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系統識別號 U0026-0808201712171500
論文名稱(中文) 地球重返任務衛星姿態控制系統模擬與任務分析
論文名稱(英文) Earth Re-entry CubeSat Mission Attitude Control Simulation and Mission Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 吳楷浚
研究生(英文) Kai-Chun Wu
電子信箱 kai.wu013@gmail.com
學號 P46044354
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-苗君易
共同指導教授-莊智清
口試委員-詹劭勳
口試委員-李約亨
中文關鍵字 立方衛星  軟體迴路模擬  姿態估測  姿態控制 
英文關鍵字 CubeSat  Software-in-the-loop  Attitude determination  Attitude control 
學科別分類
中文摘要 立方衛星為近幾年非常熱門的議題,也已經有許多成功的任務,所以許多人開始思考利用立方衛星執行新型態的任務,地球重返任務則為其中一種,這種任務很大的意義在於科學量測,使我們對大氣層的垂直分布可以更加掌握。地球重返任務遇到的挑戰包含: 如何脫離軌道,重返時的高溫以及姿態穩定, 而本篇研究著重於因應這些挑戰所帶來的限制,也就是地球重返任務的立方衛星在軌道上的姿態控制系統的設計,模擬與分析,這其中當然也考量到用於重返時的姿態穩定外型,對於在軌道
上操作的影響,以及脫離軌道的時間以及軌道估算,而地球重返任務立方衛星本身的熱防護,也限制了衛星姿態控制的感測器選用,因此如何利用僅有的感測器完成任務也是一項挑戰。本研究利MATLAB/Simulink 建立模擬環境也就是軟體迴路模擬,並決定出從衛星釋放初期的減滾(Detumbling),到三軸穩定之姿態控制流程與策略,其中包含控制法則的選用以及姿態估測器的搭配選擇,並建立明確的判斷條件。軌道與脫離軌道的估算則會利用另一個獨立的程式計算與分析, 並考量配合姿態控制的結果。
軟體迴路模擬完成大部分的模擬環境建置,讓環境接近真實狀況,包含動態方程式,軌道估算,感測器模型,控制器以及擾動分析,由於感測器的選擇上受到限制所以在估測上會有比較大的挑戰,本研究將嘗試並比較不同估測方法的效能,並且在模擬加入感測器的特性,最後將姿態估測結果直接回饋給控制器,觀察相互搭配的影響。經過模擬分析並比較相關的廠商資料以及論文,決定出穩定及控制衛星的策略流程與控制法則。而脫離軌道的估算也會是一個重點,由於較不對稱的外型在姿態
改變上會影響軌道的脫離,所以要與姿態模擬的結果相互搭配。整個軟體迴路模擬完善後可以提供更完整的任務分析以及控制器設計,同時也可以讓衛星操作人員更熟悉可能遇到的狀況。
英文摘要 With the popular development of CubeSats, there are more and more different applications for them, Re-entry mission is one of the critical parts of earth observation. Re-entry CubeSat can carry the scientific equipment which can record some measurements during Re-entry phase in order to increase the knowledge of the properties of atmosphere. This research is referred to this kind of mission approach with a 3U CubeSat. In order to reach the objective, attitude determination and control subsystem is required to perform attitude stabilization and pointing control.

This research describes the mission analysis and development of attitude determination and control subsystem for the CubeSat, with emphasis on the operation and control strategy. Moreover, the attitude determination and control subsystem will not be activated during the re-entry since the ADCS hardware cannot sustain under such extreme scenario like supersonic speed and extremely high temperature. But the design of hardware and structure still affect the satellite operation during orbital cruise. Because of the thermal consideration, the use of the sensors are limited. Moreover, the design of the deployable solar panels, which are responsible for performing aerodynamic stability for re-entry phase, will also be investigated, in particular, the deployment strategy is assessed.


Software-in-the-loop simulation is used for mission design and performance analysis. A simulation software has been built up based on MATLAB/Simulink, which contains the dynamic model of the satellite, sensor/actuator model, environment model, attitude controller and estimator. With the design of simulation software, we can get several results from different combination of controller and estimator. The performance of the results can help the designer to define the operation strategy and identify the threshold of operation. Also, the software can simulate the error setting to observe the behavior of satellite, this can help ground operation to identify the possible error condition in real mission.

The simulation of de-orbit scenario will take attitude control into consideration, it can estimate the orbital lifetime to see whether it meets the mission requirement or not. In conclusion, the simulation tool not only helps us to design ADCS and makes the mission planning, but also provides an insight into the operating strategy.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background and Objective 1
1.2. Literature Study 3
1.3. Thesis Overview 5
Chapter 2. Satellite and Environment 6
2.1. Satellite Configuration 6
2.1.1. System Overview 8
2.2. ADCS Requirement and Hardware 9
2.2.1. ADCS Design Requirement and Recommendation 10
2.2.2. ADCS Hardware 10
2.3. Sensor and Actuator Modelling 14
2.3.1. MEMS gyroscope 14
2.3.2. Magnetometer 15
2.3.3. Magnetorquer 15
2.3.4. Momentum Wheel 17
2.4. Attitude Definitions 17
2.4.1. Attitude Representations 18
2.4.2. Reference Frames 20
2.5. Equation of Motion 22
2.5.1. Kinematic Equation 23
2.5.2. Dynamic Equation 23
2.5.3. Solar Panel Deployment 24
2.6. Space Environment 26
2.6.1. Magnetic Field Model 26
2.6.2. Atmosphere Model and Aerodynamic Torque 27
2.6.3. Gravity-gradient Torque 29
2.7. Orbit 29
2.7.1. Orbit Element 30
2.7.2. Aerodynamic De-orbit 32

Chapter 3. ADCS Theory and Implementation In Simulation 33
3.1. Attitude Control 33
3.1.1. B-dot Control 34
3.1.2. Y-spin Control 37
3.1.3. Wheel Pitch Control 39
3.1.4. Cross Product and Momentum Dumping Control Law 40
3.2. Attitude Determination 43
3.2.1. Extended Kalman Filter Implementation 44
3.2.2. Magnetometer Rate Filter 49
Chapter 4. Simulation Result and Analysis 53
4.1. Software In the Loop Simulation Program 53
4.1.1. Magnetic Related Hardware Active Control 54
4.2. Scenario Simulation Result 55
4.2.1. High Initial Rate Detumbling 56
4.2.2. Detumbling Control 57
4.2.3. Y-momentum Initial Mode 61
4.2.4. Y-momentum Mode 63
4.3. Disturbance Analysis 67
4.4. Solar Panel Deployment 68
4.4.1. Deployment Torque Impact 68
4.4.2. Pitch Attitude Control after Deployment 69
4.5. Orbit Lifetime Estimation 72
Chapter 5. Operation Strategy 74
5.1. Initial Condition Check 74
5.2. Detumbling Process 75
5.3. Y-momentum Mode 77
Chapter 6. Conclusion and Future Work 81
6.1. Discussion 81
6.2. Future Research 82
References 83
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