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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911110738
論文名稱(中文) 薰香精油對室內空氣品質的影響
論文名稱(英文) The Effect of Burning Essential Oils on Indoor Air Quality
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 92
學期 2
出版年 93
研究生(中文) 趙崇仁
研究生(英文) Chung-Jen Chao
電子信箱 direngrey1370@yahoo.com.tw
學號 s7691104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 95頁
口試委員 口試委員-許德仁
口試委員-李俊璋
口試委員-蔡朋枝
指導教授-張火炎
指導教授-蘇慧貞
中文關鍵字 精油  室內空氣品質  揮發性有機物質 
英文關鍵字 Volatile organic compounds  Indoor air quality  Essential oils 
學科別分類
中文摘要   精油,於近幾年在先進國家興起一股使用的風潮。由於使用方便、宣稱功效繁多,加上非專業人員即可使用等原因,一般家庭使用情形已趨於普遍。而精油宣稱之功效繁多,如:改善室內空氣品質、美容、治療呼吸道疾病、消除頭痛、神經緊張、抗菌等,由文獻可對照者,只有在抗菌及鎮靜功效的部分。此外,利用一外加熱源之精油薰香法似乎是簡便又可改善室內空氣品質,但目前尚未有相關研究係針對兩者之間的關係進行探討。此外,依精油成分分析研究顯示其成份多半為揮發性有機物質(Volatile Organic Compounds)及芳香化物,而過往許多研究證實,室內總揮發性有機物質濃度的上升與許多健康症狀的表現有正相關性,且尚需外加熱源的薰香法是否會在使用過程中改變精油成分組成或是產生新的揮發物質而有使用安全之虞,皆有待釐清。故,本研究想評估台灣一般家庭常使用薰香式精油對室內空氣品質的影響為何,所產生的VOCs種類及排放量為何,以描述是否會對人體產生負面的健康效應。除了探討使用精油可能產生的負面效應,另外亦在使用薰香精油前後,進行微生物、懸浮微粒、一氧及二氧化碳及總揮發性有機物質濃度的監測,藉由觀測污染指標濃度的變化,以了解使用薰香精油對室內空氣品質的影響。
  本實驗以薰香式精油作為分析研究對象,透過商家銷售問卷調查,統計一般台灣民眾常購買使用的精油種類,並選取累積銷售前50%種類的精油,作為研究分析對象。採樣地點選擇一代表性辦公室及家戶進行測試。空氣樣本採集則利用不鏽鋼採樣管充塡Tanex- TA及carbonexy作為吸附劑採集3小時,採畢則立即送至Auto-Thermal Desobetor(ATD-400)進行樣本脫附,以氣相層析質譜儀(GC-MS)進行VOCs定性分析。在進行空氣樣本收集的同時,全程以直讀氏儀器( Dust-Track、PID及Q-Track)監測CO、CO2、TVOCs及PM10等空氣指標值,監測使用薰香精油前後空氣指標的改變情形,並於使用薰香精油前、中、後時段(0、30、60、120、180分鐘)以Burkard採樣器及MEA、TSA與DG-18培養皿採集微生物樣本,並分別至於不同培養條件下培養後鑑屬及計算微生物濃度。
  問卷結果顯示,國人常薰香式精油為薰衣草、尤加利、茶樹及玫瑰精油。Linalool、D- limonene、Eucalyptol、ρ-Cymene及Terpinene-4-ol-1五種物質分別為薰衣草、尤加利以及茶樹精油中的主成分,我們並將上述幾種指標化物予以定量,已用來描述使用者之暴露程度。在空氣中微生物濃度監測結果顯示,大多數測試精油在使用30至60分鐘後,空氣中總真菌濃度有下降的趨勢,在接下來剩餘的測試時間中,該污染物濃度又再度回升。空氣細菌對精油的感受性似乎是較不敏感的,該測試期間,空氣中總細菌濃度下降的程度並未達統計上顯著意義。在其他室內空氣污染物指標濃度監測結果顯示,在使用薰香精油後,該環境之CO、CO2及TVOCs濃度均顯著增加,而PM10濃度則無顯著上升。空氣中總真菌濃度與該時間所暴露TVOCs濃度有一負相關性存在(P=0.01; R=-0.28),這代表使用薰香精油確實能有效抑制空氣中真菌活性;雖然統計結果顯示,空氣中總細菌濃度與其對應時間上室內TVOCs的濃度,有一正相關性存在(P=0.005; R=0.37),但在進行不同時間組的總細菌濃度比較上並無顯著差異。若將該相關性分精油種類討論,則發現使用茶樹精油時,空氣中總細菌濃度與暴露TVOCs濃度有高度的負相關性存在(P<0.0001; R=-0.79),其他精油則呈現正相關性。雖然各薰香精油抑制細菌的程度達顯著意義,但茶樹精油可能對空氣中細菌有較高的抑制作用。


英文摘要   Essential oils have continued to claim their influence in daily life of many developed countries due to, in part, several attractive characteristics such as easy use, multiple efficacies, and no professional assistance required during application. Use of essential oils is suggested to improve indoor air quality, and relieve respiratory symptoms and headache while cosmetic advantage and anti-microbial functions are also reported. Meanwhile, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compounds are the major constituents of essential oils, and many studies have demonstrated the association between VOCs exposure and reporting upper- respiratory syndromes, asthma, and even contact dermatitis. This project is therefore set to analyze the types of VOCs produced when burning essential oils. The potential adverse health effects resulting from such exposures will be discussed, and changing concentrations of indoor air pollutants, like microbes, TVOCs, particular matter( PM10), CO and CO2 when burning essential oils, will be measured.
  The essential oils, Lavender, Eucalyptus, Tea tree, and Rose, to be studied were chosen based on a questionnaire survey to identify the most commonly used products in Taiwan. Samples were collected in 2 different types of indoor environments,, office and home using ironless tube filled with Tanex- TA and Carboxen for absorbing VOCs when burning essential oils. After pre-treatment, samples were desorbed by ATD and analyzed by GC- MS to characterize and quantify the VOCs. MEA and TSA agars were used for collecting microbial sample with Burkard sampler, and Q- track, Dust- track, and PID real- time samplers were used for monitoring the variation of concentration of pollutants on sampling period.
  Concentrations were quantified for Linalool, D- limonene, eucalyptol, ρ-Cymene, and terpinene-4-ol-1, the target compounds in test essential oils for lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, the 3 most popular kinds in Taiwan. . The airborn microbial concentrations appeared to decreased trends within the first 30 to 60 minutes after burning essential oils, but not for the last hour. In addition, concentrations of CO, CO2, and TVOCs have increased significantly while PM10 concentrations showed a opposite trend. A negative correlation was found between TVOCs and fungi concentrations (P=0.01; R=-0.28), and a positive one between TVOCs and bacterial concentration (P=0.005; R=0.37) was established.
  Results in this study has reported the first group of field data concerning the concentration variations of indoor VOCs, CO2, airbore fungi and bacteria while burning essential oils using the format and quantities often adopted in the general living environment, such as homes and offices. The results imply, quantitatively, that many beneficial functions claimed in the commerical settings for selected essential oils may not be present while many potential adverse effects have not been proposed examined. Research priority can be directed with controlled chamber study as well as field investigation of greater scale with the addtion of health performance assessment.


論文目次 中文摘要
英文摘要
第一章 緒論……………………………………………...1
1-1 研究緣起 ………………………………………1
1-2 研究目的…………………………….………….2
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………..…….3
2-1 精油的定義………………………………….….3
2-2 精油的分類…………………….……………… 3
2-3 精油的成分…………………….……………….4
2-4 精油使用方法………………….……………….6
2-5 精油的功效…………………….……………….7
2-6 精油的健康影響……………….……………….8
2-7 室內空氣污染物分類與人體健康效應….…….8
第三章 研究方法………………………….…………….11
3-1 研究設計………………………….…………….11
3-2 研究對象選取………………….……………….11
3-2-1 精油銷售問卷受訪對象選取原則…….....11
3-2-2 精油銷售問卷內容及節選標準……….....12
3-3 樣本採集及分析方法……………………….....13
3-3-1 採樣點設置及採樣時間規劃………….....14
3-3-2 精油原液樣本採集及分析方法……….....15
3-3-3 精油空氣樣本採集及分析方法………….15
3-3-4 生物性空氣樣本採集及分析方法……….17
3-3-5 室內空氣指標濃度監測………………….17
3-3-5-1 CO/CO2濃度監測………….……..18
3-3-5-2 PM10濃度監測…………..…18
3-3-5-3 TVOCs濃度監測…………..18
3-4 統計方法…………………………………….….18
3-5 實驗室品質保證與品質管理……………….….19
3-5-1實驗空白測試…………………………….....19
3-5-2實驗之準確度與精密度………………….…19
3-5-3檢量線配製………………………………….20
3-5-4方法偵測極限……………………………….21
3-5-5相對量及絕對量差異率測試……….............21
第四章 研究結果與討論………………………………...23
4-1 精油銷售問卷結果……………………………...23
4-2 精油樣本分析結果……………………………...23
4-2-1 精油原液樣本成分分析結果……………...23
4-2-2 精油空氣樣本中指標化物之濃度………...24
4-2-3 原液與空氣樣本組成比例比較…………...24
4-3 微生物樣本濃度………………………………...25
4-4 空氣指標濃度監測結果………………………...26
4-4-1 CO/CO2濃度監測…………………………26
4-4-2 PM10濃度監測………………………..…...26
4-4-3 TVOCs濃度監測…………………..……..27
4-5 綜合性室內空氣品質評估討論……………….27
第五章 結論與建議..……………………………….……30
參考文獻…………………………………………..………32
圖………………………………………………..…………37
表……………………………………………..……………61
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