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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911312018
論文名稱(中文) 站立穿褲動作姿勢控制
論文名稱(英文) Postural Control during Pants Wearing
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 醫學工程研究所碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Biomedical Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 張嘉玲
研究生(英文) Chia-Ling Chang
電子信箱 pinklibra68@yahoo.com.tw
學號 p8692125
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 61頁
口試委員 指導教授-蘇芳慶
口試委員-張冠諒
口試委員-林啟禛
口試委員-成戎珠
口試委員-郭藍遠
中文關鍵字 老人  姿勢控制  重心  穿褲動作  平衡 
英文關鍵字 balance  COM  postural control  elderly falls  pants wearing 
學科別分類
中文摘要   跌倒對老年人而言,無論在中西社會皆是個日益嚴重的問題。過去不少研究中顯示,老化對老年人平衡功能與姿勢控制策略產生影響,特別是在側向平衡能力的衰退最為明顯,如單腳站立困難。國內研究報告顯示浴室為老年人最容易發生跌倒的場所。不禁讓人懷疑如此高發生率,是否與需要單腳站立平衡的穿褲動作有關聯。加上過去的研究多半以靜態平衡或給予姿勢干擾為主,與日常生活動作相結合的研究本屬少數,穿褲動作的平衡機制至今仍是未知領域。本實驗共徵求了11名年輕人及7名老年人,藉量測身體質量中心運動及其與足底壓力中心相對位移,時間-空間參數,與運動學表現..等參數,比較老年人與年輕人在四種不同情境中 ( 2x2 ),穿褲動作時姿勢控制的差異。以改變動作速度 (一般/較快) 與地面材質 (瓷磚/防滑墊) 作為其中兩影響因子。結果顯示老年人需要較長的時間來完成動作,側向質心移動速度較慢,單腳站立期比例、髖關節側向角度和質心-足底壓力中心側向相對位移都明顯較少,而矢狀面上平衡表現則和年輕人無明顯差異。年輕人的側向、垂直質心移動速度和質心-足底壓力中心側向相對位移,會隨著速度加快而增加;側向質心位移則是隨之減少。年輕人在防滑墊上動作時,質心位移量與動作完成時間較少,腳的抬放速度也較快,顯示防滑墊可提供年輕人動作上某種程度的穩定度。老年人動作時的平衡表現,則不因速度與地面材質改變而有不同。參數呈現出年齡上的差異,顯示老年人為適應側向平衡功能的衰退,發展出一種較為保守的穿褲動作模式。藉縮小側向質心與足底壓力中心距離,縮短質量中心對髖關節作用力臂,以減輕載重側的關節負擔。此保守動作模式的出現,推測和老化伴隨而來的肌力減退有很大的關係。
英文摘要   Falls in the elderly are a growing worldwide problem. Recent research has shown that the balance ability and postural control of the elderly were truly affected by aging process, especially in the frontal plane, such as difficult to maintain one-leg-standing balance. Domestic research has shown that the elderly most often suffer falls in the bathroom, which made us doubt of the relationship between the high incidence of fall and the movement of pants-wearing requiring one-leg-standing balance. Since there is a lack of information regarding the postural control during pants-wearing of any age group, this study was performed to investigate the effects of aging, movement speed and surface material on the balance control while wearing pants. Samples of healthy young (n=11) and elderly (n=7) subjects were compared in the temporal-spatial (T-S) parameters, motion of center of mass (COM) and its interactions of center of pressure (COP), and kinematic performance under four movement conditions. These conditions were created by crossing two levels of the speed factor (normal/faster) with two levels of surface factor (plastic/tile). Significant age differences did exist for T-S parameters (increased cycle time and decreased single-limb-support ratio in the elderly), medial-lateral velocity of the COM (decreased velocity in the elderly), its relationship with the COP (reduced separation between the two variables in the elderly), and kiematic performances (decreased hip M/L motion, knee flexion angles, and ankle elevation in the elderly). Sagittal plane parameters were not significant different between two groups, which confirm the ability of healthy elderly adults to maintain dynamic balance control in the sagittal plane during locomotion. Speed and surface effects were only revealed in the young adults. Differences in the parameters between two groups may come from different movement patterns of paints-wearing. Elderly adults demonstrated a conservative strategy for reducing the mechanical load placed in joints of the supporting limb, while maintaining lateral balance of paints-wearing. This adopted strategy may be related to the reduction in muscle strength in the natural aging process.
論文目次 中文摘要………………………………………………………Ι
英文摘要……………………………………………….....Ⅲ
誌謝.......................................................Ⅴ
目錄.......................................................Ⅵ
表目錄........................................................Ⅸ
圖目錄.......................................................Ⅹ

第一章 序論………...…………………………………………………..1
1.1 背景………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 老化與平衡…………………………………………………………2
1.2.1 老年人的側向平衡…………………………………………...4
1.2.2 老年人平衡相關究……………………………………...…….6
1.3 質量中心與足底壓力中心………………………………………..8
1.4 危險的穿脫褲動作……………………………………………….10
1.5 研究動機與目的…………………………………………………..11
1.6 實驗假說…………………………………………………………..12

第二章 研究方法………………………………………………………..13
2.1 研究對象……………………………………………………………13
2.2 實驗設備……………………………………………………….13
2.2.1 硬體設備………………………………………………..15
2.2.1.1 三維動作分析系統……………………………..16
2.2.1.2 反光球 ………………………………..……….16
2.2.1.3 測力板…………………………………………18
2.2.1.4 透明褲………………………………………….19
2.2.1.5 瓷磚與防滑墊………………………………….20
2.2.2 實驗軟體………………………………………………..20
2.3 實驗流程…………………………………..……………………21
2.3.1 準備工作…………………………………………………21
2.3.2 實驗步驟………………………………………………….22
2.4 資料收集與參數計算……………………………………………25
2.4.1 空間座標定位………………………………………………25
2.4.2 質量中心計算………………………………………………26
2.4.3 足底壓力中心計算…………………………………………28
2.4.4 運動學參數計算…………………………………………..29
2.4.5 實驗參數…………………………………………………..32
2.5 統計分析…………………………………………………………33

第三章 實驗結果…………………………………………………34
3.1 時間-空間參數………………………………………………34
3.2 質量中心位移與速度……………………………………….36
3.3 質量中心與足底壓力中心位移差值……………………….41
3-4 運動學參數………………………………………………….43

第四章 討論……………………………………………………….45
4.1 時間與單腳站立期比例……………………………………45
4.2 年齡對各參數的影響……………………………………....47
4.3 速度對各參數的影響………………………………………53
4.4 地面材質對各參數的影響…………………………………54
4.5 臨床應用與實驗限制……………………………………….55

第五章 結論與未來展望……………………………………………..58
參考文獻………………………………………………………….…60
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