1. Aaker, D.A.,Strategic Market Management, 4th ed., New York, Wiley,1995.
2. Adler, L.,Symbiotic marketing,Harvard Business Review, 44（6）,59-71,1966.
3. Badaracco, J.,The knowledge link：how firms compete through strategic alliances,Cambridge, MA：Harvard Business School Press,1991.
4. Bleeke, J. and D. Ernst,The way to win in cross-border alliances,Harvard Business Review,69,127-135,1991.
5. Brous, P.,Common Stock Offerings and Earnings Expectations：A Test of the Release of Unfavorable Information,Journal of Finance,47, 1517-1536,1992.
6. Brous, P. and O. Kini,A Reexamination of Analysts’Earnings Forecasts for Takeover Targets,Journal of Financial Economics,33,201-225,1993.
7. Chan, S. H., John W., Arthur J. Keown, and John D. Martin,Do Strategic Alliance Create Value？,Journal of Financial Economics,46,199-221,1997.
8. Chen, S. S., K. W. Ho, K. H. IK, and C. F. Lee,How Does Strategic Competition Affect Firm Values？A Study of New Product Announcement,Financial Management,31,67-84,2002.
9. Chung, K. H. and S. W. Pruitt,A sample approximation of Tobin’s q,Financial Management,23（3）,70-74,1994.
10. Das, S., P. K. Sen, and S. Sengupta ,Impact of Strategic Alliances on Firm Valuation,Academy of Management Journal,41（1）,27-41,1998.
11. Das, T. K. and Teng, B.-S.,A resource-based theory of strategic alliance,Journal of Management,26,31-61,2000.
12. Eli Bartov ,Open-market stock repurchases as signals for earnings and risk changes,Journal of Accounting and Economics,14,275-294,1991.
13. Fama, E. F. and Jensen, M. C.,Agency Problems and Residual Claims,Journal of Law and Economics,26,327-349,1983.
14. Forrest, J.,Strategic Alliances and the Small Technology Based Firm, Journal of Small Business Management,33-45,1990.
15. Fried, D.and D. Givoly,Financial analysts’forecasts of earnings：A better surrogate for market expectations,Journal of Accounting and Economics,4,85-107,1982.
16. Givoly, D. and J. Lakonishok,The information content of financial analysts’forecasts of earnings：Some evidence on semi-strong efficiency,Journal of Accounting and Economics,1,165-185,1979.
17. Gordon, D.A., M. J. Gordon, and L.I.Gould ,Choice among methods estimating share yield,Journal of Portfolio Management,15,50-55,1989.
18. Hagedoorn, J.,Understanding the rationale of strategic technology partnering：Interorganizational modes of cooperation and sectoral differences,Strategic Management Journal,14,371-385,1993.
19. Hagedoorn, G.. and Schakenraad, J.,The Effect of Strategic Technology Alliances on Company Performance,Strategic Management Journal,15, 291-309,1994.
20. Hamel and Gray,Competition for Competence and Interpartner Learning within International Strategic Alliances,Strategic Management Journal, 12,83-103,1991.
21. Harrigan,Strategic alliances and partner asymmetries,Management International Review,28(2),53-72,1988.
22. Hertzel, M. and P. C. Jain ,Earnings and risk changes around repurchase tender offers,Journal of Accounting and Economics,14,459-485,1991.
23. Hertzel, M. and L. Rees,Earnings and risk changes around private placements of equity,Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance,13, 21-35,1998.
24. Hoffmann. W. H. and W. Schaper-Rinkel,Acquire or ally？A strategy framework for deciding between acquisition and cooperation,Management International Review,Vol.41,131-159,2001.
25. Jain, P.C.,The Effect of Voluntary sell-off Announcements on Shareholder Wealth,Journal of Finance,40,209-224,1985.
26. Jenson, M. C.,Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance and Takeovers,American Economic Review,76,323-339,1986.
27. Jensen, M.C. and W. H. Meckling ,Theory of the Firm：Managerial Behavior, Agency Cost and Ownership,Journal of Financial Economics,3, 305-360,1976.
28. Jeremy Goh, Hei Wai Lee, and Feng-Ying Liu ,Private Placement of Common Equity and Earnings Expectations,The Financial Review,34,19-32,1999.
29. Killing, J. ,Understanding Alliances：the Role of Task and Organizational Complexity, in Contractor and Lorange eds,Cooperative Strategies in International Business, D.C. Health and Company,1988.
30. Klein, B., Crawford, R. and Alchian, A.,Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process,Journal of Law and Economics,21,297-326,1978.
31. Kogut and Bruce,Joint Ventures：Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives,Strategic Management Journal,9,319-332,1988.
32. Koh, J. and Venkataraman, N.,Joint venture formations and stock market reactions：An assessment in the information technology sector,Academy of Management Journal,34,869-892,1991.
33. Kranton, R.,The Formation of Cooperative Relationships,The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization,12,214-233,1996.
34. K. R. Harrigan,Strategic Alliances and Partner Asymmetries,Management International Review,28,53-72,1988.
35. Lambe, C. Jay, Spekman and Robert, E.,Alliance, external technology acquisition, and discontinuous technological change,The Journal of Product Innovation Management,New York,March,33-39,1997.
36. Lewis and Jordan D.,Making Strategic Alliances Work,Research Technology Management,33,12-15,1990.
37. Lorange, P. and Ross, J.,Building Successful Strategic Alliances,Long Range Planning,25（6）,10-17,1992.
38. Lynch and Robert Porter,The Practical Guide to Joint Venture and Corporate Alliances,John Wiley & Sons,141-177,1989.
39. McConnell, J. and T. L. Nantell,Common Stock Returns and Corporate Combinations：The Case of joint Ventures,Journal of Finance,40, 519-536,1985.
40. Murray, E. and Mahon, J.,Strategic Alliances：Gateway to the new Europe. Long Range Planning,26(4),102-111,1993.
41. Myers, S. and N. Majluf,Corporate financing investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have,Journal of Financial Economics,13,187-221,1984.
42. Neueno, P. and Oosterveld, J.,Managing Technological Alliances, Harvard Business Review,143-154,1988.
43. O’Brien, P.,Analysts’ Forecasts as Earnings Expectations,Journal of Accounting and Economics,10,187-221,1988.
44. Parkhe,Strategic Alliances Structuring：A Game Theoretic and Transaction Cost Examination of Interfirm Cooperation,Academy of Management Journal, 36(4),794-829,1993. 45. Peter A. Brous and Omesh Kini,The Valuation Effects of Equity Issues and the Level of Institutional Ownership：Evidence from Analysts’ Earnings Forecasts,Financial Management,spring,33-46,1994.
46. Pfeffer, J. and Nowak, P.,Joint venture and interorganizational interdependence,Administrative Science Quarterly,21（3）, 398-418,1976.
47. Porter, M.E. and M.B. Fuller ,Coalitions and Global Strategy, Competition in Global Industries,Harvard Business School Boston, MA,1986.
48. Powell, W.,Hybrid organizational arrangements：New form or transitional development,California Management Review,30,67-87,1987.
49. Prem C. Jain,Equity Issues and Changes in Expectations of Earnings by Financial Analysts,The Review of Financial Studies,5（4）, 669-683,1992.
50. Pyung Sig Yoon and Laura T. Starks,Signaling, Investment Opportunities, and Dividend Announcements,The Review of Financial Studies,Vol.8, 995-1018,1995.
51. Robinson, W. T.,Sources of market pioneer advantages：The case of industrial goods industries,Journal of Marketing Research,Vol.25, 87-94,1988.
52. Ronald W. Best, Roger J. Best, and A. M. Agapos,Earnings Forecasrs and the Information Contained in Spinoff Announcements,The Financial Review, 33,53-68,1998.
53. Simonin, B.,The Importance of Developing Collaborative Know-How：An Empirical Test of the Learning Organization,Academy of Management Journal,40（5）,1150-1174,1997.
54. Takac, P. and Singh, C.,Strategic Alliances in Banking,Management Decision,30(1),32-43,1992.
55. Teece, D.J.,Profiting from technological innovation：Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing, and public policy,Research Policy,15,285-305,1986.
56. Volberda, H. W.,Toward the flexible form：how to remain vital in hypercompetitive environments,Organization Science,7（4）, 359-374,1996.
57. Williamson, O. and W. G. Ouchi,The Markets and Hierarchies and the Visible Hand Perspectives,Perspectives on Organization Decision and Behavior, 347-370,1981.
58. Yoshino, M. and Rangan, U.,Strategic Alliance：An Entrepreneurial Approach Globalization,Harvard Business School Press, Massachusetts,1995.
59. Zuckerman, H. and D’Aunno, T.,Hospital alliances：Cooperative strategy in a competitive environment,Health Care Management Review,15(8), 21-30,1990.