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系統識別號 U0026-0812200910350928
論文名稱(中文) 台灣中小企業創業導向、組織資源與能力對企業績效影響之研究
論文名稱(英文) An empirical study of relationship between Entrepreneurship, Organizational Resources, Capabilities, and Firm Performance
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)
系所名稱(英) Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA)
學年度 91
學期 1
出版年 92
研究生(中文) 陳建宇
研究生(英文) Chien-Yu Chen
學號 r4789132
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 106頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉漢容
召集委員-蔡東峻
口試委員-吳宗正
中文關鍵字 企業績效  創業導向  創業精神  組織資源基礎理論  中小企業 
英文關鍵字 Firm performance  SME  Resource-Based Theory  Entrepreneurship 
學科別分類
中文摘要   中小企業是台灣數十年來經濟發展的原動力之一,也是整體企業結構的主體,同時更是經由創造大量的就業機會而使社會生活安定富裕。自1990年代來,全球化趨勢促使產業環境快速變遷、競爭加劇,對中小企業的營運有著關鍵性的影響。Chittipeddi et al.(1991)認為在全球化趨勢下,代表著更多的競爭者與市場機會,未來成功的競爭策略,在本質上應具備創業導向。

  Connor(1991)認為創業導向在資源基礎理論(RBT:Resource-Based Theory)的架構中是一錯綜複雜難以分析的構面。Barney(2001)亦指出有關創業導向與RBT的研究並不多,這使得目前RBT的研究無法整合創造性與創業導向行為構面。因此本研究透過問卷調查並經統計分析,探討瞭解中小企業的創業導向、組織資源與能力之間的互動關係,並進一步研究產業環境與該三構面交互對「企業績效」的影響。

  本研究針對台灣地區金屬製品、機械設備與電子產業等209家企業所作的問卷調查研究分析結果顯示:
1. 整體樣本企業之風險承擔傾向偏低,顯示台灣中小企業,傾向步步為營、保守行事、不願冒過大的風險。
2. 不同經營歷史或產業別之企業在各構面因素間無顯著差異。而人數規模於101~150人之企業具有較高的創業導向,且組織能力與績效表現較佳。
3. 創業導向、組織資源與能力三構面確實存有互動關係。
4. 創業導向、組織資源與能力對企業財務績效有顯著的正向影響。而過度的風險承擔則對企業財務績效有負面的影響。
5. 於引入產業環境構面後,組織能力對企業績效的影響轉為不顯著。

  最後,本研究對企業提出強化前瞻預應性與競爭積極性等建議,同時建議後續研究者對創業導向之內容效度進一步作評估與修正。
英文摘要   Small and medium enterprises(SMEs) have played a critical role in the development of Taiwan economy. Since the 1990s, globalization trend had not only had severe impact on competition but also brought numerous opportunities for SMEs. Success in such dynamic and hostile environment requires entrepreneurial strategies and abundant resources.

  RBT(Resource-Based Theory) had become a dominant paradigm for strategic management research, the interface between RBT and entrepreneurship had amounted to little(Alvarez & Busenitz, 2001). Because of the lack of consideration given to entrepreneurship by most resource-based research, RBT largely fails to integrate creativity and the entrepreneurial act(Barney, 2001).This is the interest of this study to research the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and resources, and their influence on firm performance.

  Using data collected from 209 Taiwan manufacturing firms with the number of employee range from 31 to 500 by mail questionnaire, the empirical results show as follow:
1. There is no significant difference in entrepreneurial orientation, organizational resources and capabilities, or firm performance between different firm’s age, and so as different firm’s size(employee) or different industry. But firms with size between 101 and 150 have relatively high degree of entrepreneurial orientation, abundant resources, capabilities and performance.
2. There does exist the interaction relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, organization resources and capabilities.
3. The more proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness, more abundant financial resources with lower cost and better marketing capabilities, the higher performance firms will have. While risk-taking is negatively related to firm performance.
4. With interference from hostile environment factor, firm’s performance is not significantly related to organizational capabilities but proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness, and financial resources(with most significantly positive).
論文目次 中文摘要-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II
誌謝---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III
目錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV
表目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VI
圖目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VIII

第一章 緒論----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
    第一節 研究背景與動機----------------------------------------------------1
    第二節 研究目的--------------------------------------------------------------3
    第三節 研究範圍與對象----------------------------------------------------4
    第四節 研究流程--------------------------------------------------------------5

第二章 文獻探討----------------------------------------------------------------------------6
    第一節 中小企業---------------------------------------------------------------6
    第二節 創業精神與創業導向----------------------------------------------9
    第三節 組織資源與能力-----------------------------------------------------25
    第四節 產業環境---------------------------------------------------------------35
    第五節 企業績效衡量指標--------------------------------------------------38

第三章 研究方法--------------------------------------------------------------------------41
    第一節 研究架構-------------------------------------------------------------41
    第二節 研究假設-------------------------------------------------------------42
    第三節 資料分析方法------------------------------------------------------43
    第四節 操作性定義---------------------------------------------------------44
    第五節 資料收集方法------------------------------------------------------48
    第六節 問卷回收與樣本分佈--------------------------------------------49

第四章 研究結果--------------------------------------------------------------------------51
    第一節 各研究構面之敘述統計-----------------------------------------51
    第二節 各研究構面之因素分析及信度檢驗------------------------56
    第三節 不同企業基本特性在各研究構面中之差異分析----------61
    第四節 創業導向、組織資源與能力構面之集群分析-------------65
    第五節 創業導向、組織資源與能力構面之互動關係分析------69
    第六節 企業績效之迴歸分析---------------------------------------------77
    第七節 研究假設之檢定彙總---------------------------------------------81

第五章 結論與建議-----------------------------------------------------------------------83
    第一節 結論--------------------------------------------------------------------83
    第二節 建議--------------------------------------------------------------------86
    第三節 研究限制-------------------------------------------------------------88

參考文獻 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
附錄1:組織層次創業精神之實證研究文獻及相關構面變數---------------- 96
附錄2:研究問卷-------------------------------------------------------------------------100


表目錄

表2-1 :台灣中小企業認定標準-------------------------------------------6
表2-2 :民國90年企業規模別概況--------------------------------------7
表2-3 :民國90年中小型製造業中分業概況-------------------------8
表2-4 :創業精神研究之途徑 -------------------------------------------12
表2-5 :創業精神研究層次之趨勢--------------------------------------13
表2-6 :創業導向影響企業績效相關研究彙編表-------------------21
表2-7 :策略性資源的內涵------------------------------------------------30
表2-8 :資源基礎與企業績效相關研究彙編表----------------------33
表2-9 :環境不確定性之構面---------------------------------------------36
表2-10:創業導向研究常引用之績效構面及相關指標-------------39
表3-1 :創業導向之操作性定義------------------------------------------44
表3-2 :組織資源與組織能力操作性定義-----------------------------45
表3-3 :產業環境操作性定義---------------------------------------------46
表3-4 :企業績效衡量操作性定義(重視程度、滿意程度)--------47
表3-5 :分層抽樣分配-------------------------------------------------------48
表3-6 :問卷回收狀況------------------------------------------------------49
表3-7 :樣本分佈-------------------------------------------------------------50
表4-1 :創業導向構面敘述統計------------------------------------------51
表4-2 :組織資源與能力構面敘述統計--------------------------------53
表4-3 :產業環境構面敘述統計-----------------------------------------54
表4-4 :企業績效構面敘述統計-----------------------------------------55
表4-5 :創業導向構面之因素分析及信度檢驗----------------------56
表4-6 :組織資源構面之因素分析及信度檢驗----------------------57
表4-7 :組織能力構面之因素分析及信度檢驗----------------------58
表4-8 :產業環境構面之因素分析及信度檢驗----------------------59
表4-9 :企業績效構面之因素分析及信度檢驗-----------------------59
表4-10:各構面因素之傾向程度------------------------------------------60
表4-11:不同經營歷史之企業在各構面之差異分析-----------------61
表4-12:不同員工人數之企業在各構面之差異分析-----------------62
表4-13:不同產業別之企業在各構面之差異分析--------------------64
表4-14:不同集群在創業導向之平均值差異分析--------------------65
表4-15:不同創業導向之企業在各構面之差異分析----------------66
表4-16:不同集群在組織資源之平均值差異分析-------------------66
表4-17:不同組織資源之企業在各構面之差異分析----------------67
表4-18:不同集群在組織能力之平均值差異分析-------------------68
表4-19:不同組織能力之企業在各構面之差異分析----------------68
表4-20:組織資源與創業導向之典型相關模式評估表-------------69
表4-21:組織資源與創業導向之典型相關分析表-------------------69
表4-22:組織能力與創業導向之典型相關模式評估表-------------71
表4-23:組織能力與創業導向之第一模式典型相關分析表-------71
表4-24:組織能力與創業導向之第二模式典型相關分析表-------71
表4-25:組織資源與組織能力之典型相關模式評估表--------------73
表4-26:組織資源與組織能力之第一模式典型相關分析表-------74
表4-27:組織資源與組織能力之第二模式典型相關分析表-------74
表4-28:企業績效迴歸模式分析表---------------------------------------80
表4-29:研究假設檢定彙總表---------------------------------------------81


圖目錄

圖1-1:研究流程----------------------------------------------------------------5
圖2-1:創業類型---------------------------------------------------------------11
圖2-2:組織創業導向行為觀念性模式----------------------------------16
圖2-3:創業導向觀念性模式----------------------------------------------17
圖2-4:持續性競爭優勢分析模式----------------------------------------26
圖2-5:資源基礎的策略分析模式----------------------------------------27
圖2-6:企業價值動態模型--------------------------------------------------31
圖2-7:資產與能力之關係--------------------------------------------------32
圖3-1:研究架構---------------------------------------------------------------41
圖4-1:組織資源與創業導向之典型相關分析圖---------------------70
圖4-2:組織能力與創業導向之第一模式典型相關分析圖--------72
圖4-3:組織能力與創業導向之第二模式典型相關分析圖--------72
圖4-4:組織資源與組織能力之第一模式典型相關分析圖--------75
圖4-5:組織資源與組織能力之第二模式典型相關分析圖--------75
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