||The Fireproof Evaluation on Building Integrated Photovoltaics
||Department of Mechanical Engineering
現有建材一體型(BIPV)的應用設計，大約可簡單分為四種形式：屋頂包覆、屋頂外加、外牆、玻璃窗，並且在建築物採光的設計方式上，還分別具有透光式 (Light through)與遮光式 (Light shield)的設計。在防火方面，一些相關的研究文獻上指出若搭配特殊設計手法 (如：背面使用金屬框或是使用耐燃材質等)則是能夠具有半小時的防火時效。
This study examines the materials used for PV modules via fire resistance experiments, and discusses the safety of using such modules on buildings.
The design of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can be divided into four types: (1) roof coverings, (2) roof attached, (3) façades, and (4) windows. The designs for brightness can be divided into two types, light through and light shield. With regard to fireproofing, some studies note that using methods such as applying metal as a back sheet to PV can achieve a fire rating of 30 minutes.
In examining the materials used for solar cells, we tested the cells for both fire resistance and total heat released. The results showed that the Tedlar and one-layer glass structure could satisfy level 2 fire resistance, while the EVA and two-layer glass structure could satisfy level 3. The results also show that the PV catches fire because the adhesive used is flammable, and thus fire resistance can be improved by using a different adhesive.
In the small-scale heating furnace experiment which based on CNS12514. The PV module tiles separated from each other and dropped, the PV modules on exposed surface deformed and broken within 30 minutes. However, the tiles on exposed surface had batter fireproof.
We applied a water film system to the PV modules in the full-scale heating furnace experiment which based on CNS12514. However, the PV modules have a complex structure, and this deformed and separated from the tempered glass in the experiment. The results showed that the use of a water film system on the exposed surface led to better fire resistance, but could not prevent the tiles from deforming.
List of Tables Ⅲ
List of Figures Ⅳ
2.Literature Review 4
2.1 The design and research of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) 4
2.2 The standards for PV modules applied to buildings 6
2.2.1 The PV module standards 6
2.2.2 The building standards 7
2.3 Fireproof characteristics of building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) 7
2.4 Firefighters’ concerns about PV modules 9
2.5 Objectives 10
3. Experimental apparatus and methods 11
3.1 Cone calorimeter method 11
3.2 Small-scale heating furnace 12
3.3 Full-scale heating furnace 12
4. Results and Discussion 14
4.1 Cone calorimeter method 14
4.1.1 Single crystalline silicon solar cell, polycrystalline silicon solar cell and thin-film photovoltaic solar cell 14
4.1.2 Total heat released and total mass for solar cells 17
4.1.3 Bifacial solar cell and back sheet 20
4.1.4 Total heat released and total mass for solar cell and back sheet 21
4.2 Small-scale heating furnace experiment 23
4.2.1 Exposed surface of PV modules 24
4.2.2 Unexposed surface of PV modules 25
4.2.3 Summary 26
4.3 Full-scale heating furnace experiment 28
4.3.1 Experiment using III-V PV modules with cold flow 29
4.3.2 Unexposed surface of III-V PV modules with water film 30
4.3.3 Exposed surface of III-V PV modules with water film 31
4.3.4 Summary 32
5. Conclusions 35
6. References 37
Tables and figures 43
List of publications 87
Azadian, F., “A general approach toward building integrated photovoltaic systems and its implementation barriers: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 22, p. 527-538, 2013.
Battery, S., “BIPV technology and market forecast,” 2011.
Lee, J. B., “An empirical study of performance characteristics of BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaic) system for the realization of zero energy building,” Energy, Vol. 66, p. 25-34, 2014.
Danny H. W. Li, Liu Yang, Joseph C. Lam. “Zero energy buildings and sustainable development implications – A review,” Energy, Vol. 54, p. 1-10, 2003.
Joara C, Monica A. C., Isabel C, Estefanía C. M., Sergio V. S, “BIPV technology application: Highlighting advances, tendencies and solutions through Solar Decathlon Europe houses,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 83, p. 44-56, 2014.
Geoffrey P. H., Hassan A. H., Craig I. J., Adrian B. W., “Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations,” Energy Policy, Vol. 40, p. 219-230, 2012.
Taleb H. M., Pitts A.C., “The potential to exploit use of building-integrated photovoltaics in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, p. 1092-1099, 2009.
Ísis P. D. S., Ricardo R., “The potential of building-integrated (BIPV) and building-applied photovoltaics (BAPV) in single-family, urban residences at low latitudes in Brazil,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 50, p. 290-297, 2012.
Martin O., Deivis L. M., Priscila B., Ricardo R., “The impact of building-integrated photovoltaics on the energy demand of multi-family dwellings in Brazil,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, p. 629-642, 2007.
Cheng C. L., Chan C. Y., She H. T., “Solar Generation System Apply in Building Construction and Envelope Design” Journal of Design, Vol. 8, 2003.
Gesellshaft D., “Planning and Installing Photovoltaic Systems, Baker & TaylorBooks,” ISBN: 1844074420, 2008.
Dhere N. G., Shiradkar N. S., “Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic system,” Journal of Photonics for Energy, 2012.
Liu A. P., “Discussion on the Trend of Solar Architecture,” Architectural Institute of Taiwan, Symposium of Research 14th, 2003.
Prasad D., Snow M., “Designing with Solar Power: A Source Book for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV),” Earthscan Publications: London, 2005.
Norton B., “Enhancing the performance of building integrated photovoltaics,” Solar Energy, Vol. 85, p. 1629-1664, 2011.
Lai I. D.,“A Research on the Application of Photovolaic System on the Roof Constructure of Buildings,” National Cheng Kung University, 2010.
“A kind of PV module system (in Chinese),” Industrial Technology Research Institute, Intellectual Property Office Ministry of Economic Affairs, R. O. C., 2009.
Iencinella D., Centurioni E., Busana M. G., “Thin-film solar cells on commercial ceramic tiles,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 93, p. 206-210, 2009.
CNS15114, “Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic pv modules - design qualification and type approval,” National Standards of Republic of China, 2007.
CNS15115, “Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval,” National Standards of Republic of China, 2007.
IEC61215, “Crystalline silicium terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) Modules - Design qualification and type approval,” International Electrotechnical Commission, 2005.
IEC61646, “Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval,” International Electrotechnical Commission, 2008.
“Building Design Construction Section No.70,” Building Technical Regulations, 2010.
“Japan- Building Fire Evacuation Provisions Commentary,” Ministry of Construction, 2012.
CNS14514, “Method of test for through-penetration fire stops,” National Standards of Republic of China, 2013.
CNS10147, “Method of fire test for roof surfaces of buildings,” National Standards of Republic of China, 2008.
UL1703, “Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels,” Underwriter Laboratories Inc, 2014.
Yang J. H., “Research and development of solar energy applications and energy-saving glass in the construction of zero energy (in Chinese),” Professional Engineer Journal, Taiwan, 2013.
Kenji M., Toshio Y., Katsutoshi T., Makoto T., Seiichi K., “New type of photovoltaic module integrated with roofing material (highly fire-resistant PV tile) (in Japanese),” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 75, p. 647-653, 2003.
Dhere N. G., Shiradkar N. S., “Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic system”, Journal of Photonics for Energy, 2012.
“Safety measures in the solar power generation system fire and fire- fighting activities (in Japanese),” Fire Department Fire Research Center, Fire Research Techical Data No. 83, 2014.
Tamura H., Abe N., Matsushima S., Tsukanome T., Takanashi K., Ogawa Y., Kawaseki D., Problems of fire and fire- fighting activities of houses installed solar power generation system (in Japanese),” The 16th Emergency Research Lecture Material, 2013.
“Guidance standards of fire safety measures in accordance with the solar power equipment (in Japanese),” Tokyo Fire Department, 2014.
R. Backstrom, D. A. Dini, P. E., Firefighter Safety and Photovoltaic Installations Research Project, Underwriters Laboratories Inc, 2011.
Haji Y., Ando G., “Risk related to renewable energy power generation system – large scale solar power generation system (in Japanese),”。NKSJ-RM Report, 76, 2012.
C. C. Grant, P.E., Fire Fighter Safety and Emergency Response for Solar Power Systems Final Report, Fire Protection Research Foundation, 2013.
“Study results of fire safety measure in accordance with the solar power equipment (in Japanese),” Tokyo Fire Department, 2014.
“Rooftop Solar PV & Firefighter Safty,” Meister Consultants group, 2014.
CNS14705-1, “Method of test for heat release rate for building materials – Part 1: Cone calorimeter method,” National Standards of Republic of China, 2013.
Shen H., ，Zeng Z. C., “Energy and Photovoltaic Technology,” 2010.
Cheng H. C., Dai B. T., “Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering,” 2008.
CNS5812 methods of test for peel strength of adhesives.
“Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA),” Material Safety Data Sheet. Formosa Plastics Corporation, 2014.
Wu C. W., “Studies on Performances of Fire Prevention and Smoke Barrier for the Building Openings,” National Cheng Kung University, Unpublished Doctor Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering National Cheng Kung University, 2007.
Lin C. Y., “Heat Resistance of Steel Roller Shutter Covered by Water Film,” National Cheng Kung University, Unpublished Master Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering National Cheng Kung University, 2010.
Lo W. H., “Heat Transfer Mechanism and Fireproof Characteristics of a Steel Roller Shutter with Flowing Water Film,” National Cheng Kung University, Unpublished Master Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering National Cheng Kung University, 2014.