進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-0807201120380100
論文名稱(中文) 企業的中高齡人力資源運用經驗─以「特力屋」為例
論文名稱(英文) Human Resources Strategy for Older Employees- A Case Study of TestRite Retail
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 老年學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Gerontology
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 林沛瑾
研究生(英文) Pei-Chin Lin
學號 tc6981011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊靜利
口試委員-蔡宏政
召集委員-陳寬政
中文關鍵字 人口老化  中高齡勞工  特力屋  企業觀點  勞動政策 
英文關鍵字 population aging  older workers  TestRite Retail  labor policy 
學科別分類
中文摘要   人口老化是已發展國家所共同面臨的人口現象,對國家之政治、經濟、社會形成廣泛且深遠的影響,隨著生育率的快速下跌,青壯年人口逐漸減少,勞動力人口也將逐漸萎縮,於是各國紛求婦女、弱勢種族、身心障礙者、中高齡者等替代性人力族群,以舒緩勞動力短缺的困境;而壽命延長的同時,中高者的健康狀況也隨之改善,勞動能力得以延續,因此中高齡的人力運用議題愈來愈受到矚目;臺灣亦不例外,但卻尚未在勞動政策上有所作為。
  英國是世界上運用中高齡人力歷史最悠久、態度也最為友善的國家,其當地企業B&Q是運用中高齡族群的先驅,足跡擴及世界各地後,仍舊堅持於各分店僱用一定比例以上的中高齡人力,而臺灣特力屋在2005年至2007年間亦實行此項人事政策,唯2007年成為獨資的本土企業後,此一政策卻未能持續。縱觀過去國內外有關高齡勞動之研究,多傾向以政府或中高齡者的角度切入,對於實質雇用、管理之企業角色切入的文獻相較缺乏,因此本研究以臺灣「特力屋」為觀察個案,從中選定一位總公司人力資源部門主管及八位店端管理者做為訪談對象,透過半結構式訪談進行資料蒐集,以達本文的研究目的:(1)以英國與日本為例,說明國家、企業與高齡勞動參與的關係;(2)了解特力屋人力資源策略在2005年與2007年的轉折過程,特別是2007年成為獨資的本土企業之後,其對中高齡勞動力運用的認識與態度之變化。(3)了解特力屋對國家現行中高齡勞動政策的期待與建議,以企業主的角度來檢視目前高齡勞動力促進政策的缺失,以為後續政策改進的參考。
  本研究發現,英國與日本皆為邁入高齡化社會的已開發國家,勞動力短缺與老化的問題迫切,如此情況可從該國變動的勞動政策中探出端倪,同時也影響民間企業對高齡勞動的價值觀感,進而影響該國中高齡勞動參與狀況;特力屋於2005年至2007年間,在英國母公司的要求下,強制運用一定比例的中高齡者,但在職務內容、教育訓練、薪酬計算、升遷路徑等面向,並沒有因此而發展任何量身訂造的管理措施,僅在運用時多些管理上的彈性;而在實際與這群中高齡員工相處後,中高齡者的工作表現及特質與運用前的想像有些出入,還有些新發現。總結以上,建議企業可階段性地定額運用中高齡勞工、投入在職訓練,至於國家執政者則可考慮採取「與事業單位研討運用機制」、「修改部分工時相關法令」、「立法強制定額進用中高齡者」、「成立中高齡者人力資料庫」等措施。
英文摘要   Population aging has been a common demographic phenomenon among developed countries which arises political, economic and social impacts profoundly. With low fertility, total population grows slowly and young population gradually reduces. In addition, with the expansion of higher education, labor force would shrink even more. Therefore, numerous countries turn to other alternative human resources, such as women, minority, disabled and older workers, for alleviating the problem of labor force supply. On the other hand, health status of older people has been improved along with human longevity, which means that human still have the ability to work and may want to stay in labor market during their young old age. As a result, employment of older workers becomes a hot issue among developed countries. Taiwan has the fastest speed of population aging and government is also aware of threaten of labor force shortage in the near future. Nevertheless, the awareness still does not reflect on labor policies.
  The United Kingdom (UK) is a country which has not only a long history of using older manpower, but also most friendly and positively attitudes toward older people all around the world. The local company, B&Q, recruited older workers as a pioneer since 1980s. Even now, as a transnational corporation, B&Q still adheres to employ a certain proportion of older workers. Its subsidiary in Taiwan, TestRite Retail (former “B&Q TestRite Retail”), also followed this personnel policy from 2005 to the end of 2007, while B&Q withdrew investment from TestRite Retail in 2008.
  In the past, literatures relating older people employment issues were more inclined to discuss government policies, advantages and disadvantage of older employees and the adaption of older workers, while the viewpoints of employers on older workers were relatively scarce. In this thesis we took TestRite Retail as a study case to explore the experiences, strategies and expectations of human resource officers on hiring and supervising older workers. Researcher visited one human resources manager from TestRite Retail headquarter and eight administrators from branch stores with semi-structured questionnaires to make deep interviews. Three purposes are addressed: 1) to take UK and Japan for examples to describe the relationship among government, employers, and older workers; 2) to depict the turning-points of TestRite Retail’s human resources strategies from 2005 to 2007, especially the change of attitudes toward older workers; 3) to understand the TestRite Retail‘s expectations and suggestions toward older workers’ employment promotion policies.
  Both UK and Japan are aged societies facing labor shortage and labor aging urgently. Their awareness can be recognized by their labor policies in which values of older workers for employers were well established and older workers’ labor participation rates were higher than most developed countries. For the TestRite Retail case, our interviews showed that TestRite Retail was forced to employ a certain proportion of older workers under B&Q’s requirement from 2005. However, TestRite Retail didn’t develop any further management measures for older workers. But after getting along with older workers for a period, managers learned some traits of older workers that are different from their stereotypes. In summary, TestRite Retail can raise proportion of older workers up step by step and integrate older workers to regular job training programs under a forced plan. In the aspect of policy suggestion, the human source manager/administrators in TestRite Retail suggested that (1) a regulation of minimum proportion of older workers is acceptable if government provide subsidies, (2) setting up older workers databank by profession to help employers recruiting older workers, (3) establish mechanism for cooperation between government and enterprises on older workers training programs.
論文目次 中文摘要----------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要---------------------------------------------------II
誌謝------------------------------------------------------IV
目錄-------------------------------------------------------V
表目錄---------------------------------------------------VII
圖目錄--------------------------------------------------VIII
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的--------------------------------------1
第二節 研究範圍與方法--------------------------------------6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 中高齡人力運用相關研究-------------------------------9
第二節 各國政策方案與措施----------------------------------15
第三章 特力屋的發展與現況
第一節 特力集團的發展沿革----------------------------------32
第二節 特力屋零售事業群的組織定位---------------------------36
第三節 「特力屋」的人力資源管理-----------------------------39
第四章 研究設計
第一節 研究參與者標準與招募--------------------------------43
第二節 資料蒐集-------------------------------------------43
第三節 訪談大綱設計---------------------------------------44
第四節 資料管理與分析-------------------------------------49
第五節 研究倫理-------------------------------------------52
第五章 訪談結果分析
第一節 特力屋人力資源概況----------------------------------53
第二節 特力屋人力資源策略在2005~2007年前後的轉折------------59
第三節 特力屋運用中高齡者的態度與經驗-----------------------61
第四節 特力屋對現行中高齡勞動政策的期待與建議----------------75
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論----------------------------------------------78
第二節 建議----------------------------------------------79


參考文獻
   一 中文部分------------------------------------------83
   二 日文部分------------------------------------------85
   三 英文部分------------------------------------------85
附錄
   一 知情同意書----------------------------------------90
   二 總公司訪談大綱-------------------------------------92
   三 店端訪談大綱--------------------------------------93
參考文獻 一、 中文部分
就業服務法(2009)。
內政部統計處(2010)。98年底人口結構分析。台北市:內政部統計處。
王孝慈、金仁(2008)。中高齡者職務再設計研究案。台北市:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局。
包瑋瑋(2009年10月12日)。頂級客制,「特力爵家」打造完整的家。聯合報。
台南市政府社會局(2007年11月23日)。社區好鄰居─特力屋「妝點溫馨聖誕」活動~送溫暖到仁愛之家。2010年10月12日,取自:http://www.tncg.gov.tw/news.asp?id=%7B59F5DE64-4AA4-4FB4-A29C-69AD42B9B826%7D&Lang=
成之約(2007)。中高齡人力資源運用的探討。臺灣勞工雙月刊,5,8-17。
成之約、林國榮、鐘琳惠(2007年5月)。中高齡人力再運用政策的探討。《建立臺灣永續發展的家庭、人口、健康、社區與勞動保障體系:公民權利契約觀點》國際學術研討會。2007臺灣社會福利學會年會暨學術研討會:台北大學。
成台生(2006)。日本社會保障制度之探討─以退休後國民年金及高齡者工作安定為例。人文與社會學報,1(9),267-299。
行政院主計處(2009)。中老年狀況調查統計結果綜合分析。台北市:行政院主計處。
行政院主計處(2010)。98年人力運用調查統計結果綜合分析。台北市:行政院主計處。
行政院主計處(2010)。98年人力資源調查統計年報。台北市:行政院主計處。
行政院研究發展考核委員會(2010)。退休人力資源活化策略。台北市:行政院研究發展考核委員會。
行政院勞工委員會(2007)。 因應高齡社會就業政策之民意與需求調查報告。台北市:行政院勞工委員會。轉引自王孝慈、金仁(2008)。中高齡者職務再設計研究案。台北市:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局。
行政院勞工委員會(2010)。98年中高齡(45~64歲)人力資源統計提要分析。 台北市:行政院勞工委員會。
行政院勞工委員會勞工保險局全球資訊網(2009)。勞保簡介。2010年11月23日,取自:http://www.bli.gov.tw/sub.aspx?a=q58UpWBe19E%3d
行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局(1996)。中高齡者就業手冊。台北市:行政院勞委會職業訓練局。轉引自曾敏傑、李漢雄(1999)。中高齡工作表現與企業職務再設計。載於李漢雄、曾敏傑(主編),中高齡勞工就業問題與對策 (167-203頁)。嘉義縣:國立中正大學勞工研究所。
行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局(2009a)。第五屆人力創新獎案例專刊「人資創新 企業起飛」。台北市:行政院勞工委員會。
行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局(2009b)。第五屆人力創新獎得獎專輯。台北市:行政院勞工委員會。
行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局(2009c)。第五屆人力創新獎獲獎名單。 2010年10月19日,取自:http://blog.tcfst.org.tw/hrdinnoprize/2009hrdinnoprize/2009winner.html
行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局泰山職業訓練中心(2005)。中高齡者適合受訓職類之研究。台北縣:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局泰山職業訓練中心。
行政院經濟建設委員會人力規劃處(2010)。2010年至2060年臺灣人口推計。台北市:行政院經濟建設委員會。
李政賢(譯)(2009)。訪談研究法。台北市:五南。(原著出版年:2006年)
周玟琪(2007)。中高齡者與老年人年齡層界定問題之探討,「就業安全」半年刊,7(2),66-72。
易永嘉(2007)。美國、澳大利亞、日本因應高齡化社會之就業策略及借鏡。臺灣勞工雙月刊,7,107-120。
林孟儀、黃漢華(2007)。政府因應不老1》實施勞動力搶救計畫:鎖定四大族群,十年搶回300萬勞動力。遠見雜誌,248。
林淑萱(2009)。從少子女高齡化社會探討我國老人的生產性活動。社區發展季刊,125,91-100。
孫仲山(2009)。職業訓練成效與就業轉銜網絡研究,高雄師範大學工業科技教育研究所,高雄市。
特力屋(2010)。2010年10月12日,取自:http://www.i-house.com.tw
袁功劭(2009年4月)。產業對於中高齡就業與再創業的看法。楊培珊(主持人),產業界對中高齡人口再就業的看法。產業對於中高齡就業與再創業的看法:臺灣大學。
張振成(1994)。企業運用老年人力相關因素之研究。中原大學企業管理研究所,桃園縣。
郭芳煜(2005)。目前中高齡者就業問題與措施,社區發展季刊,110,23-29。
陳志敏(2009)。臺灣中高齡人力資源運用與就業歧視之探討。中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士在職專班,桃園縣。
陳博志(2005)。台灣產業結構的升級與變遷。2011年7月3日取自:http://www.taiwanthinktank.org/chinese/page/3/26/348/0
曾介谷(2007)。組織發展與中高齡員工人力資源再運用之研究-以新宇公司為例。臺灣師範大學工業科技教育學系在職進修碩士班,台北市。
曾敏傑、李漢雄(1999)。中高齡工作表現與企業職務再設計。載於李漢雄、曾敏傑 (主編),中高齡勞工就業問題與對策 (167-203頁)。嘉義縣:國立中正大學勞工研究所。

黃同圳(2007)。高齡化趨勢下就業環境變化與因應對策之探討。臺灣勞工雙月刊,5,18-29。
楊伶雯(2010年4月20日)。特力集團跨足修繕裝潢市場,首年拚10億營收。今日新聞。2010年10月12日,取自:http://www.nownews.com/2010/04/20/91-2594189.htm
葉俊廷(2009)。職場中高齡者能力移轉模式之研究-以四個國營事業為例。國立中正大學高齡者教育所,嘉義縣。
劉修慈(譯)(1990)。日本高齡化社會的雇用問題。台北市:行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局。(原著出版年:1987年)
潘淑滿(2003)。質性研究:理論與應用。台北市:心理。
盧昱瑩(2005)。年齡歧視為中高齡勞工就業殺手?臺灣大學新聞研究所,台北市。
簡春安、鄒平儀(2006)。社會工作與質性研究。載於簡春安、鄒平儀(主編),社會工作研究法(135-188頁)。 台北市:巨流。
藍科正(1999)。論中高齡就業輔導政策。載於李漢雄、曾敏傑(主編),中高齡勞工就業問題與對策 (105-131頁)。嘉義縣:國立中正大學勞工研究所。
顏兆農(2007)。中高齡退休專業人力再運用之研究-以企業需求為導向。國立政治大學勞工研究所,台北市。


二、 日文部分
三浦文夫(編)(2007)。図說高鹷者白書2006年度版。東京:全国社会福祉協議會,轉引自林淑萱(2009)。從少子女高齡化社會探討我國老人的生產性活動。社區發展季刊,125,91-100。
社団法人全国シルバー人材センター事業協会(2009)。平成21年度全国統計。2011年3月7日,取自http://www.zsjc.or.jp/index


三、 英文部分
B&Q (2009). Sydney Prior: the oldest DIYer in town. Retrieved Aug, 10, 2010, from http://media.diy.com/assetbank-bandq/action/viewAsset?id=156&index=1&total=3&view=viewSearchItem
B&Q older worker policy. Retrieved Aug, 10, 2010, from http://www.thematuremarket.com/SeniorStrategic/B&Q_older_worker_policy-10301-5.html


Banks, J., Blundell, R., Bozio, A., & Emmerson, C. (2010). Releasing jobs for the young? Early retirement and youth unemployment in the United Kingdom. In J. Gruber & D. A. Wise (Eds.), Social security programs and retirement around the world: the relationship to youth employment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Buck, H., & Dworschak, B. (2003). Ageing and work in Europe: Strategies at company level and public policies in selected European countries. Stuttgart: Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
Cabinet Office Performance and Innovation Unit (2000). Winning the Generation Game: improving opportunities for people aged 50-65 in work and community activity. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Casey, B. (1998). Incentives and disincentives to early and late retirement, (AWP 3.3). France, Paris.
Casey, B. H. (2005). The employment of older people: Can we learn from Japan? The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, 30(4), 620-637.
Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) (2003). Simplicity, security and choice: working and saving for retirement. Action on occupational pensions. Government Green Paper, London.
DWP (2005). Opportunity age: meeting the challenge of ageing in the 21st century. Retrieved May, 9, 2011, from http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/opportunity-age-volume1.pdf
Devins, D., Johnson, S., & Sutherland, J. (2004). Employer characteristics and employee training outcomes in UK SMEs: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(4), 449-457.
Dixon, S. (2003). Implications of population ageing for the labour market. Labour Market Trends, February, 67-76.
Dutton, N., Flynn, M., & McNair, S. (2007). Employer responses to an ageing workforce: A qualitative study. London: Department for Work and Pensions.
Employment Department (1991). Training older workers. Sheffield, as cited in Taylor, P. (2008). Sing if you're glad to be grey. Working towards a happier older age in the United Kingdom. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 84-110). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Flynn, G. (1997). Making a business case for balance. Workforce, 76(3), 68-74.
Flynn, M. (2010). The United Kingdom government's "business case" approach to the regulation of retirement. Ageing and Society, 30(3), 421-443.
Frank, F. D., Finnegan, R. P., & Taylor, C. R. (2004). The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. Human Resource Planning, 27, 12-25.

Gruber, J., Milligan, K., & Wise, D. A. (2010). Introduction and summary. In J. Gruber & D. A. Wise (Eds.), Social security programs and retirement around the world: the relationship to youth employment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Guillemard, A.-M. (2003). Concluding remarks: Company practices and public policies regarding age- lessons drawn from comparisons. Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice, 28(4), 673-676.
Hagiwara, M. (1988). Teinensei no rekishi (History of the Teinen system). Tokyo: Nihon Rodo Kyokai, as cited in Oka, M. (2008). Japan: Towards employment extension for older workers. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 40-61). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Higuchi, Y. & the Ministry of Finance Policy Research Institute (Ed.). (2004). Dankai Sedai no Teinen to Nihon Keizai ( Retirement of the baby-boomer generation and the Japanese ecomony). Tokyo: Nihon-Hyoron-Sha, as cited in Oka, M. (2008). Japan: Towards employment extension for older workers. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 40-61). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Hale, N. (1990). The older worker: Effective strategies for management and human resource management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. Publishers, as cited in 成之約(2007)。中高齡人力資源運用的探討。臺灣勞工雙月刊,5,8-17。
Harper, S., Khan, H. T. A., Saxena, A. & Leeson, G (2006). Attitudes and practices of employers towards ageing workers: Evidence from a global survey on the future of retirement. Ageing Horizons, (5), 31-41.
Hogarth, T., & Barth, M. C. (1991). Costs and benefits of hiring older workers: A case study of B&Q. International Journal of Manpower, 12(8), 5-17.
Hotopp, U. (2005). The employment rate of older workers. Labour Market Trends, February, 73-88.
KS. (2008). B&Q Older Worker Policy. Retrieved May, 15, 2011, from http://www.thematuremarket.com/SeniorStrategic/B&Q_older_worker_policy-10301-5.html
Kingfisher. (2010). Retrieved October, 12, 2010, from http://www.kingfisher.com/index.asp
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Loretto, W., & White, P. (2006). Population ageing and older workers: Employer’s perceptions, attitudes and policies, Population, Space and Place, 12, 341-352.
Marshall, V. W., & Marshall, J. G. (2003). Ageing and work in Canada: Firm policies. Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice, 28(4), 625-639.

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. (2000). Heisei 12 Nen Konenreisha Shugyo Jittai Chosa Hokoku (Survey report on the reality of employment of older persons, conducted in 2000). Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, as cited in Oka, M. (2008). Japan: Towards employment extension for older workers. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 40-61). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. (2005). White paper on the labour economy 2005 summary. Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
OECD. (2006). Live longer, work longer. France, Paris.
Oka, M. (2008). Japan: Towards employment extension for older workers. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 40-61). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Oka, M., & Kimura, T. (2003). Managing an ageing labour force: The interplay between public policies and the firm's logic of action - The case of Japan. Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice, 28(4), 596-611.
Perrin, T. (2005). The business case for workers age 50+: Planning for tomorrow's talent needs in today's competitive environment. Washington DC: AARP.
Piktialis, D., & Morgan, H. (2003). The aging of the U.S. workforce and its implications for employers. Compensation & Benefits Review, 35, 57-63.
Remery, C., Henkens, K., Schippers, J., & Ekamper, P. (2003). Managing an aging workforce and a tight labor market: Views held by Dutch employers Population Research and Policy Review, 22(1), 21-40.
Schmähl, W. (2003). Ageing workforce: Firm strategies and public policy in Germany. Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice, 28(4), 575-595.
Stockholm European Council (2001).
Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (various), Rodo-ryoku Chosa (Labour Force Survey), Tokyo, accessed at www.stat.go.jp/data/roudou/3.htm, as cited in Oka, M. (2008). Japan: Towards employment extension for older workers. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 40-61). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Statistics Bureau. (2010). Population. In Statistics Bureau (Ed.), Statistical Handbook of Japan 2010. Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
Taylor, P. (2003). Older workers, employer behaviour and public policy. Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice, 28(4), 553-557.
Taylor, P. (2008). Sing if you're glad to be grey. Working towards a happier older age in the United Kingdom. In P. Taylor (Ed.), Ageing labour forces: Promises and prospects (pp. 84-110). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Taylor, P., & Walker, A. (1996). Intergenerational relations in employment. In A. Walker (Ed.), The new generational contract: intergenerational relations, old age and welfare (pp. 159-186). London: UCL Press.
Testrite. (n.d.). Retrieved October, 12, 2010, from http://www.testritegroup.com/index.htm
United Nations. (2010). Population ageing and development 2009. Retrieved Oct, 5, 2010, from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/ageing/ageing2009.htm
Usui, C., & Palley, H. A. (1997). The development of social policy for the elderly in Japan. Social Service Review, 71(3), 360-381.
van Dalen, H. P., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2009). Dealing with older workers in Europe: A comparative survey of employers' attitudes and actions. Journal of European Social Policy, 19(1), 47-60.
van Dalen, H. P., Henkens, K. & Schippers, J. (2010). How do employers cope with an ageing workforce? Views from employers and employees. Demographic Research, 22(32), 1015-1036.
Walker, A. (2002). Active strategies for older workers in the UK. In European Trade Union Institute (Ed.), Active strategies for older workers (pp. 403-435). Brussels: ETUI.
World Health Organization. (1993). Aging and work capacity. Geneva: World Health Organization.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-11起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-08-11起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw