之來源及特性 7
表2-3 藻類毒素Microcystins之主要型式 9
表2-4 曾出現藍綠藻藻華調查報告的國家 19
表2-5 去除藍綠菌及其毒素的處理方法 28
表2-6 各型式藻類毒素已被發表之適合的分析方法 30
表2-7 各種微囊藻毒分析方法優缺點比較 32
表2-8 主要水庫優養指標分佈摘要 33
表2-9 主要水庫水質濃度平均分佈摘要(2001~2004.2) 34
表3-1 採樣頻率與採樣位置 46
表3-2 各化學檢驗項目及分析方法 47
表3-3 藻類鏡檢檢驗項目及分析方法 48
表3-4 移動相混合之濃度梯度表 52
表3-5 質譜儀分析參數 52
表3-6 五種藻類毒素之最佳特徵m/z值 52
表4-1 HPLC-UV與LC/MS檢量線參數值 66
表4-2 微囊藻毒素方法偵測極限 67
表4-3 標準品濃度查核分析結果 68
表4-4 環境樣品重複分析結果 69
表4-5 環境樣品添加標準品分析結果 70
表4-6 LC/PDA與LC/MS分析結果積分面積圖 71
表4-7 水庫監測結果 75
表4-8 太湖藻類及代謝物之量測結果(a)9月份(b)11月份 84
表4-9 太湖藻華發生地點與當日風向 89
表4-10 金門太湖藻華地區分析結果 93
表4-11 金門歷次採樣主要水質參數相關係數 95
表4-12三種類型淨水場微囊藻毒素去除率分析表 98

圖目錄
圖2-1 藻類毒素Microcystins之化學結構式 8
圖2-2 微囊藻毒的產毒藻種 11
圖2-3 典型藍綠細菌於水體中移動特性 13
圖2-4 全球淡水水體中發現微囊藻毒素的地區 19
圖3-1 研究整體流程圖 37
圖3-2 金門太湖淨水場流程圖 40
圖3-3 澄清湖淨水場流程圖 42
圖3-4 牡丹水庫石門淨水場流程圖 44
圖3-5 固相萃取技術流程 49
圖4-1 高壓液相層析儀(HPLC)分析五種藻類毒素之層析圖 62
圖4-2 液相層析質譜儀(LC/MS)分析五種藻類毒素之層析圖(TIC) 63
圖4-3 液相層析質譜儀(LC/MS)分析五種藻類毒素之層析圖(SIM) 63
圖4-4 高壓液相層析儀(HPLC-UV)分析Microcystins五種藻類毒素之檢量線 64
圖4-5 液相層析質譜儀(LC/MS)分析LR、RR兩種藻類毒素之檢量線 65
圖4-6 液相層析質譜儀(LC/MS)分析YR、LW、LF三種藻類毒素之檢量線 65
圖4-7 LC/PDA與LC/MS之濃度分析對應圖 73
圖4-8 LC/PDA與LC/MS之濃度相關性圖 74
圖4-9 牡丹水庫取水口之表水藍綠菌、微囊藻、microcystins、2-MIB及葉綠素-a長期監測結果 77
圖4-10 牡丹水庫表水Microcystins濃度與(a)水溫(b)2-MIB濃度在之相關性 78
圖4-11 太湖取水口藻毒及藻臭物質濃度日變化 80
圖4-12 鳳山水場原水中2-MIB濃度短期變化圖 80
圖4-13 九月份太湖取水口不同深度連續採樣(a)微囊藻濃度(b)微囊藻細胞數(c)葉綠素a濃度分佈圖 82
圖4-14 十一月份太湖取水口不同深度連續採樣(a)微囊藻濃度(b)微囊藻細胞數(c)葉綠素a濃度分佈圖 83
圗4-15 太湖11月份(a)microcystins及(b)2-MIB不同深度及時間變化 85
圖4-16 太湖湖水四月份採樣各深度微囊藻濃度變化圖 87
圖4-17 太湖取水口四月份採樣表層(0m)各水質參數深度變化圖 87
圖4-18 太湖取水口四月份採樣中層(2m)各水質參數深度變化圖 88
圖4-19 太湖取水口四月份採樣底層(4m)各水質參數深度變化圖 88
圖4-20 太湖取水口 90
圖4-21 太湖鄰近位置示意圖 90
圖4-22 太湖藻華地區藻相 91
圖4-23 太湖湖水藻華現象 91
圖4-24 金門微囊藻數與微囊藻毒素濃度之相關性 96
圖4-25 金門葉綠素-a與微囊藻毒素濃度之相關性 96
圖4-26 金門微囊藻數與微囊藻毒素濃度對數型之相關性 97
圖4-27 牡丹淨水場各單元微囊藻毒濃度變化圖(平均值與標準差) 100
圖4-28 澄清湖高級淨水場各單元微囊藻毒濃度變化圖(平均值與標準差) 103
圖4-29 澄清湖淨水場單元微囊藻毒及2-MIB濃度變化 104
圖4-30 太湖淨水場各單元微囊藻毒濃度變化圖(平均值與標準差) 107
圖4-31 太湖淨水場2005年8月微囊藻毒、臭味物質及葉綠素-a濃度變化 107
圖4-32 太湖淨水場歷次採樣藻類去除成效圖 108
圖4-33 太湖淨水場歷次採樣毒素及微囊藻去除成效圖 109
圖4-34 太湖淨水場2006年4月微囊藻毒、臭味物質及自由於氯濃度變化 110
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