系統識別號 U0026-0808201919124000
論文名稱(中文) 西蒙.斯蒂文之《建築論》的城市規劃觀念研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study of the Ideas of Town Planning in De Huysbou by Simon Stevin
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 李京
研究生(英文) Ching Lee
學號 N76051063
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 106頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃恩宇
中文關鍵字 西蒙.斯蒂文  《建築論》  城市規劃觀念  城市基地選址  城市邊界輪廓  城市平面格局 
英文關鍵字 Simon Stevin  De Huysbou  Ideas of Town Planning  Location of Cities  Shape of Cities  Pattern of Cities 
中文摘要 17世紀荷蘭知名理論家西蒙.斯蒂文(Simon Stevin, 1548-1620)生於布魯日(Bruges),1580年代移居荷蘭。他曾經任職荷蘭共和國執政官莫里斯(Maurice of Orange)的私人教師與軍隊的軍需官,也因為這層關係,他開始研究軍事工程和城市與建築有關的理論。在1600年,西蒙.斯蒂文創立並任教於萊登工程學校(Duytsche Mathematique),此為歐洲第一所培訓軍事工程師與土地測量員的專業學校。

西蒙.斯蒂文晚年著有一部未完成的城市與建築理論著作 De Huysbou (建築論),由後人集結整理出版,該書內容涉及建築設計、軍事工程與城市規劃等方面的理論,並深受古典時期與義大利文藝復興建築理論的影響。本研究目的為探討《建築論》的成書背景、該書與城市規劃有關的理論,並比對該書直接參考維特魯威(Vitruvius)、亞伯提(Leon Battista Alberti)與賽利奧(Sebastiano Serlio)等理論家的著作。在探討這些理論時,本研究會聚焦於城市基地選址、城市邊界輪廓與城市平面格局。

在城市基地選址方面有兩個要點,分別是雙向交通(two-way traffic)之河流口、平坦肥沃之地形(fertile plain),荷蘭本土城市皆具有可通往海外與內陸交通、在平坦地形迅速擴張城市等優勢。就城市邊界輪廓而言,在那個普遍認為星形城市防禦較優越的年代,西蒙.斯蒂文企圖提出兼具防禦與秩序格局的方形城市輪廓。至於城市平面格局,包括坐落在城市中心軸線位置的運河系統、格子狀街道模式、矩形街廓與地塊;而城市公共建築要整合類似機能的設施進行規劃,並配置在各自適當的地方。

The Dutch 17th-century theorist Simon Stevin wrote De Huysbou, a theoretical treatise on town planning and architecture, in which he detailed his theories on architectural design, military engineering, and town planning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ideas of town planning discussed in De Huysbou, with particular emphasis on the locations, shapes, and the patterns of cities. The location of a city should look for a fertile plain situated at the mouth of a great navigable river. In terms of city shapes, while his contemporaries considered star-shaped cities easier to defend, Stevin proposed a square-shaped city design that found a balance between order and defensibility. As for city patterns, Stevin’s design included canal systems, street layouts, blocks and plots, and public buildings that incorporated facilities of similar functions. Based on these theories, the present study examines cities in the Low Countries where Stevin had lived or visited and analyzes the town planning process in Dutch overseas colonial cities, with the main focus being Batavia and the town of Zeelandia in the 17th century.

The Dutch 17th-century theorist Simon Stevin (1548-1620) was born in Bruges and moved to the Netherlands in the 1580s. Having acted as the tutor to the stadtholder, Maurice of Orange, and the quartermaster-general of the army, Stevin founded the Duytsche Mathematique in 1600, the first institute in Europe that trained military engineers and land surveyors, where he also taught. In his later years, Stevin dedicated himself to writing De Huysbou, a theoretical treatise on town planning and architecture deeply informed by classical and Italian Renaissance architectural theories. After his passing, the unfinished manuscript was compiled and published.

The present study investigates three aspects of town planning theories discussed in De Huysbou—locations, shapes, and patterns of cities. The author then attempts a comparison of these theories with cities in the Low Countries where Stevin lived or visited and overseas territories colonized by the Dutch. On one hand, the study addresses the question of whether Stevin’s theories might have drawn from his own experience of town space. On the other hand, it explores the possibility of Stevin’s ideas of town planning influencing the town planning process of Dutch overseas colonial cities.

In sum, the four main purposes of this study are:
1. To provide information on the background of De Huysbou and a chapter-by-chapter review on its contents, and analyze theories related to town-planning discussed therein;
2. To explore the relationship between De Huysbou and classical or Italian Renaissance architectural theories;
3. To compare De Huysbou with cities in Low Countries where Stevin lived or visited to determine whether the theories were drawn from his experience of town space; and
4. To discuss the influence of Stevin’s theories of town planning on Dutch overseas colonial cities.

The present study references four types of literature, including (a) literature on Simon Stevin or De Huysbou, (b) historical literature on Western town planning theories, (c) literature on town planning in the Low Countries and Dutch overseas colonial cities, and (d) literature on the 17th century town of Zeelandia. Among these, the research efforts of Van den Heuvel (2005) are a seminal piece to understanding Simon Stevin and De Huysbou. Furthermore, this study utilizes the town space analysis methodology proposed by R. van Oers (2000) to facilitate the discussion on the Low Countries and Dutch overseas cities.

Through literature review and town space analysis, the present study addresses both the “theoretical” and “practical” aspects of town planning. In the literature review, this study examines not only the town planning theories in De Huysbou but also the related ideas discussed in Stevin’s other treatises on military architecture and army camps. A comparison is made between Stevin’s ideas and those proposed by earlier theorists—Vitruvius, Leon Battista Alberti, and Sebastiano Serlio—to identify any direct references. In town space analysis, the study adopts R. van Oers’ methodology in his analysis of Dutch overseas town planning during VOC and WIC rule, which, itself, was based on Stevin’s town planning theories.

In terms of city locations, Stevin argued that a river mouth that facilitates both sea and inland traffic allows domestic and international trade in the Netherlands to prosper, and that the fertile plains enable cities to expand and multiply in a rapid fashion. In terms of city shapes, Stevin suggested using practical square shapes in town design which makes cities highly expandable and easy to control, with additional bastions in place to fortify defenses. Finally, in terms of city patterns, Stevin proposed a canal system that runs through the central axis of the city, a grid layout, rectangular blocks and plots, and public buildings that incorporate a comprehensive plan of similar functions, each appropriately situated.

The findings of this study demonstrate that Stevin’s theories of town planning originated from the town planning traditions in the Low Countries and exerted profound influence over Dutch overseas town planning. Results also show that Stevin might have been inspired by the prime location of Antwerp at the Scheldt River and its surrounding fertile plain, the complete square shape and grid plan found in the Dutch city Elburg since the Middle Ages, the grid expansion of Leiden and the decentralized layout of The Hague’s public buildings in early 17th century. To a large extent, Stevin’s theories of town planning—particularly the location, shapes, and patterns of cities—were realized in 17th century Batavia. By the same token, although the town of Zeelandia was not situated at the mouth of a river, it still had the advantage of two-way traffic and a grid plan.

“Like-sidedness” is the central theme that appears throughout Stevin’s theories of town planning and architecture in De Huysbou. Stevin, along with some other theorists, believed that town planning and architectural design should be in keeping with the principles by which God created all things—i.e., the harmonic proportions found in the human body. Stevin didn’t discuss much about proportions in his writing; instead, he emphasized the practicality of town planning and architectural design. His ideas of town planning were rooted in traditional cities in the Low Countries and in his own career. Stevin’s beliefs and values could very possibly have disseminated, through his tenure at the Duytsche Mathematique, among military engineers and land surveyors in charge of overseas colonial town planning in the 17th century. Future studies in this vein can explore other cities in the Low Countries or under Dutch colonies based on the theories of town planning and architecture in De Huysbou.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論...........1
1-1 研究動機與目的............1
1-2 研究對象及範圍............5
1-3 文獻回顧............7
1-4 研究方法與流程...........18
第二章 《建築論》一書之背景..........20
2-1 西蒙.斯蒂文之身分背景..........20
2-2 《建築論》之成書背景.........23
2-3 《建築論》一書之內容.........27
2-4 西方城市規劃理論之內容..........33
2-5 低地國與荷蘭海外城市規劃.........39
2-6 小結..............44
第三章 城市基地選址...........45
3-1 雙向交通之河口...........45
3-2 平坦肥沃之地形...........51
3-3 低地國與海外城市之基地選址.......55
3-4 小結..............61
第四章 城市邊界輪廓...........62
4-1 方形輪廓之城市...........62
4-2 方形城市之防禦...........67
4-3 方形城市之控制與擴張.........71
4-4 低地國與海外城市之邊界輪廓.......74
4-4 小結..............77
第五章 城市平面格局...........78
5-1 城市空間佈局..........78
5-2 城市公共建築..........84
5-3 低地國與海外城市之平面格局.......89
5-4 小結..............98
第六章 結論............99
6-1 研究目的回顧..........99
6-2 後續研究.............101
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