進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200911262430
論文名稱(中文) 工業區有害空氣污染物排放與影響評估方法之研究
論文名稱(英文) The research of emission and evaluation of HAPs in industrial areas.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 廖琦峰
研究生(英文) Chief Liao
學號 p5691125
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 160頁
口試委員 口試委員-江鴻龍
口試委員-朱 信
指導教授-蔡俊鴻
指導教授-張艮輝
中文關鍵字 複合石化工業區  排放量推估  FIRE資料庫  風險評估  國內外係數比較  排放量推估不確定性 
英文關鍵字 complex petrifaction industry  emission estimate  FIRE Date System  risk assessment 
學科別分類
中文摘要   本研究目標乃探討利用FIRE6.24 資料庫建立有害空氣污染物排
放量方法,台灣複合石化工業區開發案例為研究對象,並評估健康影響方法變異特徵。

研究結果顯示,案例工業區揮發性有機污染物由固定源管道與逸
散排放比例分別為79%與21%;各污染源排放38 項HAPs 主要為固
定源(99.72%),移動源次之(0.2%),專用港排放僅佔全區0.08%。以有害權重強度計算,主要健康危害排放源為固定源之聚氯乙烯製程,主要排放污染物為氯乙烯。

  根據ISC 模式模擬六項物種濃度分佈結果,氯乙烯年平均濃度最大值為106μg/m3,大部分來自於固定源管道排放影響。致癌風險評估結果顯示,最大致癌風險值為1.83×10-3,以固定源管道排放所致風險最高;非致癌風險評估結果顯示,最大總健康危害指數為12.5,固定源管道排放所致危害最高。

  比對國內外係數結果顯示,固定源發電廠、焚化廠物種一致性較高,固定源石化製程排放物種差異較大;FIRE 資料庫石油工業石油煉製相關製程VOC 排放係數應有物種之缺漏。FIRE 資料庫與國內排放係數差異極大原因包括:製程活動強度資料差異、原料量及產品量說明不足、控制效率設備有無、SCC Code 之選用、排放係數等級造成。

  引用SPECIATE 排放量均高於FIRE,因SPECIATE 資料庫於石
油工業所建立之VOC 排放係數較FIRE 資料庫齊全。排放量推估不
確定性主要來源來自固定源管道及逸散為多,固定源之不確定性對整個工業區排放量推估影響佔很大比重,主因為缺乏排放推估資料所致。


英文摘要  This research used USEPA FIRE Date System to setup the method ofemission estimate and risk assessment. In this case study, we evaluated the impacts of the complex petrifaction industry area located in central
Taiwan. Thirty-eight Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) were analyzed.

 In the study, VOC emission rate in stack and fugitive were 79% and 21%, respectively. The emission rate in stationary, mobile source, and port area, was 99.72%, 0.2%, and 0.008%, respectively. According to the
hazardous weight index calculating, T4 factory was the most influential source regarding human health.

 The result of ISC modeling shows that vinyl chloride produced the highest annual concentration of 106μg/m3, which mostly comes from stacks. According to an evaluation of the carcinogenic risk, it was 1.83×10-3. The stack was attributed to the major source of carcinogenic emissions. According to an evaluation of non-carcinogenic risk, the
maximum of overall health risk was 12.5 and again, the index demonstrated that the stack had the highest health impact among all of the emission sources.

 Comparing the domestic emission factors with those in FIRE, a similarity of the species was found when the emission factors were applied for both power plants and incinerators. However, a significant difference was found between the species of the stationary and the petrifaction sources. Certain species are missing in the FIRE data system,such as the emission factors of VOC from some petrifaction process.
 
 The primary difference between the domestic emission factors and those in FIRE was concluded to be resulted from (1) difference in manufacturing activities, (2) lack of illustration of the throughput and the products in FIRE system, (3) different control efficiency affecting the
resultant emission factors, (4) different selection of the SCC code, and (5) decisions of the emission factors levels.

 Comparing the FIRE with SPEIATE data system, it is found that the emission estimated by SPECIATE were significantly higher than that by FIRE. One of the reasons was that a more complex database was established in SPECIATE than then in FIRE, regarding the petrifaction industry.

 The uncertainty of the emission estimates was attributed to the stack and some fugitive occurred. Due to the lack of the emission estimate information, the stack ontributed 8/9 of the uncertainty among the emission estimates of the entire petrifaction industry area.

論文目次 第一章 前言..........................................1
1-1 研究緣起..........................................1
1-2 研究目標與內容....................................3

第二章 文獻回顧......................................4
2-1 有害空氣污染物....................................4
2.1.1移動性污染源排放HAPs.............................6
2.1.2石化工業區所排放HAPs.............................7
2-2 排放量推估........................................10
2-2-1 排放量推估之基本方法............................10
2-2-2排放係數資料庫介紹...............................11
2-3 健康風險評估......................................15
2-3-1 ISCST3模式應用情形.............................15
2-3-2 健康風險評估....................................16

第三章 研究方法......................................21
3-1研究架構...........................................21
3-2研究對象...........................................23
3-2-1固定源包含對象...................................23
3-2-2移動源包含對象...................................23
3-2-3專用港及儲槽逸散面源包含對象.....................23
3-3 HAPs排放量估算....................................23
3.3.1固定源排放量估算.................................23
3.3.2移動源排放量估算.................................24
3.3.3專用港排放估算...................................25
3.3.4儲槽區排放量估算.................................25
3.4.有害權重強度計算..................................27
3.5.ISC模式模擬之方法.................................27
3.6.健康風險評估......................................28
3.7. FIRE資料庫與本土排放係數比對.....................29

第四章 結果與討論....................................37
4-1 HAPs排放量、有害權重強度..........................37
4-1-1 HAPs排放量及主要汙染源..........................37
4-1-1-1 HAPs主要排放汙染源............................40
4-1-1-2 各污染源HAPs排放量與與估算合理性探討..........42
4-1-2 HAPs有害權重強度及各污染源之有害權重強度........45
4-1-2-1 HAPs有害權重強度及其主要污染源................45
4-1-2-2各污染源HAPs有害權重強度計算與合理性探討.......46
4-2 ISC模擬HAPs物種濃度分布...........................49
4-2-1HAPs物種濃度分佈.................................49
4-3健康風險評估.......................................51
4-3-1致癌風險分析.....................................51
4-3-2非致癌健康危害分析...............................53
4-3-3廠內外健康危害分析及離廠距離對風險之影響.........54
4-4 排放量推估誤差解析................................56
4-4-1FIRE資料庫與本土排放係數物種比對.................56
4-4-2 FIRE資料庫與本土排放係數值差異..................59
4-4-3 FIRE資料庫VOC排放量與環評排放量比對.............60
4-5 資料庫比對及不確定性探討..........................65
4-5-1 SPECIATE資料庫VOC物種及排放量差異...............65
4-5-2 SPECIATE及FIRE資料庫固定源VOC物種比較...........65
4-5-3排放量推估之不確定性.............................67

第五章 結論與建議....................................139
5-1 結論..............................................139
5-2建議...............................................141
參考文獻..............................................142
參考文獻 1.A.B.Mukherjee(2000),” Assessment of atmospheric mercury emissions in Finland”, Elsevier Science.
2.Adel F. Hanna(2004),”Assessment of Uncertainty in Benzene Concentration Estimates in the Houston ,TX, Area”AWMA 2004.
3.California Air pollution Control Officers Association (CAP -COA)(1993), Air toxics “Hot Spots”Program Risk Assessment Guideline.
4.Clark,A. G.(1996),”The Realative Singificance of vehicular Emission and other Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Urban Area of
Leeds,UK”, The Science of total Environment, pp 401-407.
5.Dann T. and d. Wang(1992), “Volatile organic Compound Measure -ment in Canadian Urban and Rural Area : 1989-1990” ,85th annual Meeting &Exhibition
of the Air &Waste Management association, Missouri.
6.D.Levaggi W.Siu(1991),”Gaseous Toxic Monitoring in The San Francisco Bay Area : A Review and Assessment of Four Year Data ”,84th Annual Meeting of AWMA, Vancourer, B.C, Canada.
7.Factor Information Retrieval System (FIRE)Frequently Asked Questions, www.epa.gov/ttn/chief.html(2004)
8.Fox, D. G.(1981), ”Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling”, Bulletin American Meteorological Society, Vol. 65, NO.1, pp27-36.
9.Gschwandtner, G., K. Eldridge&R. Zerbonia(1982), “Sensitivity Analysis of Dispersion Models for Point and Area Source “,Journal of Air Pollution
Control Association, Vol.32, NO.10, pp1024-1028.
10.Hanna, S. R., J. S. Chang and D. G. Strimaitis (1990), “Uncentainty in source Emission Rate Estimates Using dispelrsion Models”, Atmosp here
Environment, Vol.24A, NO.12, pp2971-2980.
11.Jim Karas(1990), “San Francisco Bay Area marine Tanker Emission Controls”, 83th Annual Meeting &Exhibition of Air &Waste Management association,Pittsburgh, Pennsivania,USA.
12.Joanne R.Schaich(1991),”Estimate Fugitive emissions from Process Equipment”,Chemical Engineering Progress.
13.M.T. López(2004),”Health impacts from power plant emissions in Mexico” Atmospheric Environment.
14.Molhave(1986), L., B Bach, and O. F. Pedersen, “Human Reaction to Low Concentraction of Volatile Organic Compond” , Envir.Inter., Vol. 12 , pp167-175.
15.Munshi, U. and C. Marlia, “Role of Uncentainty in Risk Assessment”, 82th Annual Meeting of AWMA.
16.Pacyna, J. M.(1984), “Estimation of the Atmospheric emissions of the Trace Element from Anthropogenic Source in Europe “, Atmospheric
Environment pp18~41.
17.Peter A. Scheff(1991),”Improvrment of VOCs Source Finferprints for Vehicles and refineries”, 84th Annual Meeting of AWMA, Vancourer, B.C, Canada.
18.Robin L.Kump(1991),”Partnering Between the Public, Regulatory Agencies, and Industry for a Successful Ambient Air monitoring Program”, 84th Annual Meeting of AWMA, Vancourer, B.C, Canada.
19.Stanley L. Kopczynski(1975)” Reactivities of complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures”,E.S.&T.,Vol.9, NO.7.
20.SPECIATE Version 3.2, www.epa.gov/ttnchie1.html(2004)
21.Thomas J.Kelly(1992),”Air Pollutant Monitoring and Health Risk assessment in Allen Count-Lima,Ohio”, 85th Annual Meeting of AWMA, Kansas city, Missour, USA.
22.Tom Lahre(1998),”Cuncer Risk From Air Toxic in Urban Area”, 81st Annual Meeting of APCA, Dallas, Texas, USA.
23.Wayne C(1991). Edward and roger Quan “VOC Emission from Major Organic Chemical Plant in Aanada ”, Air &Waste Management association, Missouri.
24.謝家霖(1999),不同污染源對大氣中有害空氣污染物濃度相對貢獻量在風險評估程序中之不確定性研究,國立雲林科技大學碩士論文。
25.侯裕文(2001),應用Fugacity模式簡化風險評估之可行性研究-以石化工業區為例,國立雲林科技大學碩士論文。
26.臭味及有害空氣污染物控制(2004),空污專責人員訓練教材。
27.陳建鴻、張立鵬、廖琦峰(2004),六輕反應性空品規劃及風險評估計畫,南亞塑膠工業股份有限公司環安中心。
28.蔡俊鴻、李楟貽等(2004),工業都會區有機性有害空氣污染物影響及管制有效性評估研究NSC92-EPA-Z-006-002,環保署/國科會空污防制研究合作計畫。
29.陳煥文,隧道內汽車氣狀污染物排放係數與VOCs特徵成分之研究,國立成功大學碩士論文。
30.翁閎政(1998),機車排氣之揮發性有機特徵及光化反應性研究,國立成功大學碩士論文。
31.何文淵(1999),汽油車引擎廢棄揮發性有機物成分及光化反應性研究,國立成功大學碩士論文。
32.劉育穎(2000),機車排放醛酮化合物特徵及光化反應研究,國立成功大學碩士論文。
33.徐世杰(1992),溶劑廠周圍大氣環境中之本濃度分佈特性及其風險性分析,國立成功大學碩士論文。
34.楊慶熙(1995),現代法規與管制趨勢,工業污染防制技術服務團,經濟部工業局。
35.何俊杰(1999),石化工業區揮發性有機物總量管制,工業污染防制第71期。
36.張能復等(1998),高屏地區大氣揮發性有機物成分特徵與臭氧生成潛勢關連性研究,第十五屆空氣污染控制技術研討會。
37.張鳳祥(1993),石化工業區附近大氣中有害空氣污染物特徵之研究,國立成功大學碩士論文。
38.何國樑(1997),石化區廢水處理廠苯環揮發性有機物特性與排放量推估研究,國立雲林科技大學碩士論文。
39.陳盈美(1998),煉油廢水曝氣單元苯環揮發性有機物逸散調查與排放量推估,國立雲林科技大學碩士論文。
40.路汝鋆(1988),石油化學工業,徐氏基金會,台北市。
41.謝徨騏(2001),固定污染源排放金屬元素之特徵,成功大學碩士論文。
42.蔡俊鴻等(1998),石化業上、中游工廠附近大氣環境中之VOC特徵成分及濃度分佈調查,行政院環保署。
43.李丁讚(1994),大氣之苯環揮發性有機物排放來源特性與影響研究,國立成功大學碩士論文。
44.莊秉潔、元曉琴(1994),穩定度判斷對空氣品質之影響-台中火力電廠個案研究,第十一屆空氣污染控制技術研討會,PP507-522
45.邱奕誠(1997),有害空氣污染物濃度解析方法在風險評估程序中之不確定性研究,國立雲林科技大學碩士論文
46.李俊璋(1998),有害空氣污染物健康風險評估及管理模式之探討,工業污染防制第68期,p138-183。
47.李文亮等(1998),毒性化學物質減量技術建立之研究「新竹科學園區及湖口工業區毒性化學物質環境流佈調查與資料庫建立」,行政院環保署
48.嚴春伶、劉國棟(1994),空氣污染源排放量與氣象參數逐時變化對空氣品質影響之探討,第十一屆空氣污染控制技術研討會。
49.蘇博郎(1997),開發中離島工業區大氣揮發性有機物背景特性之研究,中國醫藥學院碩士論文。
50.陳東稟(1992),石化工業區附近大氣中之揮發性有機污染特性及影響分析,成功大學碩士論文。
51.胡文(1998),移動性污染源所致揮發性有機物濃度解析之不確定性研究,國立雲林科技大學碩士論文。
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2005-05-27起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2005-05-27起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw