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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911251773
論文名稱(中文) 遙控載具應用於水庫淤積測量之精度分析
論文名稱(英文) Accuracy Analysis of Reservoir Sedimentation Surveying by the RCV (Remote Control Vehicle) Operation
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering (on the job class)
學年度 93
學期 1
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 歐秋聲
研究生(英文) Chiou-Sheng Ou
電子信箱 n8791108@ccmail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n8791108
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-顏沛華
口試委員-謝啟男
口試委員-楊偉甫
中文關鍵字 遙控載具  水庫淤積測量  精度分析 
英文關鍵字 Accuracy Analysis  Reservoir Sedimentation Surveying  Remote Control Vehicle 
學科別分類
中文摘要   水為人類生存與經濟活動所必須,人類的進化與文明均離不開水,故水被列為國家重要資源。而水之儲存多仰賴水庫蓄水,惟台灣地區河川特性多流短坡陡,加上降雨期之雨量時空分配不均,致豐枯水期逕流量懸殊,暴雨期集流時間短促,逕流短時間內大量集中,一旦面臨颱洪暴雨之高降雨強度,易造成水庫集水區及上游河岸沖刷及崩塌,而崩塌與沖蝕之泥砂將阻塞河道或隨水流入庫而淤積於水庫。
  水庫淤砂問題在台灣日趨嚴重,由於新建水庫壩址日益難尋,新水庫之興建常因高昂之成本及高漲之環保意識而有其難處!因此,在現有水庫集水區進行水土保持,對水庫進行浚渫,維持蓄水量之需求,持續發揮水庫應有之效益成為當務之急!因此,精準的水庫淤積程度和蓄水容量等之相關數據,即成為水庫經營、管理必備的重要資訊。而水庫淤積量和蓄水容積等相關資訊之取得,有賴水庫淤積調查,但水庫範圍廣闊,地形又複雜,一般對水庫傳統之斷面法人工淤積測量方式常耗時費事,花費許多金錢、時間,可能尚不能得到滿意的結果,且係從事水面作業有人員安全顧慮!目前國內水庫淤積測量又無相關規範可資遵循,現場外業步驟或內業分析方法多各行其是而有相當之差異,致不同時期、不同方法、不同單位之水庫淤積測量成果難以相互參考比對或驗證!
  基於此,本研究擬以可拆卸/組合之無人遙控水面載具,搭載現場量測儀器從事水庫淤積測量,嘗試替代傳統之人工斷面法施測,期能收時間節約、經費樽節、效率增進、人力節省及安全保障之利!並達到水庫淤砂量測自動化之目的。故本研究之水庫淤積測量作業,除了水深測量項目係以遙控載具實施外,其餘現場外業步驟及內業分析方法均遵循2002年2月經濟部水資源局(現改制為經濟部水利署)建置之「台灣地區水庫淤積測量手冊(草案)」載明之調查作業方式為原則。另於內業分析,特別在蓄水容積之推估上,本研究以一1000x1000m2之虛擬地形探討各種蓄水容積之計算方法,經互相評比後,建議適當之水庫蓄水容積及淤積量計算方法(SURFER 軟體)。由於水深測量係以遙控載具實施之,為評估爾後遙控載具應用於水庫淤積測量之可行性,本研究亦針對水庫淤積測量作精度分析,探討遙控載具應用於水庫淤積測量在施測過程可能造成之誤差是否在「台灣地區水庫淤積測量手冊」定義之可接受範圍。
  最後本研究以位處嘉義之仁義潭水庫作應用實例分析,以多音束測深儀(Multi-beam Echo Sounder)測得之數據建構為基準地形,再分別以傳統人工之斷面法以即時動態衛星定位(RTK GPS)及單音束測深儀(Single- beam Echo Sounder)方式在一300x300m2之水域從事水庫淤積測量作業,另以遙控載具搭載相同定位及測深儀器於相同之水域施測,經實測數據分析顯示,在仁義潭水庫300x300m2之示範水域中,以傳統之人工斷面法及遙控載具搭載RTK GPS設備及單音束測深儀施測,由其繪得之誤差圖(Error Map)分析,深度測量誤差之95.45%信賴區間,遙控載具施測小於0.342公尺,傳統之人工斷面法橡皮艇施測則小於0.372公尺。而在蓄水容積之推估上,傳統之人工斷面法及遙控載具施測所得之蓄水容積分別為1546094.15m3及1512802.96m3,與多音束測深儀同樣搭載RTK GPS設備施測估算所得之蓄水容積1525199.69m3(比對基準容積)評比,其差異分別為1.37%及-0.81%。故以遙控載具從事水庫淤積測量除了符合「台灣地區水庫淤積測量手冊(草案)」所定義「一等測量」之標準外,該無人遙控載具作業成本又遠低於傳統人工斷面法施測方式,其又能突破時空限制,便於經常實施,可為水庫淤積測量提供更新、更快速而豐富的實測數據,提供有關機關作水庫經營、管理、水量調配、地表水及地下水聯合運用、相關政策之擬訂……等參考需用,達成水資源永續利用之目標。



英文摘要   Water is necessary for human lives and keeping up the social activities. Mankind evolutions and civilizations can not made marked progress without the existence of water, so it is always included in one of the important state resources. Reservoirs are the principal storage function in Taiwan but were easily silted up by the sediment of river inflows because of the streams steep slope, rupture catchments geological, river banks collapse, highly storm rainfall intensity, shorten concentration time, rapid runoff flow, widely difference discharge variation in between flood and dry season, and non-uniformity of rainfall distribution in space and time as well.
  Sedimentation in reservoirs is tending to serious situation in Taiwan. Setting up a new reservoir is beset with difficulties for hardly appropriate dam site seeking, highly construction cost and gradually environmental concerned. The techniques of water/soil conservation project for catchments, silt mud dredging up in reservoirs are used instead to extend reservoir’s life and bring proper benefit of its storage functions. Therefore, information of sediment/storage in reservoirs is important for reservoirs’ operation and management. The information comes from field data collection, but could usually not get satisfaction outcomes by using the traditional sections survey method which might spend lots of time, money and man-hour in broad and complex reservoir environment, and safety insurance of surveyors whom working in open water need to take consideration also. For the time being, it has not a SOP (Standard operation procedure) of reservoir sedimentation survey can be followed in our country. The results of reservoir sedimentation survey had a few variations both in field data collection method and in-house analysis means, and hardly compared each other that made in different time, variable ways and by specific organizations.
  This research plans to develop a RCV (Remote Control Vehicle) platform which can be disassembled and combined with parts and set up instruments to carry out the reservoir surveying task in order to substitute the traditional manual sections surveying job. This RCV platform has an advantage in time and money saving, efficiency increasing, manpower economizing, surveyor’s safety confirming and can achieve the purpose of this paper in reservoir surveying automatically. Moreover, the field surveying/data analysis procedure all are followed the steps, guidelines, standard and regulations of the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Manual (Draft) for Taiwan Area drew up by Water Resources Bureau, MOEA (Ministry of Economic Affairs) (now, named Water Resources Agency, MOEA) in February 2002. Furthermore, a virtual reservoir (open water) area of 1000x1000m2 was used as the storage capacity estimating test with varies ways and formulae. After appraising through comparison of the calculating results, a proper estimating method of reservoir storage capacity and deposition volume (SURFER package) can be proposed in this paper. The accuracy/precision of RCV positioning/sounding were assessed in field test also and rated RCV as a suitable reservoir surveying platform for the future for its position/depth error within the accepted range defined by the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Manual (Draft).
  Finally, the Jen Yi Lake reservoir in Chiayi County was adopted as the application test reservoir to collect field data of positioning and sounding by using RCV operation, MES (Multi-beam Echo Sounder) system and traditional manual SES (Single-beam Echo Sounder) sections methods. The topography of 300x300m2 area in reservoir surveyed by MES was used as the chart datum. Analyzing results show that, in this 300x300m2 demonstration area, the sounding variation of 95.45% confidence interval by compared the error map is less than 0.342m and 0.372m by using the RCV operation and traditional manual sections technique respectively. Storage capacity estimated by RCV operation data collection and traditional manual sections method analysis using SURFER algorism is 1512802.96m3 and 1546094.15m3 respectively. The storage capacity calculating variations are -0.81% and 1.37% compared with the datum capacity (1525199.69m3) which estimating by using SURFER calculation and the data collected by MES/RTK GPS system. So, conclusions can be made in this paper as follow: Reservoir sedimentation survey can be carried out by RCV operation and can achieve the Class 1 standard defined by the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Manual(Draft) for Taiwan Area. RCV operations in reservoir performed not only cost cheaper than the traditional manual sections method but also surveying in space and time free so as to provide fast, correct, update reservoir field data to relative organizations for reservoir operation, management, water distribution, surface water and groundwater joint application, policy decision making and so on to attain the aim of water resources with eternal utilizations.



論文目次 摘 要 --------------------------------------------------------------- 摘-1
英文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------- 摘-3
表目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅲ
圖目錄 ---------------------------------------------------------------------IV
照片目錄------------------------------------------------------------------VII
第一章 緒 論 -------------------------------------------------------------1
1-1 研究動機 -------------------------------------------------------------1
1-2 研究方法 ------------------------------------------------------------3
1-3 相關文獻回顧 -------------------------------------------------------6
1-4 本文組織 -----------------------------------------------------------13
第二章 遙控載具及測深系統概述-----------------------------------15
2-1 載具定位方式 ----------------------------------------------------- 15
2-2 載具導控及測深系統 ---------------------------------------------- 20
2-3 雙胴遙控載具 ------------------------------------------------------23
第三章 水庫淤積測量簡介 -------------------------------------------25
3-1 前 言 --------------------------------------------------------------- 25
3-2 整體測量標準步驟 ------------------------------------------------ 25
3-3 測量實務 ----------------------------------------------------------- 45
3-4 容積估算 -----------------------------------------------------------47
3-5 成果驗收與報告 ---------------------------------------------------51
第四章 水庫淤積測量精度分析 -------------------------------------56
4-1 水庫淤積測量之誤差源 -------------------------------------------56
4-2 精度分析 -----------------------------------------------------------59
4-3 容積估算誤差分析 ------------------------------------------------ 62
第五章 應用實例分析 ------------------------------------------------68
5-1 仁義潭水庫簡述 ---------------------------------------------------68
5-2 試驗方法與步驟 ---------------------------------------------------75
5-3 試驗結果與討論 ---------------------------------------------------80
第六章 結論與建議 ----------------------------------------------------88
6-1 結 論 --------------------------------------------------------------- 88
6-2 建 議 ---------------------------------------------------------------91
參考文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------------參-1
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