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系統識別號 U0026-0808201402304300
論文名稱(中文) 里程計費電子收費系統之成本效益分析-以台灣為例
論文名稱(英文) The Benefit and Cost Analysis of Distance-based Electronic Toll Collection Systems: The Case of Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電信管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Telecommunications and Management
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 杜易宸
研究生(英文) Yi-Chen Tu
學號 R96991032
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-廖俊雄
口試委員-康信鴻
口試委員-呂錦山
口試委員-胡守任
口試委員-鄭永祥
中文關鍵字 計程電子收費  計次電子收費  定價方案  效益成本分析  高速公路 
英文關鍵字 Distance-based electronic toll collection (DB-ETC)  toll station based ETC(TSB-ETC)  Pricing scheme  Benefit cost analysis  Freeway 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究進行台灣計程電子收費(DB-ETC)的成本效益分析。蒐集包括來自道路使用者、運營商、以及政府成本與收益的資料,本研究中也發展一個評估模型、用以分析來自不同機構、運營商以及相關文獻的效益及成本。計程電子收費的淨收益以淨現值(NPV),益本比(BCR),回收年限(PP),以及內部報酬率(IRR)內部收益率等方式呈現。實證結果總結如下:首先,計程電子收費的實施是一個適當且正確的政策。社會淨效益在兩種定價方案下(即:方案A為較高的收費費率且提供免費里程優惠,方案B為較低收費費率但取消免費里程優惠),皆顯示此系統值得投資。代表計程電子收費的利益可延伸至社會整體且利遠勝於弊。另外,本研究比較這此二不同情境下所產生的社會淨效益發現,方案B是一個較佳的策略選擇。其原因在於較低的道路收費率將使高速公路的使用需求量增加。而關於道路使用者是否享受免費里程的差異,僅將錢財從道路使用者身上轉嫁至政府上。方案B也與計程電子收費的核心理念─”使用者付費”較為一致。值得注意的是,情境A中的社會淨效益仍然比計次電子收費(TSB-ETC)更高。
這項研究提供的學術貢獻包括:台灣為第一個在其高速公路系統上實施全面計程電子收費的國家(Cnyes,2013年)。此研究是第一個評估計程電子收費成本效益分析的研究。相較於以往的文獻,本研究考量的層面更廣,包括流入/流出的道路使用者收益和成本項目的分析。此外,此研究也考慮,在高速公路實施計程電子收費後,除了固有的高速公路道路使用者的利益和成本外還有相關溢出效應的成本。此研究也評估和比較不同定價方案產生的社會淨效益,並在研究中提供了此差異來源的合理解釋。最後,本研究以貨幣形式評估計程電子收費的收益與成本,可提供學者及政府機關作為教育民眾計程電子收費機制的好處以及制訂定價機制的學術參考。
英文摘要 This study analyzes the benefits and costs of distance-based electronic toll collection (DB-ETC) implementation in Taiwan. The items of relevant costs and benefits perceived by road users, toll operator, and government are calculated, respectively, using developed assess formula and the data collected from the authority, toll operator, and related studies. The values of net benefits for the DB-ETC are presented in the forms of net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), payback period (PP), and internal rate of return (IRR). The empirical results are summarized as follow. First of all, the implementation of the DB-ETC is an appropriate and correct policy. Total social net benefits are positive under two pricing schemes (i.e., scenario A is a high road charge rate with free mileage, but scenario B is a low road charge rate without free mileage), representing the DB-ETC benefits are occurred to the whole society and the advantages far outdo the disadvantages. Further, the comparison of social net benefits generated in the two schemes reveals that scenario B is a better option. The reason mainly lies in that a low road charge rate boosts the demand of freeway road users. The decision of whether road users enjoy a free mileage is only the matter of money transfer from road users to the government. Scenario B is also consistent with the core concept of DB-ETC, “user pays”. Nevertheless, the social net benefits at scenario A are even much higher than those elicited from toll station based ETC (TSB-ETC).
This study has added several contributions to the existing literatures. It is the first to entirely implement the DB-ETC for toll collection in its freeway system (Cnyes, 2013). To the best knowledge, this study is the first one to evaluate the benefit and cost of the DB-ETC. Further, as compared to previous literature, more scopes of inflowing/outflowing road users and benefit and cost items are covered in this analysis. In particular, the spillover effect of the DB-ETC in freeway on other traffic networks in addition to the benefits and costs of inherent freeway road users are considered. In this study, social net benefits are evaluated and compared at different pricing schemes and the discussion is offered for explaining the difference in the net benefits. Finally, these benefit and cost items of the DB-ETC are measured in monetary terms. Hence, an academic reference is provided for the government in educating the public the benefits of DB-ETC and making road pricing decision in the future.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Abstract I
Table of Contents IV
List of Tables VI
List of Figures VII
List of Parameters VIII
Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
Global Deployments of the ETC 5
2.1 Americas 5
2.1.1 United State 5
2.1.2 Canada (Canadian Highway 407, HW407,407ETR) 6
2.2 Europe 7
2.2.1 Germany (Toll Collect) 7
2.2.2 France (Autoroutes du Sud de la France) 8
2.2.3 The United Kingdom (London Congestion Charge) 8
2.2.4 Norway 9
2.3 Australia 9
2.4 Asia 10
2.4.1 Singapore 10
2.4.2 Taiwan 10
Literature Review 12
3.1 Benefit Cost for ETC 12
3.2 Benefit Cost Analysis 14
Methodology 17
4.1 The Benefit Cost Framework for the DB-ETC 17
4.2 The DB-ETC benefit and cost evaluation for road users 24
4.2.1 The DB-ETC benefits for road users 24
4.2.2 The DB-ETC costs for road users 33
4.3 The DB-ETC benefit and cost evaluation for toll operator 34
4.3.1 The DB-ETC benefits for toll operator 34
4.3.2 The DB-ETC costs for toll operator 35
4.4 The DB-ETC benefit and cost evaluation for the government 37
4.4.1 The DB-ETC benefits for the government 37
4.4.2 The DB-ETC costs for government 41
4.5 A Summary of Benefits and Costs of the DB-ETC 44
Conclusion 50
5.1 The Findings of the Study 50
5.2 Managerial Implication 51
5.3 Limitations of the Study 53
References 55
Appendix : Benefit Cost Analysis at Scenario B 60
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