||Functional Study of Prostaglandin E2 in Endometriotic Stromal Cell
||Department of Physiology
Endometriosis is defined by the presence of viable endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and has been suggested to be a highly estrogen-dependent disease. Previous study in our laboratory demonstrated that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is aberrantly expressed in endometriotic stromal cell and is induced by prostaglandin (PG) E2. This study was designed to characterize the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) -2, the key enzyme controlling PG production, in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and to unravel the molecular mechanism responsible for PGE2-induced StAR expression. By using specific EP receptor agonist/antagonist and selective protein kinase activators/inhibitors, I was able to demonstrate that induction of StAR expression by PGE2 was mediated via EP2-coupled, protein kinase A-dependent pathway. However, the effect of PGE2 was not related with the function DAX-1 (Dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X-chromosome, gene-1), a negative regulator of StAR gene. To further unravel the molecular mechanism responsible for transcriptional regulation of StAR gene expression by PGE2, the human StAR promoter was cloned and transfected into endometriotic stromal cells. Serial deletion and site-direct mutation analyses demonstrated the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)response element located in -111 to -119 base pair of StAR promoter is critical for the basal and PGE2-induced promoter activities. Besides, I also found that PGE2 induced COX-2 expression by EP2-PKA signaling. In conclusion, PGE2 activates cAMP-PKA-C/EBP signal pathway via EP2 receptor to stimulate StAR gene expression in endometriotic stromal cell. Moreover, induction of COX-2 by PGE2 suggests a positive feedback loop in augmentation of StAR expression, which may play critical role in the development of endometriosis.
Table of Contents III
List of Figure VI
Materials and Methods 18
Tissue collection 18
Isolation and culture of endometriotic stromal cell 18
Cryopreservation and thawing of the cryopresserved cell 19
In vitro study 19
Isolation of mRNA 20
Quantification of mRNA concentration using standard curve quantitative, competitive RT-PCR (SC-QC-RT-PCR) 21
Isolation of nuclear protein 22
Western blotting 22
Progesterone assay 23
Plasmid construction 25
1) Cloning of human StAR promoter 25
2) Subclone of StAR promoter from PCR2 to pGL3-basic 26
3) Serial deletion 26
4) Site-directed mutagenesis 27
Midipreparation of plasmid DNA 28
Transient transfection and luciferase assay 29
Statistical analysis 30
PGE2 induced StAR protein expression in a time dependent manner in endometriotic stromal cell 34
Activation of cAMP-PKA signal pathway induced StAR expression in endometriotic stromal cell 34
Inhibition of cAMP-PKA signal pathway abrogated PGE2-induced StAR protein expression in endometriotic stromal cell 35
The PKA inhibitors inhibited PGE2-induced StAR expression in a dose dependent manner in endometriotic stromal cell 35
The EP2 and EP2/EP4 agonists stimulated StAR protein expression in endometriotic stromal cell 36
EP agonists induced StAR expression was abolished by PKA inhibitor and EP1/EP2 antagonist in endometriotic stromal cell 36
Effect of PKA inhibitor on PGE2-induced progesterone production in endometriotic stromal cell 37
DAX-1 protein level was inversely related to StAR protein level in eutotopic endometrial and endometriotic stromal cell 46
Nuclear level of DAX-1 was unaffected after PGE2 treatment in endometriotic stromal cell 46
PGE2 and EP2 agonist induced StAR promoter activities via activation of PKA signal pathway in endometriotic stromal cell 49
C/EBP response element is required for basal and PGE2-induced StAR promoter activities in endometriotic stromal cell 49
Protein levels of C/EBP and C/EBP protein in endometriotic and endometrial stromal cell 50
PGE2 didn't induce nuclear translocation of C/EBP or C/EBP in endometriotic stromal cells 51
PGE2 induced COX-2 protein expression in a time dependent manner in endometriotic stromal cell 57
PGE2 induced COX-2 protein expression via EP2-cAMP-PKA signal pathway in endometriotic stromal cell 57
Appendix (I): Reagent Preparation 80
Appendix (II): Chemical Acquisition 83
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