||Change above the Glass Ceiling: Internationalization, CEO Characteristics, and Corporate Social Responsibility from the Institutional Theory Perspective
||Institute of International Business
Corporate Social Responsibility
近年，企業社會責任(Corporate Social Responsibility，簡稱CSR)在全球受到產、官與學界關注，而職場性別多樣性更成為企業對社會責任實踐的重要指標之一，尤其是傳統強調男主外女主內的台灣。因而本研究以體制理論為基礎，試圖瞭解面對外資挹注或投資海外市場與專業團體等外部體制環境對於企業性別多樣性的CSR落實的影響。此外，經理人是企業制訂決策的關鍵人物，其人格特質的影響力不容忽視，尤其是自戀與自負性格。因此，本研究試圖檢視外資投入程度、海外投資地主國CSR表現程度對於性別多樣化程度之影響。同時亦探究企業社會責任獎、公司治理績效、CEO自戀與CEO自負的調節效果。
Change above the Glass Ceiling: Internationalization, CEO Characteristics, and Corporate Social Responsibility from the Institutional Theory Perspective
Author: Wei-Ting Wang
Advisor: Wen-Ting Lin
Institute of International Business, National Cheng Kung University
The purpose of this thesis is to understand how it affects companies to deal with gender diversity issue while facing the outer institutional environment, such as foreign investments, foreign markets, and professional groups based on the institutional theory perspective. Meanwhile, this study not only investigated the effects of external environment, but also considered the internal corporate conditions like CEO characteristics, especially on CEO narcissism and CEO hubris, as moderators so as to provide a more complete research.
This study used 390 Taiwanese listed firms on TEJ database from 2016 to 2017 as the samples. The empirical evidence indicates that both foreign investment and CSR performances in host countries are positively related to gender diversity. Furthermore, this study points out that corporate governance evaluation performance strengthens these two positive relationships, and both positive relationships are weaker when the CEO is hubris Also, the positive relationship between foreign investment and gender diversity is stronger when the CEO is narcissism.
This study has important theoretical contributions. First, in the past studies on internationalization, scholars paid more attention on cross-cultural management, while in this study we try to connect the corporate internationalized process with CSR strategies. Second, in the existing literatures, it was discussed about the corporate internationalized strategies and CSR activities mostly based on stakeholder theory and agency cost theory, but in this study we use institutional theory to describe the relationship between the corporate internationalized strategies and CSR activities t. Third, although the main idea of this study is related to CSR strategies, it covers strategic human resource management, to define the interaction among internationalized activities, CSR strategies, and labor recruitment. Also, we make the contingency perspective of SHRM fruitful by linking up with institutional theory.
Key words: Corporate Social Responsibility, Institutional Theory, CEO Narcissism,
In recent years, “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)” has become a globally focused issue in industrial, political, and academic areas. In particular “gender diversity” is one of important indexes for companies to fulfill with their social responsibility in Taiwan. Because Taiwan’s traditional culture emphasizes on “Men are breadwinners; women are homemakers”. Despite rapid economic development in Taiwan, gender disparity in the workplace has persisted. Therefore, based on the institutional theory perspective, this study intends to explore how it affects companies to deal with the gender diversity when facing the outer institutional environment like foreign investments, foreign markets, professional groups, and so on. In addition, this study would like to understand the moderating effects from CSR awards, corporate operative performances, CEO narcissism, and CEO hubris.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We used 390 Taiwanese listed companies from 2016-2017. The samples used for this study are obtained from the Taiwan Economic Journal (TEJ). Moreover, we took reference on Common Wealth Magazine and Global Views Monthly to collect CSR rewarding datum, Taipei Exchange official website for corporate governance evaluation performance datum, and RebocoSam’s ranking for CSR performance of host countries. Descriptive statistics analysis and multiple regression analysis are applied in this empirical research.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The empirical results show that the positive relationship between the internationalization, including both foreign investment and CSR performance in host countries, and gender diversity are supported. As for the moderating effects, corporate governance evaluation performance and CEO hubris are supported. However, as for the moderating effect on CSR awards, it’s not supported. The last moderating effect on CEO narcissism is only partially supported.
In this study, we have introduced institutional theory perspective and developed the idea that how foreign investment and CSR performance in host affect firm’s CSR.
There are some theoretical contributions. First, why do firms vary so much in their stances toward corporate social responsibility? Base on stakeholder theory or agency cost theory, previous researchers have overwhelmingly pursued the idea that firms engage in CSR strictly in proportion to how much pressure they are under to do so, either from external forces or because of their own size and prominence. Unlike the dominant stakeholder or agency cost perspectives, our study applied institutional theory to directly point out how corporate internationalization affects companies to plan for their CSR strategies. Second, the internationalization becomes a trend, many existing researches on international human resource management (IHRM) focused on cross-cultural management and expatriates. Our research presents a fresh issue on IHRM by emphasizing on how companies would accelerate their employment to fit the corporate international strategies when facing the corporate internationalization like foreign investment and foreign expansion. Third, in the strategic human resource management (SHRM), there’s no specific theory linked with the contingency perspective of SHRM, while we used the institutional theory to enrich this perspective, elaborating how companies would accelerate their female managers in different institutional environments.
For practical implications, this study suggests Taiwanese companies paying attention to CSR issue if they require resources from foreign investor and plan to engage in international investment. Moreover, companies can consider joining formal and informal activities held by our public sectors to get more inspiration on CSR from the leading companies. Besides, some CEOs are more narcissistic while others may be more hubristic, but these two traits of CEOs hold different attitudes toward the extent to which their firms should engage in corporate social responsibility. The board directors should pay attention to their CEOs’ candidates.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 7
第三節 研究流程 8
第二章 文獻探討 10
第一節 全球職場性別多樣性 10
第二節 體制理論 13
第三節 企業社會責任(CSR)與外資投入 17
第四節 企業社會責任(CSR) 與海外投資地主國CSR表現 20
第五節 企業社會責任(CSR)專業團體之調節效果 22
第六節 經理人自戀與自負人格之調節作用 26
第三章 研究方法 30
第一節 研究架構 30
第二節 研究對象 31
第三節 研究變項 32
第四節 分析方法與工具 37
第四章 資料分析與實證結果 40
第一節 敘述性統計與相關分析 40
第二節 迴歸模型與假說分析 43
第五章 結論與建議 50
第一節 研究結論 50
第二節 理論貢獻 55
第三節 實務意涵 57
第四節 研究限制與後續研究建議 59
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