進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200910344654
論文名稱(中文) 企業國際化程度、最高階管理者之薪酬與組織績效
論文名稱(英文) The degree of internationalization, CEO compensation and organization performance
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 91
學期 1
出版年 92
研究生(中文) 張旨華
研究生(英文) Chih-Hua Chang
電子信箱 chihhua1228@yahoo.com.tw
學號 r4689120
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 111頁
口試委員 指導教授-史習安
口試委員-黃家齊
口試委員-陳世哲
指導教授-劉宗其
中文關鍵字 組織績效  高階經營團隊  企業國際化程度  最高階管理者  薪酬水準  薪酬組合 
英文關鍵字 TMT(Top Management Team)  organizational performance  CEO(Chief Executive Officer)  the internationalization degree of a company  pay level  pay mix 
學科別分類
中文摘要   本研究為探討「企業之國際化程度」、「最高階管理者之薪酬水準與薪酬組合」、「最高階管理者之國際化經驗」、「高階經營團隊之規模與國際化經驗」以及「組織績效」間的關係。主要可分為兩大部分,前半部份在於驗證兩兩變數間的關係,後半部份則檢驗兩兩變數間的配適情況對組織績效的影響。

  研究變數資料的取得主要來自於郵寄問卷,而財務性績效指標則以次級資料的方式取得。本研究以經濟部所公布的「九十年度進出口績優廠商名錄」為主要參考依據,並搭配中華徵信所出版的「2002 & 2003年台灣地區企業經理人名錄」中最高階管理者與高階經營團隊之名單,共選出510家企業為主要母體。共寄出最高階管理者問卷510份,回收76份,有效回收率為14.9%,高階經營團隊問卷則寄出1000份,回收153份,有效回收率為15.3%。問卷資料經由初步統計分析歸納計算出各變數數值,再分別以相關分析,層級迴歸分析、單因子變異數分析等探討各變數間的關係。

  研究結果顯示:(1)企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之因素(包括最高階管理者之薪酬水準、薪酬組合與國際化經驗等)間的關係都獲得顯著支持。(2)當企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之因素間的配適程度越高,則其對組織績效的正向影響也就越大。(3)企業之國際化程度與高階經營團隊之特性(包含其規模與國際化經驗)僅獲得部分支持。(4)當企業之國際化程度與高階經營團隊之特性間配適程度越高,其對組織績效的正向影響只在財務性績效方面獲得支持,非財務性績效則否。

  本研究的主要貢獻在於,嘗試驗證在相關的研究中兩項前人很少使用的變數----「企業之國際化程度」與「最高階管理者本身之國際化經驗」對「最高階管理者之薪酬」的影響,並獲得證實。此可提供給後續欲研究最高階管理者薪酬之學者一思考方向,並對實務界人士在制訂薪酬時給予參考之依據。至於在高階經營團隊方面,雖然實證結果並不如預期,但卻也提供了後續學術研究另一方向的思考,或許國情的差異,真的是造成台灣與美國的高階團隊特性差異的主因。
英文摘要   This research is to investigate the relationship among “the internationalization degree of a company”, “CEOs’ pay level and pay mix”, “CEOs’ international assignment experience”, “TMT size and international experience” and “organization performance”. It can be divided into two parts---- one is to examine the relation between those two variables above and the later one is to test the influence of the fitness between those two variables on organization performance.

  Most of the data are collected from mailing questionnaires. The financial performance indexes are gathered from “Securities and Futures Institution”. The samples in this research are mainly collated from “Directory of Excellent Exporters/ Importers in 2001” issued by Ministry of Economic Affairs and “The Manager Directory in Taiwan of 2002 & 2003” issued by China Credit Information Service, LTD. We selected 510 companies and sent 510 questionnaires for CEOs and 1000 questionnaires for TMTs. For CEOs, we got 76 usable questionnaires back--- the return rate is 14.9%. And for TMTs, we got 153 usable questionnaires back---the return rate is 15.3%.

  Through correlation analysis, hierarchical regression, and ANOVA analysis, the results show that: (1) The relation between “the internationalization degree of a company” and “the factors of CEO” (including CEOs’ pay level, pay mix and international experience) is positive. (2) The higher the fitness between “the internationalization degree of a company” and “the factors of CEO”, the more positive influence on organization performance. (3) The positive relation between “the internationalization degree of a company” and “the factors of TMTs (including TMTs’ size and international experience) is partly supported. (4) The higher the fitness between “the internationalization degree of a company” and the factors of “the factors of TMTs”, the stronger influence only on financial organization performance.

  The main contribution of this research is that we provide evidence--- “the internationalization degree of a company” and “the CEO’s international assignment experience” are the two factors, which influence CEO’s pay. This may provide some useful information for researchers and business when they consider related topics. As for TMT part, the empirical results are partly supported. Researchers can further investigate the differences of the TMTs’ roles between Taiwanese and American firms more thoroughly.
論文目次 第一節 緒論 ----------------------------------------------------------- 1
  第一節 研究背景與動機 ---------------------------------------------- 1
  第二節 研究問題與目的 ---------------------------------------------- 3
  第三節 研究流程 ---------------------------------------------------- 3
  第四節 章節架構 ---------------------------------------------------- 5

第二章 文獻探討 -------------------------------------------------------- 6
  第一節 決定最高階管理者薪酬之因素 ---------------------------------- 6
  第二節 企業國際化程度 ---------------------------------------------- 11
   一、企業國際化 ---------------------------------------------------- 11
   二、國際化程度的意涵 ---------------------------------------------- 12
  第三節 最高階管理者 ---------------------------------------------------- 13
   一、最高階管理者之國際化經驗 -------------------------------------- 13
   二、最高階管理者之薪酬水準 --------------------------------------- 15
   三、最高階管理者之薪酬組合 ---------------------------------------- 18
  第四節 高階經營團隊 ---------------------------------------------- 21
   一、高階經營團隊之規模 -------------------------------------------- 21
   二、高階經營團隊之國際化經驗 -------------------------------------- 22
  第五節 配適程度對組織績效之影響 ------------------------------------ 23
   一、人力資源管理中「配適」的觀念 ---------------------------------- 23
   二、組織績效 ------------------------------------------------------ 25
   三、最高階管理者之國際化經驗對組織績效之影響 ------------------- 26
   四、企業國際化程度與最高階管理者薪資設計之配適程度
     對組織績效之影響-----------------------------------------------28
   五、企業國際化程度與高階經營團隊特質之配適程度
     對組織績效之影響-----------------------------------------------30

第三章 研究方法 ------------------------------------------------------- 33
  第一節 研究架構 ---------------------------------------------------- 33
  第二節 研究假設 ---------------------------------------------------- 35
  第三節 研究變項之操作性定義 ---------------------------------------- 36
  第四節 問卷設計 ---------------------------------------------------- 42
  第五節 抽樣方法 ---------------------------------------------------- 46
  第六節 資料分析方法 ------------------------------------------------ 48

第四章 實證分析 -------------------------------------------------------- 50
  第一節 樣本基本資料分析 --------------------------------------------50
   一、樣本公司的產業分佈情況、多角化程度與組織規模 ---------------- 50
   二、最高階管理者與高階經營團隊之平均年齡、年資
     與學歷分佈狀況------------------------------------------------- 52
  第二節 企業之國際化程度 -------------------------------------------- 55
   一、 變數轉換與加總 ----------------------------------------------- 55
   二、企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之國際化經驗 ------------------- 55
   三、企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之薪酬水準 ---------------------- 56
   四、企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之薪酬組合 ---------------------- 58
   五、企業之國際化程度與高階經營團隊之規模 -------------------------- 59
   六、企業之國際化程度與高階經營團隊之國際化經驗 -------------------- 60
  第三節 企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之國際化經驗間之配適 ---- 61
  第四節 「配適」對組織績效的影響 ------------------------------------ 64
   一、財務與非財務資料之轉換與整合 -----因素分析 -------------------- 64
   二、企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者國際化經驗之配適 -------------- 65
   三、高階經營團隊之國際化經驗與最高階管理者之
     國際化經驗之配適---------------------------------------------- 68
   四、企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者之薪酬水準之配適 ------------- 70
   五、企業之國際化程度與最高階管理者薪酬組合之配適 ---------------- 72
   六、企業之國際化程度與高階經營團隊之規模之配適 -------------------- 74
   七、企業之國際化程度與高階經營團隊之國際化經驗之配適 ---------- 76
  第五節 研究假設檢定結果 --------------------------------------------- 77

第五章 結論與建議 ------------------------------------------------------ 79
  第一節 研究結果與討論 ---------------------------------------------- 79
  第二節 研究貢獻與研究限制 ------------------------------------------ 85
   一、研究貢獻 ------------------------------------------------------ 85
   二、研究限制 ------------------------------------------------------ 86
  第三節 研究建議 ---------------------------------------------------- 88
   一、對實務界之建議 ------------------------------------------------ 88
   二、對後續研究者之建議--------------------------------------------- 89

參考文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 91
附錄:研究問卷 ---------------------------------------------------------- 104


圖目錄

圖 1-3-1 研究流程 -------------------------------------------------------4
圖 3-1-1 研究架構(一)--------------------------------------------------33
圖 3-1-2 研究架構(二)--------------------------------------------------34
圖 3-1-3 研究架構(三)--------------------------------------------------34


表目錄

表 2-1-1 影響最高階管理者薪酬之因素 --------------------------------------9
表 3-4-1 「CEO問卷」之研究變項與問卷內容 ---------------------------------45
表 3-4-2 「TMT問卷」之研究變項與問卷內容 ---------------------------------46
表 4-1-1 產業分佈情況 ----------------------------------------------------50
表 4-1-2 樣本公司多角化程度 ----------------------------------------------51
表 4-1-3 樣本公司組織規模 ------------------------------------------------52
表 4-1-4 最高階管理者之年齡 ----------------------------------------------52
表 4-1-5 高階經營團隊之年齡 ----------------------------------------------53
表 4-1-6 最高階管理者之年資 ----------------------------------------------53
表 4-1-7 高階經營團隊之年資 ----------------------------------------------53
表 4-1-8 最高階管理者之學歷 ----------------------------------------------54
表 4-1-9 高階經營團隊之學歷 ----------------------------------------------54
表 4-2-1 企業國際化程度與最高階管理者國際化經驗之相關分析 ----------------56
表 4-2-2 企業國際化程度與最高階管理者國際化經驗之迴歸分析 ----------------56
表 4-2-3 企業國際化程度與最高階管理者薪酬水準之相關分析 ------------------57
表 4-2-4 企業國際化程度與最高階管理者薪酬水準之迴歸分析 ------------------57
表 4-2-5 企業國際化程度與最高階管理者薪酬組合之相關分析 ------------------58
表 4-2-6 企業國際化程度與最高階管理者薪酬組合之迴歸分析 ------------------58
表 4-2-7 企業國際化程度與高階經營團隊規模之迴歸分析 ----------------------59
表 4-2-8 企業國際化程度與高階經營團隊國際化經驗之迴歸分析 ---------------59
表 4-3-1 國際化程度與國際化經驗對薪酬水準之迴歸分析 ----------------------62
表 4-3-2 國際化程度與國際化經驗對薪酬水準之變異數分析 --------------------63
表 4-4-1 財務性組織績效之因素分析 ----------------------------------------64
表 4-4-2 非財務性組織績效之因素分析 --------------------------------------65
表 4-4-3 國際化程度與國際化經驗對財務性組織績效之變異數分析 ------------67
表 4-4-4 國際化程度與國際化經驗對非財務性組織績效之變異數分析 ----------67
表 4-4-5 高階經營團隊與最高階管理者對財務性組織績效之變異數分析 ------69
表 4-4-6 高階經營團隊與最高階管理者對非財務性組織績效之變異數分析---69
表 4-4-7 國際化程度與薪酬水準對財務性組織績效之變異數分析 ----------------71
表 4-4-8 國際化程度與薪酬水準對非財務性組織績效之變異數分析 ------------71
表 4-4-9 國際化程度與薪酬組合對財務性組織績效之變異數分析 ----------------73
表 4-4-10 國際化程度與薪酬組合對非財務性組織績效之變異數分析 -----------73
表 4-4-11 國際化程度與高階經營團隊規模對財務性組織績效之變異數分析 --75
表 4-4-12 國際化程度與高階經營團隊規模對非財務性組織績效
     之變異數分析------------------------------------------------75
表 4-4-13 國際化程度與TMT國際化經驗對財務性組織績效之變異數分析-----77
表 4-4-14 國際化程度與TMT國際化經驗對非財務性組織績效之變異數分析 --77
表 4-5-1 研究假設檢定結果整理表 -----------------------------------------78
參考文獻 一、 中文部分
2. 丁錦鳳(1999)台灣廠商國際化發展與績效關係之研究,國立暨南國際大學國際企業學研究所未出版碩士論文。

3. 王彝玫(2000)產業競爭程度、企業策略與國際化程度之關聯性研究 ,私立元智大學管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

4. 石雅慧(2002)高階經理人薪酬結構之分析- 台灣廠商之實證研究,淡江大學產業經濟研究所未出版碩士論文。

5. 江正信(2000)高階經營團隊與企業策略決策模式,組織學習傾向,創新能力及經營績效之關係研究,國立成功大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

6. 李建民(2001)台灣廠商國際化之策略、營運組織與協調機制之研究-以台達電子和宏碁電腦為例,國立台灣大學國際企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

7. 李志華(1982)台灣企業績效評估方式之研究,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

8. 林穎芬(1988)民營企業最高主管報償與公司績效之研究,國立中山大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

9. 林聖凡(2001)高階管理團隊特質、產業環境特質與企業海外投資行為之研究,國立暨南大學國際企業研究所未出版碩士論文。

10. 吳玉瑩(2001)台灣管理階層薪資結構—Tournament theory,國立中央大學產業經濟研究所未出版碩士論文。

11. 吳政穎(2000)我國上市公司股權集中度、薪酬設計與公司經營績效關係之研究,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版博士論文。

12. 吳政宜(2002)臺灣軟體公司國際化成功因素探討,國立交通大學高階主管管理學程碩士班未出版碩士論文。

13. 涂淑惠(2001)管理才能、薪酬與組織績效關連性之探討---------人力資本理論之應用,國立中正大學企業管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。

14. 許宏明(1995)高科技產業的教育訓練制度與組織績效之相關性研究,國立中央大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

15. 陸碧霞(1991)企業策略、薪酬策略與績效關係之實證研究,東吳大學管理學研究所未出版碩士論文。

16. 張明雄(1995)競爭策略、技術策略配合與經營績效之關係:以石化業為例,國立中央大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

17. 張景翔(2000)企業經營策略與薪資策略關係之研究,國立中央大學人力資源研究所未出版碩士論文。

18. 陳德釧(1997)企業國際化程度與組織因素之關係,國立中央大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

19. 陳儒彥(1997)民營企業最高階主管薪酬設定之影響因素研究-以國內製造業、服務業前500大為例,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

20. 陳俊勛(2001)上市公司高階主管薪酬與公司經營績效、風險之關係實證研究,淡江大學會計學研究所未出版碩士論文。

21. 趙必孝(1994)國際企業子公司的人力資源管理:策略、控制與績效,國立中山大學企業管理研究所未出版博士論文。

22. 鄭為庠(1992)高階主管薪酬計畫與薪酬決定因素之研究,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

23. 鄧秀琴(2002)國際化經驗、創始國際化年齡與企業績效間關係之研究,國立政治大學國際貿易學系研究所未出版碩士論文。

24. 鍾招龍(1996)我國輸出入銀行績效考核制度之研究,國立政治大學會計研究所未出版碩士論文。

25. 蕭弘毅(1993)高階管理者薪酬計畫與企業營運績效關係之研究,東吳大學管理科學研究所。

26. 蘇薇(1997)高階主管薪酬所有權結構對公司經營績效之影響, 國立雲林科技大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

27. 羅潔伶(1995)影響企業薪酬制度之因素探討,國立中央大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。

28. 「台灣地區企業經理人名錄2002/2003」(2002),中華徵信所出版。



二、英文部份

1. Agarwal, N. (1981) Determinants of executive compensation. Industrial Relations, 20(1), winter, 36-45.

2. Aldrich, H.E. (1979) Organizations and environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

3. Alexander, D.L. & Zhoy, H. (1995) Product-market competition and executive compensation. Journal of Economics and Business, 47(5): 441-456.

4. Amit, R., & Schoemaker, P. (1993) Strategic assets and organizational rent. Strategic Management Journal, 14: 33-46.

5. Ancona, D. & Nadler, D. (1989) Top hats and executive tales: Designing the senior team. Sloan Management Review, 31(1): 19-29.

6. Arthur, J.B. (1992) The link between business strategy and industrial relations systems in American steel minimills. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45(3):488-506.

7. Arthur, J.B. (1994) Effects of human systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3):670-667.

8. Athanassiou, N. & Nigh, D. (1999) The impact of U.S. company internationalization on top management team advice networks: A tacit knowledge perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 83-92.

9. Balkin, D.B. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1987) Toward a Contingency Theory of Compensation Strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 8: 169-182.

10. Balkin, D.B. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1990) Matching compensation and organizational strategies. Strategic Management Journal, 11:153-169.

11. Balkin, D.B. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1992) Compensation, organizational strategy, and firm performance. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western.

12. Barkema, H.G. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1998) Managerial compensation and firm performance: a general research framework. Academy of Management Journal, 41(2): 135-145.

13. Barney, J. (1992) Integrating organizational behavior and strategy formulation research: A resource based analysis. In P. Shrivastava, A. Huff, & J.Dutton (Eds). Advances in Strategic Management, 8: 39-61. Greenwich, CT: JAT Press.

14. Bartlett, C., & Ghoshal, S. (1989) Managing across borders. Boston: Garvard Business School Press.

15. Bartlett, C., & Ghoshal, S. (1992) What is a global manager? Harvard Business Review, 70(5): 124-132.

16. Baumol, W.J. (1959) Business Behavior, Value and Growth. Macmillan, New York.

17. Baysinger, B.D. & Hoskisson, R.E. (1990) The composition of the board of directors and strategic control: Effects of corporate strategy. Academy of Management Review, 15: 72-87.

18. Becker, G.S. (1964) Human capital (1ST ed.) New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

19. Bird, A. & Beechler, S. (1995) Links between business strategy and human resource management. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(1): 23-47.

20. Boeker, W. (1997) Executive migration and strategic change: The effect of top manager movement on product-market entry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(2): 213-237.

21. Brahm, R. (1994) The institutional embeddedness of international business strategy. Journal of Management Inquiry, 3: 40-50.

22. Buckley, P.J. & Ghauri, P.N. (1999) The internationalization of the firm. 2nd ed, London: International Thompson Publishing.

23. Calof, J.L. & Beamish, P.W. (1995) Adapting to foreign markets: Explaining internationalization. International Business Review, 4(2).

24. Carpenter, M.A., Sanders, Wm.G. & Gregersen, H.B. (2001) Bundling human capital with organizational context: the impact of international assignment experience on multinational firm performance and CEO pay. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3): 493-511.

25. Carpenter, M.A. & Fredrickson, J.W. (2001) Top management teams, global strategic posture, and the moderating role of uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3): 533-545.

26. Carroll, S.J. (1987) Business strategies and compensation systems. In Balkin, D.B. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (eds), New Perspective in Compensation, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

27. Ciscel, D.H. & Carroll, T.M. (1980) The determinants of executive salaries: an econometric survey. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 62(1).

28. Coff, R. (1997) Human assets and management dilemmas: Coping with hazards on the road to resource-based theory. Academy of Management Review, 22: 374-402.

29. Cooper, A.C. & Bruno, A. (1977) Success among high-technology firms. Business Horizons, 20(2): 16-22.

30. Daft, R. (1992) Organization theory and design. St. Paul: West.

31. Daily, C.M., Certo, S.T., & Dalton, D.R. (2000) International experience in the executive suite: The path to prosperity? Strategic Management Journal, 21: 515-523

32. Danielle, L (2001) Experience, tenure and perception of employers. Southern Economic Journal, 67(3): 578-597.

33. Daniels, J.D. & Bracker, J. (1989) Profit performance: Do foreign operations make a difference? Management International Review. Wiesbaden, First Quarter, 29(1): 46-57.

34. Delaney, J.T. & Huselid, M.A. (1996) The impact of human resource management practice on perception of organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4): 949-969.

35. Devanna, M.A., Fombrun C. & Tichy N. (1981) Human resources management: a strategic perspective. Organizational Dynamics, 9(3), winter, 51-67

36. Doz, Y.L. & Prahalad, C.K. (1981) Headquarters influence and strategic control of MNCs. Sloan Management Review, 22(4): 15-21.

37. Dyer, L. (1983) Bringing human resources into the strategy formulation process. Human Resource Management, 23(3), Fall, 257-271.

38. Dyer, J., & Singh, G.K. (1998) The relational view: Strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23: 660-679.

39. Eisenhardt, K.M. & Schoonhoven, C.B. (1990) Organizational growth: Linking founding team, strategy, environment, and growth among U.S. semiconductor ventures, 1978-1988. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 504-529.

40. Errunza, V.R., Senbet, L.W. & Logue, D.E. (1981) The effects of international operations on the market value of the firm: Theory and evidence/ discussion. The Journal of Finance: 36(2): 401-420.

41. Fama, E.F. (1980) Agency problems and the theory of the firm. Journal of Political Economy, 88: 188-307.

42. Fatemi, A.M. (1984) Shareholder benefits from corporate international diversification. The Journal of Finance, Cambridge, Dec. 39(5): 1325-1345.

43. Finkelstein, S. & Hambrick, D.C. (1988) Chief executive compensation: a synthesis and reconciliation. Strategic Management Journal, 9(6): 543-558.

44. Finkelstein, S. & Hambrick, D.C. (1989) Chief executive compensation: a study of the intersection of markets and political processes. Strategic Management Journal, 10: 121-134.

45. Finkelstein, S. & Hambrick, D. (1996) Strategic leadership: Top executives and their effects on organization. St. Paul: West.

46. Finkelstein, S. & Boyd, B.K. (1998) Market comparison earnings and the bidding-up of executive cash compensation: evidence from the United Kingdom. Academy of Management Journal, 41(2): 221-231.

47. Fox, H. (1980) Top Executive Compensation. The Conference Board, New York

48. Galbraith, C. & Schendel D. (1983) An empirical analysis of strategy types. Strategic Management Journal, 4:153-173.

49. Garen, J.E. (1994) Executive compensation and principal-agent theory. Journal of Political Economy, 102: 1175-1199.

50. Gomez-Mejia, L.R., Tosi, R., & Hinkin, T. (1987) Organizational determinants of chief executive compensation. Working Paper, University of Florida.

51. Gomez-Mejia, L.R. & Welbourne, T.M. (1988) Compensation strategy: an overview and future steps. Human Resource Planning, 11:173-189.

52. Gomez-Mejia, L.R. & Welbourne, T.M. (1989) Strategic design of executive compensation programs. In Gomez-Mejia (ed.) Compensation and Benefits, ASPA-BNA Series. The Bureau of National Affairs, 216-269.

53. Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1992) Structure and process of diversification, compensation strategy and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 13: 381-397.

54. Gomez-Mejia, L.R. & Balkin, D.B. (1992) Compensation organizational strategy and firm performance. South-Western Series in Human Resources Management.

55. Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1992) Structure and process of diversification, compensation strategy, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 13: 381-397.

56. Gomez-Mejia, L.R. & Wiseman, R.M. (1997) Reframing executive compensation: An assessment and outlook. Journal of Management, 23(3): 291-374.

57. Gomez-Mejia, L.R & .Barkema, H.G. (1998) Managerial compensation and firm performance: a general research framework. Academy of Management Journal, 41(2): 135-145.

58. Grabke-Rundell, A. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (2002) Power as a determinant of executive compensation. Human Resource Management Review, 12: 3-23.

59. Gregersen, H.B., Morrison, A.J. & Black, J.S. (1998) Developing leaders for the global frontier. Sloan Management Review, 40(1): 21-42.

60. Gupta, A. & Govindarajan, V. (1991) Knowledge flows and the structure of control within multinational corporations. Academy of Management Review, 16: 768-792.

61. Haleblian, J. & Finkelstein, S. (1993) Top management team size, CEO dominance, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 36(4): 844-850.

62. Hambrick, D.C. (1981) Environment, strategies and power within top management teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26: 253-275.

63. Hambrick, D.C., & D’Aveni, R.A. (1992) Top team deterioration as part of the downward spiral of large corporate bankruptcies. Management Science, 3B: 1445-1466.

64. Hambrick, D.C. & Mason, P. (1984) Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Journal, 15: 514-535.

65. Hambrick, D.C., Cho, T. & Chen, M. (1996) The influence of top management team heterogeneity on firms’ competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41: 659-684.

66. Hare, A. P. (1976) Handbook of small group research. New York: Free Press.

67. Harris, M. & Holmstrom, B. (1982) A theory of wage dynamics. Review of Economic Studies, 69: 315-333.

68. Henderson, R. & Risher, H.W. (1987) Influencing organizational strategy through compensation leadership. . In Balkin, D.B. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (eds), New Perspective in Compensation, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

69. Henderson, A.D. & Fredrickson, J.W. (1996) Information-processing demands as a determinants of CEO compensation. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3): 575-606.

70. Herrmann, P. (2002) The influence of CEO characteristics on the international diversification of manufacturing firms: An empirical study in the United State. International Journal of Management, 19(2): 279-289.

71. Hill, G. W. (1982). Group versus individual performance: Are n + 1 heads better than one? Psychological Bulletin, 91: 517-539.

72. Hill, C.W. & Phan, P. (1991) CEO tenure as a determinant of CEO pay. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 707-717.

73. Hitt, M., Hoskisson, R., & Kim, H. (1997) International diversification: Effects on innovation and firm performance in product-diversified firms. Academy of Management Journal, 40: 767-798.

74. Hoffman, J.J., Lheureux, R.A. & Lamont, B.T. (1997) The effect of “inner” and “outer” TMT size on the performance of international firms. Journal of Managerial Issues, 9(1): 121-134.

75. Jensen, M.C. & Murphy, K.J. (1990) Performance pay and top management incentives. Journal of Political Economy, 98: 225-264.

76. Johanson, J. & Vahlne, J.E. (1977) The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitment. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1): 23-32.

77. Kerr, J.L. (1985) Diversification strategies and managerial rewards: an empirical study. Academy of Management Journal, 28: 155-179.

78. Kerr, J.L. & Bettis, R. A. (1987) Board of direction top management compensation and shareholders’ returns. Academy of Management Journal, 645-664.

79. Kerr, J. & Slocum, J.W. (1987) Managing corporate culture through reward systems. Academy of Management EXECUTIVE, 1(2).

80. Kim, W., & Mauborgne, R. (1993) Procedural justice, attitudes, and subsidiary top management compliance with multinationals’ corporate strategic decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 502-526.

81. Knickerbocker, F. (1973) Oligopolistic reaction and multinational enterprise. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

82. Kobrin, S. (1988) Expatriate reduction and strategic control in American multinational corporations. Human Resource Management, 27: 63-75.

83. Kosnik, R.D. & Bettenhausen, K.L. (1992) Agency theory and the motivational effect of management compensation: an experimental contingency study. Group and Organization Management, 17: 309-330.

84. Larcker, D.F. The association between performance plan adoption and corporate capital investment. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 5(3): 3-30.

85. Lawler, E. E. (1981) Pay and Organization Development. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

86. Lawler, E.E. (1986) Pay for performance: a motivational analysis. Technical Report, Center for Effective Organization, University of Southern California.

87. Lawless, M.W. (1987) The structure of strategy: a taxonon study of competitive strategy and technology in strategy. Unpublished technical report, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

88. Lohrke, F.T. & Bruton, G.D. (1997) Contributions and Gops in international strategic Management literature. Journal of International Management, 3(1): 25-57.

89. Lublin, J. (1996) An overseas stint can be a ticket to the top. Wall Street Journal, January 29: B1.

90. Marshall, F.R., Briggs, V.M., Jr., & King, A.G. (1984) Labor economics. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

91. Masson, R.T. (1971) Executive motivations, earnings, and consequent equity performance. Journal of Political Economy, 79: 1278-1294.

92. March, J. & Simon, H. (1958) Organizations. New York: Wiley.

93. Maruca, L. (1994) The right way to go global: An interview with Whirlpool CEO David Whitwam. Harvard Business Review, 72(2): 135-145.

94. McGuire, J.W., Chiu, J.S. & Elbing, A.O. (1962) Executive Incomes, Sales and Profits. American Economic Review, 60: 753-761.

95. McEachern, W. A. (1975) Managerial Control and Performance, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA.

96. Medoff, J.L. & Abraham, K.G. (1980) Experience, performance and earnings. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 94: 703-736.

97. Miller, D. (1986) Configurations of strategy and structure towards a synthesis. Strategic Management Journal, 7: 233-249.

98. Milkovich, G.T. (1988) A strategic perspective on compensation management. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 6: 263-288.

99. Milkovich, G.T. & Gerhart, B. & Hannon, J. (1991) The effects of research and development intensity on managerial compensation in large organizations. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 2(1), 133-150.

100. Mintzberg, H. (1973) The nature of Managerial work. New York: Harper & Row.

101. Murphy, K.J. (1985) Corporate performance and managerial remuneration. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 7: 11-42.

102. Murtha, T., Lenway, S. & Bagozzi, S. (1998) Global mindsets and cognitive shifts in a complex multinational corporation. Strategic Management Journal, 19: 97-114.

103. Nicholas, A. & Douglas, N. (2002) The impact of the top management team’s international business experience on the firm’s internationalization: social networks at work. Management International Review, 4: 157-181.

104. Nkomo, S.M. (1987) Human resource planning and organization performance: An exploratory analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 8(4): 387-393.

105. Nunally, J.C. (1978) Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

106. Ohmae, K. (1989) Managing in a borderless world. Harvard Business Review, 67(3): 152-161.

107. O’Reilly, C., Main, B. & Crystal, G. (1988) CEO compensation as Tournament and social comparison: a tale of two theories. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33: 257-274.

108. Papadakis, V. M. & Barwise, P. ( 2002) How much do CEOs and top managers matter in strategic decision-making? British Journal of Management, 13(1): 83-95.

109. Pennings, J.M. (1993) Executive reward systems. A cross-national comparison. Journal of Management Studies, 30: 261-281.

110. Penrose, E. (1959) The theory of the growth of the firm. London: Basil Blackwell.

111. Perlmutter, H. (1969) The tortuous evolution of the multinational corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, 4(1): 9-18.

112. Porter, M.E. (1980) Competitive strategy, Free Press, New York.

113. Prahalad, C. (1990) Globalization-The intellectual and managerial challenges. Human Resource Management, 29: 27-38.

114. Prahalad, C. & Hamel, G. (1994) Strategy as a field of study: Why search for a new paradigm? Strategic Management Journal, 15: 5-16.

115. Prescott, J. (1986) Environments as moderators of relationship between strategy and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 29: 329-346.

116. Rajagopalan, N. (1990) Determinants of top management compensation. Journal of Management, 16(3): 515-539.

117. Rajagopalan, N. & Finkelstein, S. (1992) Effects of strategic orientation and environmental change on senior management reward systems. Strategic Management Journal, 13: 127-142.

118. Rajagopalan, N. (1996) CEO characteristics: Does industry matter? Academy of Management Journal, 39(1): 197-216.

119. Rajagopalan, N. (1997) Strategic orientations, incentive plan adoptions, and firm performance: evidence from electric utility firms. Strategic Management Journal, 18: 761-785.

120. Redling, E.T. (1981) Myth vs. reality: The relationship between top executive pay and corporate performance. Compensation Review, 13(4): 16-24.

121. Rich, J.T. & Larson, J.A. (1984) Why some long term incentives fail? Compensation Review, 16: 26-37.

122. Ricks, D., Toyne, B., & Martinez, Z. (1990) Recent developments in international management research. Journal of Management, 16(2): 219-253.

123. Roberts, D.R. (1959) A general theory of executive compensation based on statistically tested propositions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70: 270-294.

124. Roche, G. (1975) Compensation and the mobile executive. Harvard Business Review, 53(6): 53-62.

125. Romero, M.G. & Cabrera, R.V. (2001) Strategy and managers’ compensation: the Spanish case. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(2): March 218-242.

126. Roth, K. (1995) Managing international interdependence: CEO characteristics in a resource-based framework. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 200-231.

127. Roth, K. & O’Donnell, S. (1996) Foreign subsidiary compensation strategy: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3): 678-703.

128. Rousseau, D. & Park, J.M. (1993) The contracts of individuals and organizations. In L.L. Cummings & B.M. Staw (eds.) Research in Organizational behavior, 15: 1-43.

129. Rugman, A.M. & Mcllveen, J. (1985) Canadian multinationals: Identification, performance and strategic management. Management International Review, 25(3): 41-57.

130. Rumelt, R. P. (1974) Strategy, structure and economic performance. Division of research, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA.

131. Salter, M.S. (1973) Tailor incentive compensation to strategy. Harvard Business Review, 51(2), March-April, 94-102.

132. Sambharya, R. (1996) Foreign experience of top management teams and international diversification strategies of U.S. multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 44: 477-492.

133. Samiee, S. & Athanassiou, N. (1998) International strategy research: cross-cultural methodology implications. Journal of Business Research, 43(2): 79-96.

134. Schuler, R.S. & MacMillan, I.C. (1984) Gaining competitive advantage through human resource management practices. Human Resource Management, 23(3), fall, 241-255.

135. Simon, H. (1981) The sciences of the artificial. MIT Press Cambridge, MA.

136. Steers, R. & Ungson, G. (1986) Strategic issues in executive compensation decisions. Working Paper, University of Oregon.

137. Stopford, M. (1992) Shipping cycles and ship finance: A special overview. International Financial Law Review, London, 3-6.

138. Sullivan, D. (1994) Measuring the degree of internationalization of a firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 25: 325-342.

139. Teece, D., Pisano, G. & Shuen, A. (1997) Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18: 509-533.

140. Tichy, N. (1983) Managing organizational transformations. Human Resource Management, 22(1), spring: 45-60.

141. Tichy, N., Fombrum, C. & Devanna, M. (1984) Strategic Human Resource Management. New York: Wiley.

142. Thompson, J.D. (1967) Organizations in actions. New York. McGraw-Hill.

143. Tosi, H.L. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1989) The decoupling of CEO pay and performance: an agency theory perspective. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34: 169-189.

144. Tosi, H.L., Wernaer, S., Katz, J. & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (1998) A Meta-analysis of executive compensation studies. Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida at Gainesville.

145. Tung, R. & Miller, E. (1990) Managing in the twenty-first century: The need for a global orientation. Management International Review, 30(1): 5-18.

146. Tushman, M. & Nadler, D. (1978) Information processing as an integrating concept in organizational design. Academy of Management Review, 3:613-624.

147. Tushman, M. & Romanelli, E. (1983) Uncertainty, social location and influence in decision making: a sociometric analysis. Management Science, 2991: 12-23.

148. Venkatraman, N. & Camillus, J.C. (1984) Exploring the concept of “fit” in strategic management. Academy of Management Review, 9: 513-525.

149. Venkatraman, N. & Ramanujam, V. (1986) Measurement of Business Performance in Strategy Research: A comparison of approaches. Academy of Management Review, 11(4): 801-815.

150. Weick, K., & Van Orden, P. (1990) Organizing on a global scale. In N. Tichy (ed.) Human Resource Management, 29: 49-62. New York: Wiley.

151. Wernerfelt, B. (1984) A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5: 171-180.

152. Wiersema, M.F. (1992) Top management team demography and corporate strategic change. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1): 91-122.

153. Yeung, A. & Ready, D. (1995) Developing leadership capabilities of global corporations: A comparative study in eight nations. Human Resource Management, 34: 529-547.

154. Zachary, G. (1996) Major U.S. companies expand efforts to sell to consumers abroad. Wall Street Journal, June 13: A1.

155. Zajac, E.J. (1990) CEO selection succession, compensation and firm performance: A theoretical integration and empirical analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 11: 217-230.

156. Zajac, E.J. & Westphal, J.D. (1994) Substance and symbolism in CEO’s long-term incentive plans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39: 367-390.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2003-01-13起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2003-01-13起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw