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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911383406
論文名稱(中文) 品質指標初次合格率在施工上的應用
論文名稱(英文) First Time Pass Ratio, A Quality Measure Applied on Construction
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering (on the job class)
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 林進生
研究生(英文) Cheng-Shing Lin
電子信箱 lincent-lin@iec.com.tw
學號 n6791102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 60頁
口試委員 指導教授-張行道
口試委員-謝孟勳
口試委員-潘南飛
口試委員-黃盈樺
中文關鍵字 ISO  施工進度表  品質計畫書  初次合格率  品質指標  績效指標 
英文關鍵字 quality measure  performance measurement  FTPR  construction progress  ISO  quality plan 
學科別分類
中文摘要 摘 要

  營建工程品質一直為大眾所關心,政府部門為確保公共工程品質,多年來提倡ISO品質管理系統、建立品管工程師制度,推動三級品管等。此等措施增加各種品管文件數量,但施工品質似未隨品質文件數量的增加而改善,相反的,在許多工程案例中,繁雜多樣的品質文件耗時耗工,必須增設品管人員處理文件,而該品管人員,卻與工程品質找不出直接關係。如此品管制度,對工程組織實是沉重的負擔。

  為了確保工程品質,需要有效的衡量品質優劣。雖然三級品質制度包含了品質評鑑與缺失的相關統計,但因為資料繁雜,或主觀因素等,無法呈現簡單且客觀的品質面貌。

  「初次合格率」為工程品質衡量指標,其計算式=檢查項目初次通過數/本期總檢查項目數。此指標資料蒐集容易、品質合格判斷簡單、呈現品質面貌即時、品質項目評比可行,大大簡化三級品管的繁雜。

  本研究並以實例驗證,彙整台灣高鐵橋樑工程施工品質管理相關紀錄文件,分別統計各施工作業,例如鋼筋、模板、混凝土、土方,以及各結構單元,基樁、墩柱、帽樑等,在各時間階段的初次合格率。其所呈現的訊息,可清晰地了解各階段施工品質變化,亦可分辨出各項施工作業或各結構單元,本質上要達成所要求品質標準的難易程度。更具建設性的,由初次合格率數字的高低,可以回饋有利於人力配置的調整、品質檢驗表的調整、分包商能力的評估與篩選、工程預警的察覺、標竿學習、凝聚品質共識及組織競爭優勢的辨識。
英文摘要  Construction quality is always concerned by the public. In order to ensure public work quality, the government has advocated ISO quality management system, set up quality control engineer and promoted three-level quality system for many years. These policies have increased the amount of quality documents but not quality. Moreover, many construction companies are forced to add staffs and spend time on tremendous documents. These actions are not found associated with actual quality.

 To ensure construction quality, it is necessary to measure it. Although including quality appraisal and defect statistics, it is difficult for the three-level quality system to present simple and objective quality feature due to complicated documents and subjective evaluation.

 “First time pass ratio” (FTPR) is a performance measure of construction quality, and is equal to the first time pass number/total inspection number within a period. FTPR is found with the advantages of easy data collection, simple quality judgment, immediate quality feature presentation, etc. FTPR simplifies significantly the complexity of three-level quality system.

 To further verify the FTPR characteristics and advantages, this study searched and collected related construction quality documents of a bridge case project of Taiwan High Speed Rail. FTPR was calculated for various construction items and activities in periods, including rebar, formwork, concrete, earth work, and various physical elements such as piling, pier and pier cap. According to FTPR figures, the quality variations among all construction sections can be seen clearly. Meanwhile, FTPR also helps identify the difficulties in meeting quality requirements for each activity or item. More constructively, FTPR feedback brings many benefits such as manpower allocation, checklist content, subcontractor selection and capacity evaluation, quality warning, benchmarking, common understanding among project organizations.
論文目次 目 錄
摘要...................................i
Abstract.................................ii
誌謝...................................iii
目錄...................................iv
圖目錄..................................vi
表目錄..................................vii
第一章 緒論............................... 1
1.1 研究動機與目的....................... 2
1.2 研究範圍.......................... 2
1.3 研究方法與流程....................... 2
第二章 績效與指標............................ 4
2.1 工程品質.......................... 4
2.2 績效評估.......................... 6
2.2.1 績效評估定義......................6
2.2.2 績效評估目的......................7
2.3 績效指標.......................... 8
第三章 初次合格率應用程序........................ 10
3.1 初次合格率的定義...................... 10
3.2 初次合格率使用步驟..................... 11
3.3 初次合格率所需文件..................... 19
3.3.1 土木工程之品質文件...................20
3.3.2 建築工程之品質文件...................23
3.4 初次合格率的分類統計.................... 24
3.4.1 結構單元及作業.....................24
3.4.2 統計的時機.......................24
3.5 初次合格率對工程專案的功能................. 24
第四章 初次合格率應用實例........................ 27
4.1 應用於橋樑工程....................... 27
4.2 工程分類統計........................ 29
4.2.1 資料蒐集與分類.....................29
4.2.2 初次合格率之計算....................32
4.3 初次合格率之分析...................... 36
4.4 初次合格率回饋之改善措施.................. 39
4.5 初次合格率指標適用性的檢視................‧ 42
第五章 初次合格率使用上的疑義......................45
5.1 品質檢驗文件內容比較...............‧‧‧‧‧ 45
5.2 品質檢驗項目的調整..................... 48
5.3 品質檢驗項目數量的調整................... 50
5.4 不合格的判定.....................‧‧‧ 51
5.5 初次合格率的再細分..................... 51
5.6 初次合格率的標準...................... 52
5.7 初次合格率的權重...................... 52
第六章 結論與建議............................ 53
6.1 結論............................ 53
6.2 建議............................ 55
6.3 未來研究方向........................ 56
參考文獻.................................58

圖目錄
圖2.1平衡計分卡............................. 7
圖3.1 初次合格率使用流程.........................11
圖3.2 P專案綱要進度表..........................13
圖3.3 P專案中階進度表..........................13
圖3.4 材料/設備查驗結果......................... 16
圖3.5 施工/安裝檢驗結果......................... 16
圖3.6 FTPR之變化.............................18
圖3.7 FTPR與現有品管制度之關係......................19
圖3.8 流程為基礎的品質管理系統......................25
圖4.1 品質管理流程............................28
圖4.2 結構斷面圖.............................30
圖4.3 中階施工進度表(2003年) ...................... 29
圖4.4 施工作業品質缺失數量佔總體數量比例.................36
圖4.5 鋼筋初次合格率變化.........................37
圖4.6前置作業初次合格率變化....................... 38
圖4.7基樁初次合格率變化......................... 38
圖4.8大樑初次合格率變化......................... 39
圖4.9 高鐵模式流程為基礎的品質管理系統..................40

表目錄
表1.1 施工績效指標............................1
表2.1 指標種類(Cox et al. 2003) .....................8
表2.2 工程產品與服務之品質項目......................9
表2.3 工程產品與服務之績效指標......................9
表3.1 FTPR使用步驟的比較........................ 12
表3.2 八月份檢驗重點...........................14
表3.3 九月份檢驗重點...........................14
表3.4 整體工程品質檢驗重點........................15
表3.5 八月份初次未通過項目........................15
表3.6九月份初次未通過項目........................ 15
表3.7 八月份FTPR計算...........................17
表3.8 九月份FTPR計算...........................17
表3.9 材料/設備查驗FTPR (%)....................... 17
表3.10 施工/安裝檢驗FTPR (%).......................17
表3.11 承包商施工品質管制工作項目.................... 20
表3.12 主辦單位施工品質管制工作項目................... 21
表3.13 土木工程之品質檢驗文件...................... 22
表3.14 建築工程之品質檢驗文件...................... 23
表3.15 初次合格率資訊彙整........................ 26
表4.1 各結構單元完工統計.........................31
表4.2 結構單元所包含作業之檢驗項目數量..................31
表4.3 品質檢驗表之檢驗內容........................32
表4.4 初次合格率統計(2002/7/1 ~ 2002/9/30) ............... 33
表4.5 整體初次合格率統計.........................34
表5.1 土木工程品質檢驗表檢驗內容比較...................46
表5.2 建築工程品質檢驗表檢驗內容比較...................47
表5.3 工程查核常見的工程品質缺失.....................49
表5.4 國內主要工程品質檢驗表之檢驗項目數量................50
參考文獻 參考文獻
一、英文部份
1. Arditi, D. and Gunaydin, H. M. (1998). “Factors That Affect Process Quality in the Life Cucle of Building Projects.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 194-203.

2. Bassioni, H. A., Price, A. D. F. and Hassan, T. M. (2004). “Performance Measurement in Construction.” Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 42-50.

3. Bubshait, A. A. and Al-Atiq, T. H. (1999). “ISO 9000 Quality Standards in Construction.” Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 41-46.

4. Chang A. S. (1998). “Development of Consultant Performance Measures for Design Projects. “Project Management Journal, Vol. 29, No.2, pp.39-54.

5. Cox, R. F., Issa, R. R. A. and Ahrens, D. (2003). “Management’s Perception of Key Performance Indicators for Construction.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, Vol. 129, No. 2, pp. 142-151.

6. Eccles, R. G.. (1991). “The Performance Measurement Manifesto.” Harvard Business Review, 14(4), pp. 131-137.

7. Gould, F. M. and Joyce, J. A. (2003), Construction Project Management. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

8. Josephson, P. E. and Hammarlund, Y. (1998). “The Causes and Costs of Defects in Construction, A Study of Seven Building Projects.” Automation in Construction, 8, pp. 681-687.

9. Josephson, P. E., Larsson, B. and Li, H. (2002). “Illustrative Benchmarking Rework and Rework Costs in Swedish Construction Industry.” Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 76-83.

10. Kagioglou, M., Cooper, R. and Aouad, G. (2001). “Performance Management in Construction: A Conceptual Framework”, Construction Management and Economics, 19(1), pp. 85-95.

11. Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P. (1996a). “Using the Balance Scorecard to Work.” Harvard Business Review, January-February, pp. 75-85.

12. Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P. (1996b). The Balance Scorecard. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Press.

13. Kartam, S., Ballard, G. and Ibbs, C. W. (1997). “Introducing a New Concept and Approach to Modeling Construction.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 1, pp. 89-97.

14. Love, P. E. D., Smith, J. and Li, H. (1999). “The Propagation of Rework Benchmark Metrics for Construction.” The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 16 Iss. 7, pp. 638.

15. Love, P. E. D., Li, H., Irani, Z. and Faniran, O. (2000), “Total Quality Management and the Learning Organization: a Dialogue for Change in Construction.” Construction Management and Econmics, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 321-331

16. Love, P. E. D. and Smith, J. (2003) “Benchmarking, Benchaction, and Benchlearning: Rework Mitigation in Projects.” Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 147-159.

17. Ramirez, R. R., Alarcon, L. F. C. and Knights, P. (2004) “Benchmarking System for Evaluating Management Practices in the Construction Industry.” Journal of Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 110-117.

18. Simons, R. (2000). Performance Measurement & Control Systems for Implementing Strategy Text & Cases. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

19. Tesoro, F. and Tootson, J. (2000). Implementing Global Performance Measurement Systems – A Cookbook Approach. Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, San Francisco.

20. Yasamis, F., Arditi, D. and Mohammadi, J. (2002). “Assessing Contractor Quality Performance.” Construction Management and Economics, 20(3), pp. 211-223.

二、中文部份
1. 行政院公共工程委員會,公共工程施工品質管理制度,民國八十二年。

2. 行政院公共工程委員會,「公共工程施工品質評鑑作業手冊」,民國八十八年。

3. 行政院公共工程委員會,工程施工查核小組作業辦法,民國九十一年。

4. 行政院公共工程委員會(a),工程施工查核作業參考基準,民國九十二年九月。

5. 行政院公共工程委員會(b),工程品質常見缺失說明,民國九十二年六月。

6. 行政院公共工程委員會(c),公共工程品質查核機制檢討報告,民國九十二年七月。

7. 段賢麟,軍事工程績效評估模式建立之研究,台灣科技大學碩士論文,民國九十年。

8. 許士軍,績效評估之導讀「走向創新時代的組織績效評估」,天下遠見出版股份有限公司,高翠霜譯,杜拉克等著,台北,民國八十九年。

9. 張行道等,建置公共工程施工績效評估機制,行政院公共工程委員會研究報告174,民國九十一年。

10. 鄭進南,高鐵土建工程之品質保證/品質管制(QA/QC), 技師報,No. 408,民國九十三年
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