||An Investigation of Relationship among Service Quality, Service Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Behavior Intention: An Empirical Study in Taiwan Automobile Market
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
本研究主要研究對象為台灣北區、中區及南區的汽車使用者，以網路問卷方式蒐集樣本，採用(Cronin et al., 2000)提出的研究模式，建立適合的線性結構關係模式以探討影響服務品質、服務價值、知覺犧牲、顧客滿意度與行為意向之間的關聯性研究。並進行敘述性計量分析、信度分析、因素分析、效度分析、差異性分析、AMOVA, MNOVA, 線性結構關係及多群組結構方程模式比較。
本研究之結果(1)服務品質對服務價值有正相關(β=0.57, t value = 12.357, p<0.001) 及客戶滿意度(β=0.61, t value = 11.909, p<0.001)有正相關 (2) 知覺犧牲對服務價值有正相關(β=0.38, t value = 8.097, p<0.001) (3) 服務價值對行為意向有正相關(β=0.44, t value = 4.858, p<0.001) (4)顧客滿意對行為意向有正相關(β=0.27, t value = 3.044, p<0.01) (5)服務品質對行為意向相關性很低 (6)所有間接假設均有正相關 (7) 服務品質、服務價值、知覺犧牲、客戶滿意度及行為意向在教育程度上有差異性 (8)服務品質在區域性有差異、行為意向在年齡上有差異性 (8) 服務品質、服務價值、知覺犧牲、顧客滿意及行為意向在年齡、職業及收入均有差異。
In recent years, the competition of the Taiwan automobile industry has been very fierce. Due to the scale of the Taiwan automobile market is relatively smaller than other countries and there are a large number of car brands. It is the prime issue for the automobile makers/dealers to improve quality and raise the levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty.
This research applies an empirical study to investigate the service quality, service value, customer satisfaction and behavior intentions in Taiwan automobile industry and the research model is cited by (Cronin, Brady, & Hult, 2000). With convenient sampling, 444 valid questionnaires are collected through internet are analyzed and applied 40-items survey questionnaire with 5-point Likert Scale. There are 13 research hypotheses derived from the proposed model were empirically validated. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, validity analysis, ANOVA, MNOVA, SEM and multiple-group analysis are analyzed. Establish a suitable model by LISREL to explain the association between service quality, service value, perceived sacrifice, customer satisfaction and behavioral intention in this study.
The results depicted that (1) Service quality have a positive association with service value (β=0.57, t value = 12.357, p<0.001). and customer satisfaction (β=0.61, t value = 11.909, p<0.001). (2) Perceived sacrifice is positively to service value (β=0.38, t value = 8.097, p<0.001). (3) Service value is positively related to behavioral intentions (β=0.44, t value = 4.858, p<0.001). (4) Customer satisfaction is positively related to behavioral intentions (β=0.27, t value = 3.044, p<0.01). (5) Service quality is weakly supported to behavioral intentions. (6) All 6 indirect paths are all positive association with behavioral intentions. (7) Service quality, service value, perceived sacrifice, customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions differ from the education. (8) Service quality is different in area and behavioral intentions are different in age stratification. (9) Service quality, service value, perceived sacrifice and behavioral intentions are no different from gender, occupation and income.
The result indicates the service quality become more important and more complex. Therefore, the automobile maker and dealer not only focus on the core-technique, but also have to improve the service quality to enlarge the market share. In addition, automobile maker should be continuously improve the system and its process, and keep the quality of service with consistence. We would suggest the service improve should be the focus of future research. The car design and functionality could be customization, provide pricing distinction, promotion and value-added service would be improved the customer satisfaction then positive the behavioral intentions.
摘 要 IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLES XI
LIST OF FIGURES XIV
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Objectives. 3
1.3 Research Methods. 4
1.4 Research Procedure. 5
1.5 The Structure of this Study. 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 The Structure of this Study. 8
2.1.1 Service Quality. 8
2.1.2 Service Value. 17
2.1.3 Perceived Sacrifice. 21
2.1.4 Customer Satisfaction. 21
2.1.5 Behavioral Intentions. 27
2.2 Relationship among Research Constructs. 30
2.2.1 Relationship between Service Quality and Service Value. 30
2.2.2 Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction. 30
2.2.3 Relationship between Service Quality and Behavioral Intentions. 31
2.2.4 Relationship between Perceived Sacrifice and Service Value. 31
2.2.5 Relationship between Service Value and Customer Satisfaction. 32
2.2.6 Relationship between Service Value and Behavioral Intentions. 32
2.2.7 Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions. 32
2.2.8 Relationship among Service Quality, Service Value, Perceived Sacrifice, Customer Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions. 33
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 38
3.1 The Research Model. 38
3.2 Construct Measurement. 39
3.2.1 Service Quality. 39
3.2.2 Service Value. 40
3.2.3 Perceived Sacrifice. 41
3.2.4 Customer Satisfaction. 42
3.2.5 Behavioral Intentions. 42
3.2.6 Information of Respondents. 43
3.3 Research Hypotheses. 44
3.4 Questionnaire Design. 44
3.5 Sampling Plan. 45
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure. 45
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 45
3.6.2 Reliability and Validity of the Measurement Variables. 46
3.6.4 Structural Equation Modeling. 49
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 53
4.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 53
4.1.1 Data Collection. 53
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents. 54
4.2.3 Measurement Results of Research Variables. 60
4.2 Reliability Tests. 63
4.3 Factor Analysis. 65
4.3.1 Service Quality. 65
4.3.2 Behavioral Intentions. 66
4.4 Validation Assessment. 70
4.4.1 Discriminant Validity. 70
4.4.2 Convergent Validity. 72
4.5 Analysis of Individual Differences. 76
4.5.1 Personal Characteristics. 78
4.5.2 Automotive Attributes. 82
4.6 Structural Equation Model (SEM). 87
4.6.1 Model Test. 91
4.6.2 Path Results. 93
4.6.3 Effects Analysis. 95
4.7 Multiple-Group Analysis. 97
4.7.1 Personal Characteristics. 97
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 104
5.1 Research Results. 104
5.1.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 104
5.1.2 The Significant Different of Personal Characteristics. 105
5.1.3 Structural Equation Model. 107
5.2 Research Suggestions. 110
5.3 Research Limitations. 112
Appendix B: Normality Tests of Research Factors under Gender 121
Appendix C: Questionnaire Survey in English 127
Appendix-D: Questionnaire Survey in Chinese 133
A Parasurama, A., Berry, L. L., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1991). Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Retailing, 67(4), 420-450.
Alexandris, K., Dimitriadis, N., & Markata, D. (2002). Can perceptions of service quality predict behavioral intentions? An explortory study in the hotel sector in Greece. Managing Service Quality, 12(4), 224-231.
Amberg, M., Fischer, S., & Schröder, M. (2005). An evaluation framework for the acceptance of web-based aptitude tests. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 8(3), 151-158.
Anderson, E., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share and profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53-66.
Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms. Marketing Science, 12(2), 125-143.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
Anderson, R. E. (1973). Consumer dissatisfaction: The effect of disconfirmed expectancy on perceived product performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(1), 38-44.
Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., & Griffin, M. (1994). Work and/or fun: Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 644-656.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
Bendall-Lyon, D., & Powers, T. L. (2004). The impact of structure and process attributes on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The Journal of Services Marketing, 18(2), 114-121.
Bitner, M. J., & Hubbert, A. R. (Eds.). (1994). Encounter satisfaction versus overall satisfaction versus quality. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bolton, R. N., & Drew, J. H. (1991). A multistage model of customer' assessments of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 875-884.
Boulding, W., Kalra, A., Staelin, R., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1993). A dynamic process model of service quality: From expectations to behavioral intentions. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(1), 7-27.
Brady, M. K., & Cronin, J. J., Jr. (2001). Customer orientation: Effects on customer service perceptions and outcome behaviors. Journal of Service Research, 3(3), 241-251.
Brady, M. K., Knight, G. A., Cronin, J. J., Jr., Tomas, G., Hult, M., & Keillor, B. D. (2005). Removing the contextual lens: A multinational, multi-setting comparison of service evaluation models. Journal of Retailing, 81(3), 215-230.
Cardozo, R. N. (1965). An experimental study of customer effort, expectation, and satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 2(3), 244-249.
Caruana, A., Money, A. H., & Berthon, P. R. (2000). Service quality and satisfaction the moderating role of value. European Journal of Marketing, 34(11/12), 1338-1352.
Cavalieri, S., Gaiardelli, P., & Ierace, S. (2007). Aligning strategic profiles with operational metrics in aftersales service. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 56(5/6), 436-455.
Chen, S. Y. (2005). Multivariate analysis (4 ed.). Taipei, Taiwan: Hwa Tai Publishing.
Chiu, S. I., Cheng, C. C., Yen, T. M., & Hu, H. Y. (2011). Preliminary research on customer satisfaction models in Taiwan: A case study from the automobile industry. Expert Systems with Applications, 38, 9780-9787.
Choi, K. S., Cho, W. H., Lee, S. H., Lee, H. J., & Kim, C. K. (2004). The relationships among quality, value, satisfaction and behavioral intention in health care provider choice: A South Korean study. Journal of Business Research, 57(8), 913-921.
Churchill, G. A., Jr., & Surprenant, C. (1982). An investigation into the determinants of customer satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 491-504.
Cronin, J. J., Jr., Brady, M. K., Brand, R. R., Hightower, R., Jr., & Shemwell, D. J. (1997). A cross-section test of the effect and conceptualization of service value. Journal of Service Marketing, 11(6), 375-391.
Cronin, J. J., Jr., Brady, M. K., & Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value and customer stisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 193-218.
Cronin, J. J., Jr., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). A reexamination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56(5), 55-68.
Cronin, J. J., Jr., & Taylor, S. A. (1994). SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling performance-based and perceptions-minus-expectations measurement of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 125-131.
Crosby, B. P. (1979). Quality is free: The art of making quality certain. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Day, R. L., & Landon, E. L. (1977). Collecting comprehensive consumer complaining data by survey research. Advance in Consumer Research, 3, 263-269.
Devaraj, S., Matta, K. F., & Conlon, E. (2000). Product and service quality: The antecedents of customer loyalty in the automotive Industry. Production and Operations Management Society, 10(4), 424-439.
Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of price, brand and store information on buyers' product evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.
Eggert, A., & Ulaga, W. (2002). Customer perceived value: A substitute for satisfaction in business markets? Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 17(2), 107-118.
Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., & Miniard, P. W. (1995). Consumer behavior (8 ed.). For Worth: Dryden Press.
Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience. Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 6-22.
Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: Nature, purpose, and findings. Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 7-18.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Grandon, E. E., & Pearson, M. J. (2003). Perceived strategic value and adoption of electronic commerce: An empirical study of small and medium sized businesses. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii.
Hair, J. F., Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hellier, P. K., Geursen, G. M., Carr, R. A., & Rickard, J. A. (2002). Customer repurchase intention: A general structural equation model. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11/12), 1762-1800.
Heskett, J. L., Sasser, W. E. J., & Hart, C. W. L. (1990). Service breakthroughs: Changing the rules of the game. New York: The Free Press.
Hsu, C. W. (2007). The relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: An empirical study of online shopping. National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
Juran, J. M. (1986). A universal approach to managing for quality. Quality progress, 19-24.
Kaiser, H. F. (1974). Little jiffy, mark IV. Journal of Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34(1), 111-117.
Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing management (11 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2006). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (4 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hill.
Lai, T. L. (2004). Service quality and perceived value's impact on satisfaction, intention and usage of short message service (SMS). Information Systems Frontiers, 6(4), 353-368.
Lee, S., Kim, B. G., & Lee, K. (2004). Fuzzy cognitive map-based approach to evaluate EDI performance: A test of causal model. Expert Systems with Applications, 27(2), 287-299.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460-469.
Parasuraman, A. (1997). Reflections on gaining competitive advantage through customer value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(2), 154-161.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implication for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1994). Reassessment of expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality: Implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 111-124.
Petrick, J. F. (2002). Development of a multi-dimensional scale for measuring the perceived value of a service. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(2), 119-134.
Pura, M. (2005). Linking perceived value and loyalty in location-based mobile services. Managing Service Quality, 15(6), 509-538.
Sheth, J. H., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why we buy what we buy: A theory of consumption values. Journal of Business Research, 22(2), 159-170.
Singh, J. (1988). Consumer complaint intentions and behavior: Definitional and taxonomical issues. Journal of Marketing, 52(1), 93-107.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312.
Spreng, R. A., MacKenzie, S. B., & Olshavsky, R. W. (1996). A reexamination of the determinants of consumer satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 15-32.
Sureshchandar, G. S., Rajendran, C., & Anantharaman, R. N. (2002). The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction - a factor specific approach. Journal of Services Marketing, 16(4), 363-379.
Swan, J. E., & Combs, L. J. (1976). Product performance and consumer satisfaction: A new concept. Journal of Marketing, 40(2), 25-33.
Sweeney, J. C., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Consumer perceived value: The development of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77(2), 203-220.
Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Johnson, L. W. (1999). The role of perceived risk in the quality-value relationship: A study in retail environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1), 77-105.
Taylor, S. A., & Backer, T. L. (1994). An assessment of the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the formation of consumers' purchase intentions. Journal of Retailing, 70(2), 163-178.
Thaler, R. (1985). Mental accounting and consumer choice. Marketing Science, 4, 199-214.
Varki, S., & Colgate, M. (2001). The role of price perceptions in an integrated model of behavioral intentions. Journal of Service Research, 3(3), 232-240.
Wang, J. L., Liu, S. F., Wang, Y. Q., & Xie, N. M. (2008). Evaluation of customer satisfaction in automobile after-sales service based on grey incidence analysis. Paper presented at the International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics.
Westbrook, R. A. (1980). Intrapersonal affective influences on consumer satisfaction with products. Journal of Consumer Research, 7(1), 49-54.
Wilkie, W. L. (1994). Consumer behavior (3 ed.). New York: Wiley.
Woodruff, R. B. (1997). Customer value: The next source for competitive advantage. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(2), 139-153.
Wu, W. Y. (2005). Business research methods (2 ed.). Taipei, Taiwan: Hwa Tai Publishing.
Yadav, O. P., & Goel, P. S. (2008). Customer satisfaction driven quality improvement target planning for product development in automotive industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 113, 997-1011.
Yan, B., & McLaren, P. A. (2010). Measuring after-sales service quality in automobile retails: An application of the SERVQUAL instruments. 2090-2094.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.
Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.