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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911355178
論文名稱(中文) 母權體系的追尋 ─李歐娜拉.凱靈頓的繪畫研究
論文名稱(英文) Reclaiming the Matriarchy ─A Study of the Paintings by Leonora Carrington
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 藝術研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Art Studies
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 溫芳蘭
研究生(英文) Fang-Lan Wen
電子信箱 deguelasse22@yahoo.com.tw
學號 K4691117
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 159頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉瑞琪
口試委員-傅大為
口試委員-林明澤
中文關鍵字 母權  女性主義  逆反觀視  老女人  母神  白色女神  依朋納  煉金術  塞爾特神話  李歐娜拉.凱靈頓  超現實主義繪畫 
英文關鍵字 Feminism  the reversed gaze  the crone  matriarchy  the Mother Goddess  the White Goddess  Epona  alchemy  Surrealism painting  Celtic myth  Leonora Carrington 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本篇論文主要探討英國超現實女畫家李歐娜拉.凱靈頓的繪畫創作。凱靈頓的藝術素以玄祕的傾向聞名,其聲名建立在回復女神崇拜的信仰上,而其繪畫創作則展露了結合母系神話與煉金術的奇幻光芒,繼而在此中復興了古老的母權世界。本文試圖自凱靈頓早期以馬為母題的畫作、中期以女神崇拜所復興的母權圖像,到晚期以老女人為主體的母神繪畫,推演出凱靈頓以繪畫作為復興母權體系的藝術歷程,具體實踐了藝術家對母系神話的崇敬和信仰。筆者將自女性主義的立場出發,以具體的圖像分析,佐證以女藝術家為中心的自傳資料,來積極建立凱靈頓在藝術史的重要地位,同時剖析其母權圖像對人類世界的建設與貢獻。透過本論文的撰寫,筆者將突顯凱靈頓不凡的藝術成就,藉由分析藝術家早、中、晚期繪畫中遞變的女神形象,來論證凱靈頓的女神繪畫透過反抗父權的扮裝形象、女神崇拜,與以老女人為主體的繪畫三種策略,瓦解了父權體系的建制,同時達成了藝術家對母權體系的傳承與復興。

英文摘要 This paper mainly discusses paintings of the English Surrealist painter Leonora Carrington. Carrington’s art is famous for the tendency of the occult, and her reputation is based on the restoration of Goddess worship. Her paintings reveal a fusion of the matriarchy myth and hermeticism, and magically revive the old matriarchies. This paper will focus on Carrington’s horse paintings in early period, images of Goddess worship in middle period and her crone paintings in the later stage. I will try to deduce that Carrington’s art successfully lives up to Goddess worship religion. Meanwhile, I will also provide Carrington’s autobiographic evidences as supplement to interpret her paintings. From the perspective of feminism, I will set up the importance of Carrington in art history by analyzing visual images by her and demonstrate her contributions to the human world. In analyzing the transformation of the Goddess images in her early, middle and later stage, this paper will highlight Carrington’s extraordinary achievements of subverting the patriarchy in three strategies: the masquerade, the Goddess worship, and the crone image. In using these three tactics, Carrington finally collapses the construction of the patriarchy and attains the restoration of matriarchy in her marvelous surrealist paintings.



論文目次 誌謝 I
摘要 Ⅱ
目錄 IV
中文圖版目錄 V
英文圖版目錄 VIII

緒論 1
第一章 李歐娜拉.凱靈頓早期的超現實主義繪畫 14
第一節 反抗父權的〈自畫像〉 16
第二節 尊崇陰性原則的〈自畫像〉 31
第三節 早期繪畫對母權體系的初步認同 38
第二章 李歐娜拉.凱靈頓中期的超現實主義繪畫 46
第一節 過渡時期中初次誕生的女神形象 51
第二節 女神崇拜作為恢復母權體系的策略 59
第三節 母神所建立的母權世界 70
第三章 李歐娜拉.凱靈頓晚期的超現實主義繪畫 85
第一節 言簡意賅的母神形象 87
第二節 老女人所統治的母權世界 102
第三節 母系傳承的母權世界 110

結論 118
參考文獻 123
附圖 129
參考文獻 一、書籍
(一)中文
Caws、Kuenzl、Raaberg著,林明澤、羅秀芝譯,《超現實主義與女人》,台北:遠流,1995。
Jo Anna Isaak著,陳淑珍譯,《女性笑聲的革命性力量:女性主義與當代藝術》,台北:遠流,2000。
Whitney Chadwick著,李美蓉譯,《女性,藝術與社會》,台北:遠流,1995。
Whitney Chadwick and Isabelle de Courtivror著,許邏灣譯,《愛人,同志:情慾與創作的激盪》,台北:允晨文化。
Sarane Alexandrian著,李長俊譯,《超現實主義的藝術》,台北:大陸,1971。
柳鳴九編,《未來主義、超現實主義、魔幻現實主義》,台北:淑馨,1990。
Carl G. Jung著,龔卓軍譯,《人及其象徵》,台北:立緒,1999。
Robert H. Hopcke著,蔣韜譯,《榮格導讀》,台北:立緒,1997。
羅夫.梅耶著,貓頭鷹編譯小組譯,《藝術名辭與技法辭典》,台北:貓頭鷹,2002。
柏拉圖著,吳錦裳譯,《饗宴》,台北:協志工業,1964。
愛笛絲.赫米爾敦著,宋碧雲譯,《希臘羅馬神話故事》,台北:志文,1991。
波赫斯著,張系國等譯,《波赫斯詩文集》,台北:桂冠,1993。
——,楊耐東譯,《想像的動物》,台北︰志文,1979。
——,王永年等譯,《波赫士全集》,台北︰商務,2002。

(二)英文

Aberth, Susan L., Leonora Carrington: Surrealism, Alchemy and Art, New York: Lund Humphries, 2004.
Adamowicz, Elza, Surrealist Collage in Text and Image: Dissecting the Exquisite Corpse, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Andrews, Tamra, Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Atwood, Mary Anne, Hermetic Philosophy and Alchemy, New York: The Julian Press, 1960.
Balakian, Anna, ed., Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association, New York: Garland, 1985.
Bee, Susan, & Schor, Mira, ed., M/E/A/N/I/N/G: An Anthology of Artists’ Writings, Theory, and Criticism, Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2000.
Biedermann, Hans, Dictionary of Symbolism, trans. James Hubert, New York and Oxford: Facts On File, 1992.
Bilington, Sandra, and Miranda, Green, ed., The Concept of goddess, London and New York: Routledge, 1996.
Bradley, Fiona, Movement in Modern Art: Surrealism, London: Tate Gallery Publishing, 1997
Burgin, Victor, Donald, James & Kaplan, Cora, eds., Formation of Fantasy, London and New York, 1986.
Carrington, Leonora, The House of Fear: Notes from Down Below, trans. Katharine Talbot and Marina Warner, New York: Dutton, 1988.
____, The Hearing Trumpet, New York: St. Martin Press, 1976.
____, En-Bas, N.p.: Henri Parisot, 1945. Paris: Eric Losfeld, 1973.
____, En-Bas précédé d’une letter à Henri Parisot, Paris: Le Terrain Vague, 1973.
____, La Débutante, contes et pièce, trans. Yves Bonnefoy, Jacqueline Chénieux, and Henri Parisot, Paris: Flammarion, 1978.
____, La Oval Lady, trans. Rachel Holt, Santa Barbara: Capra Press, 1975.
____, The Stone Door, New York: St. Martin Press, 1977.
____, Pigeon vole: Contes retrouvés, trans. Jacqueline Chénieux and Didier Vidal, Cognac: Le Temps qu’il fait, 1986. In English: “Pigeon fly,” in The Seventh Horse and Other Tales, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1988.
Chadwick, Whitney, Leonora Carrington: The Mexico Years 1943-1985, San Francisco: The Mexican Museum, 1991.
____, Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985.
Chadwick, Whitney & de Courtivron, Isabelle, ed., Significant Others: Creativity & Intimate Partnership, London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
Cirlot, J. E., A Dictionary of Symbols, trans. Jack Sage, London: Routledge, 1971.
Conley, Katharine, Automatic Woman: The Representation of Woman in Surrealism, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska, 1996.
De Rola, Stanislas Klossowski, Alchemy: The Secret Art, London: Thames and Hudson, 1973.
De Givry, Grillot, Witchcraft, Magic & Alchemy, trans. J. Courtenay Locke, New York: Dover Publications, 1971.
Foster, Hal, Compulsive Beauty, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1995.
Gamman, Lorraine & Makinen, Merja, Female Fetishism, London: Lawrence & Wishart Limited, 1994.
Gardner, G. B., The Meaning of Witchcraft, London: The Aquarian Press, 1959.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Graves, Robert, The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth, New York: The Noonday Press, 1991.
Green, Miranda J., Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, London: Thames and Hudson, 1992.
Hopkins, David, Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Hubert, Renée Riese, Magnifying Mirrors: Women, Surrealism, & Partnership, Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
Iomas, David, The Haunted Self: Surrealism, Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000.
Jung, C. G., Psychology and Alchemy, London: Routledge, 1989.
Levitt, Annette Shandler,The Genres and Genders of Surrealism, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
Luanne, Frank, ed., Literature and the Occult: Essays in Comparative Literature, Arlington: University of Texas Press, 1977.
Matthews, J. H., ed., The Custom-House of Desire: A Half Century of Surrealist Stories, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
Mundy, Jennifer ed., Surrealism: Desire Unbound, Now York: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Roob, Alexander, The Hermetic Museum: Alchemy & Mysticism, London: Taschen, 1997.
Schlieker, Andrea, ed., Leonora Carrington: Paintings, Drawings and Sculptures, 1940-1990, London: The Serpentine Gallery, 1991.
Silberer, Herbert, Probleme der Mystik und ihrer Symbolik, Vienna: H. Heller, 1914.
Stich, Sidra, Anxious Visions: Surrealist Art, New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Suleiman, Susan Rubin, Subversive Intent: Gender, Politics, and the Avant-Garde, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Walker, Barbara G., The Women’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, New York: Oxford University, 1998.
Walter, Mariko Namba and Fridman, Eva Neumann, Shamanism: An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture, Oxford: ABC CLIO, 2004.
Warlick, M. E., Max Ernst and Alchemy: A Magician in Search of Myth, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.
Weil, Kari, Androgyny and the Denial of Difference, Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia, 1992.
West, Shearer, Fin De Siècle, Woodstock and New York: The Overlook Press, 1994.
Wolff, Janet, Resident Alien: Feminist Cultural Criticism, Cambridge and UK: Polity.
Zimmerman, J. E., Dictionary of Classical Mythology, New York: Bookman Books, 1964.

二、期刊論文
Aberth, Susan, “Leonora Carrington,” in Art Journal, 51 (Fall 1992), pp. 83-85.
Assa, Sonia, “Gardens of Delight or, ‘What’s Cooking’?,” in Studies in 20th Century Literature, 15: 2 (1991), pp. 213-37.
Carroll, Rachel, “‘Something to See’: Spectacle and Savagery in Leonora Carrington’s Fiction,” in Critique, 39: 2 (Winter 1998), pp. 154-66.
Chadwick, Whitney, “Leonora Carrington: Evolution of a Feminist Consciousness,” in Woman’s Art Journal, 7 (Spring/ Summer 1986), pp. 37-42.
Gaensbauer, Deborah B., “Voyages of Discovery: Leonora Carrington’s Magical Prose,” in Woman’s Studies, 23: 3 (1994), pp. 271-84.
Grimberg, Salomon, “Leonora Carrington,” in Art-Nexus, 26 (Oct./ Dec. 1997), pp. 62-65.
Haynes, Deborah J., “The Art of Remedios Varo: Issues of Gender Ambiguity and Religious Meaning,” in Woman’s Art Journal, 16 (Spring/ Summer 1995), pp. 25-31.
Helland, Janice, “Surrealism and Esoteric Feminism in the Paintings of Leonora Carrington,” in Canadian Art Review, 16: 1 (1989), pp. 53-61.
Hubbard, Sue, “Beasties and Ghosties,” in New Statesman and Society, 5: 184 (1992), pp. 32-33.
Hubert, Renée Reise, “Leonora Carrington and Max Ernst: Artistic Partnership and Feminist Liberation,” in New Literary History, 22 (Summer 1991), pp. 715-45.
____, “Max Ernst: The Displacement of the Visual and the Verbal,” in New Literary History, 15: 3 (1984), pp. 575-606.
Knapp, Bettina L., “Leonora Carrington’s Whimsical Dreamworld: Animals Talk, Children are Gods, a Black Swan Lays an Orphic Egg,” in World Literature Today, 51 (1977), pp. 525-30.
Knott, Robert, “The Myth of the Androgyne,” in Artforum, 14 (Nov. 1975), pp. 38-45.
Komins, Benton Jay, “The Peculiar Gendered Eyes of Canonical Western Nudes, Invited Spectators and Resistant Women Artists,” in Pretext: Literary and Culture Studies, 10: 1 (2001), pp. 51-61.
Kunny, Clare, “Leonora Carrington’s Mexican Vision,” in Museum Studies, 22: 2 (1996), pp. 166-79.
Levitt, Annette Shandler, “The Bestial Fictions of Leonora Carrington,” in Journal of Modern Literature, 20 (Summer 1996), pp. 65-74.
Lusty, Natalya, “Surrealism’s Banging Door,” in Textual Practice, 17:2 (2003), pp. 335-56.
Macadam, Barbara A., “The Scent of the Surreal,” in Art News, 97: 1 (Jan. 1998), p. 19.
Mandlove, Nancy B., “Humor at the Service of the Revolution: Leonora Carrington’s Feminist Perspective on Surrealism,” in Literature Perspectives on Contemporary, 7 (1981), pp. 117-22.
Nochlin, Linda, “Art and the Conditions of Exile: Men/ Women, Emigration/ Expatriation,” in Poetics Today 17: 3 (Fall 1996), pp. 317-37.
Orenstein, Gloria Feman, “Leonora Carrington’s Visionary Art for the New Age,” in Chrysalis, 3 (1978), pp. 65-77.
____, “The Methodology of the Marvelous,” in Symposium, 42 (Winter 1989), pp.
329-39.
____, “Reclaiming the Great Mother: A Feminist Journey to Madness and Back in Search of a Goddess Heritage,” in Symposim 36: 1 (Spring 1982), pp. 45-70.
Suleiman, Susan Rubin, “Surrealist Black Humor: Masculine/ Feminine,” in Papers of Surrealism, 1 (Winter 2003), pp. 1-13.
Warner, Marina, “New York Leonora Carrington,” in The Burlington Magazine, 130 (Oct. 1998), pp. 796-97.

三、網站
Hager, S. Lee, “Surrealism, Alchemy, and the Northern Renaissance,” in http://alandpeters.tripod.com/alchemyrenaissance.html. (2004/9/13)
Pliego, Susan, “Leonora Carrington: Her Wit, White Horses, Caviar, and Other Talents,” in http://www.lavitrina.com/visual3/leono.html (2004/8/13)
Steimer, Jessamyn, “The End: Leonora Carrington’s Self-Representation,” in http://www.Vorpalcloud.org/~jessie/thesis/iib.html (2004/8/13)
http://www.carringtonleo.5u.com/leoweb/Galleries/galry8/cocoref/cocodrilo.htm
(Pablo Weisz Carrington’s Website, 2004/11/14)
http://www.mysteries.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/2,6.htm (2005/6/9)

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