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系統識別號 U0026-0812200910350926
論文名稱(中文) 台灣地區圖書館書架與書檔耐震補強特性
論文名稱(英文) Earthquake Resistant Performance of Freestanding Cantilever Library Shelves and Bookends
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 91
學期 1
出版年 92
研究生(中文) 王昭然
研究生(英文) Jau-Ran Wang
學號 n7689120
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 152頁
口試委員 指導教授-姚昭智
口試委員-陳格理
口試委員-許茂雄
口試委員-吳志興
中文關鍵字 書架  書檔  振動臺  圖書館  非結構物  連桿 
英文關鍵字 library  nonstructure element  freestanding book shelves  top tie strut  bookends 
學科別分類
中文摘要   由於圖書館的書架缺少抗震措施和穩定性不夠。民國88年的921和1022兩次大地震對台灣中部的一些圖書館造成了重大的損傷。本研究之目的在於分析和說明造成這兩個問題的主要原因及可能的處理方式,並為館方提供一些耐震考慮因素以選擇適當的防範措施。

  本研究包含以下內容:
1. 收集針對各種圖書館自立式書架的破壞形式,並試圖瞭解自立式書架在強震下破壞的原因。
2. 利用系統識別試驗來確定自立式書架的動力行為,包括其自振頻率。
3. 系統識別試驗與動態破壞性試驗
4. 在瞭解自立式書架的基本性質和破壞原因後,最後以功能設計(Performance Based Design)的觀念來建立一套書架安全的評估和設計準則。

  自立式書架的穩定行為複雜。下部未採錨定螺栓或螺栓補強不良的書架,遭受地震攻擊時會呈現不穩定現象。依地震對書架攻擊的方向,基本上書架有兩種不穩定的問題,面內不穩定及面外不穩定,而形成書架各種破壞。

  研究發現以下特性:
1. 面內不穩定
1) 地震力中與書架長軸平行的縱向力,發生書架面內不穩定。自立式書架可能扭曲變形、傾倒、位移、上下跳動。
2) 交叉斜撐是書架抵抗縱向地震力的重要措施。若斜撐兩端僅以套勾方式連結主構件,則極易在地震下跳脫,而失去斜撐功能。

2. 面外不穩定
1) 圖書館書架所造成的傷害,以面外不穩定破壞最大,一排排的書架會因骨牌效應倒塌。
2) 自立式書架對橫向力抵抗性較弱。書架應錨定於地面上,將書架與建築物合為一體,降低書架本身的搖晃性,減少它對書架的傷害。
3) 最根本的方法是在書架的頂端以金屬桿件,將書架在橫向上連接起來,地震時可將書架的搖晃性藉此支架傳至其他書架,共同分擔地震力的影響。
英文摘要   Owing to the instability of and lack of earthquake-resistance devices in their shelving equipment, several libraries suffered serious damage in the two Taiwanese earthquakes of 1999. The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the main reasons for those problems, and to introduce some methods to counter them.

  This research can be split into four sections:
1. The history of cantilever library shelving failure was studied in order to discover why various types of shelves were destroyed under strong excitation.
2. System identification tests are a convenient means by which to identify the dynamic behavior of cantilever library shelves, including their fundamental frequencies.
3. Here follows the process of testing cantilever shelf materials for earthquake resistance properties: System Identification Test and Dynamic Breakdown Test
4. After studying the basic properties of the material and the conditions under which they destruct, methods to strengthen the anti-seismic capability of cantilever library shelves. A set of seismic safety standards for both library shelving in general and cantilever library shelves in particular according to the concept of Performance-Based-Design is established.

  Earthquakes can be expected to cause vibrational motions in freestanding book shelves, which, since they are often not fastened or are inadequately anchored, may cause damage by falling or toppling over. One can narrow down various instability issues into two groups: in-plane and out-of-plane.

  In-plan instability:
1. In-plane instability occurs when the ground moves in the longitudinal direction with respect to the stack range. The freestanding shelve system may either sway, overturn, slide, or jump from its original position.
2. The shelves themselves remain intact due to the use of steel cross braces in between the two sides of a double faced bracket section, which provide adequate rigidity for each section. But if brace ends were only hooked at the connection points, these ends may be loosened in the earthquake motion and render bracings useless.

Out-of-plane instability:
1. Out-of-plane instability is a matter of greater importance because of the possibility of a ‘domino effect’ collapse, which can be highly dangerous.
2. The lack of out-of-plane stability in freestanding shelves can be alleviated by employing proper anchoring and other stabilization methods.
3. A highly effective method for stiffening rows of freestanding shelves is to use the installed steel channels or strut channels. Top bracing is the surest method against overturning and minimizes the number of books falling off of shelves.
論文目次 表目錄…………………………………………………………………III
圖(照片)目錄…………………………………………………………V

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
 1-1 研究動機………………………………………………………1
 1-2 研究目的………………………………………………………2
 1-3 研究方法與試驗方法…………………………………………2
 1-4 文獻回顧………………………………………………………4

第二章 圖書館自立式(Freestanding)書架介紹…………………7
 2-1 圖書館書架主要形式…………………………………………7
 2-2 圖書館自立式書架之名稱說明………………………………8
 2-3 圖書館自立式書架基本特性介紹……………………………13
 2-4 國內自立式書架補強方式介紹………………………………15
 2-5 美國補強方式與國內補強方式之差異………………………20
 2-6 自立式書架之施工方式………………………………………21

第三章 自立式書架傾覆性分析原理………………………………27
 3-1 傾覆性分析原理簡介…………………………………………27
 3-2 運動基本形式與基本假設……………………………………28
 3-3 運動方程式……………………………………………………29
 3-4 實驗與應用……………………………………………………33

第四章 自立式書架橫向(書架短軸向)實驗……………………35
 4-1 自立式書架橫向(書架短軸向)實驗………………………35
 4-2 地表最大速度與樓板最大速度估算方法……………………36
 4-3 實驗設備………………………………………………………37
 4-4 試驗裝置過程…………………………………………………39
 4-5 試體規劃………………………………………………………40
 4-6 實驗流程………………………………………………………44
 4-7 實驗結果………………………………………………………45
 4-8 橫向傾覆性實驗數據分析……………………………………51
 4-9 小結……………………………………………………………61

第五章 自立式書架縱向(長軸向)實驗…………………………65
 5-1 試體規劃………………………………………………………65
 5-2 實驗流程………………………………………………………68
 5-3 實驗結果與分析………………………………………………68
 5-4 小結……………………………………………………………74

第六章 電腦模擬動力分析…………………………………………75
 6-1 前言……………………………………………………………75
 6-2 電腦分析之應用軟體…………………………………………75
 6-3 模型規劃………………………………………………………75
 6-4 分析項目………………………………………………………77
 6-5 電腦模擬分析…………………………………………………78
 6-6 小結……………………………………………………………85

第七章 書檔(Bookends)功能性實驗………………………………89
 7-1 前言……………………………………………………………89
 7-2 書檔型式………………………………………………………90
 7-3 實驗說明………………………………………………………93
 7-4 實驗結果與分析………………………………………………96
 7-5 小結……………………………………………………………101

第八章 國內大學圖書館書架破壞案例強震分析…………………107
 8-1 前言……………………………………………………………107
 8-2 圖書館自立式書架動力特性…………………………………108
 8-3 甲大學圖書館書架破壞分析…………………………………109
 8-4 乙大學圖書館書架破壞分析…………………………………118
 8-5 結論與建議……………………………………………………123

第九章 結論與建議…………………………………………………125
 9-1 結論……………………………………………………………125
 9-2 建議……………………………………………………………130
 9-3 後續研究………………………………………………………132

參考文獻………………………………………………………………135
附錄(SAP 2000模態分析)…………………………………………141
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