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系統識別號 U0026-0807201112062300
論文名稱(中文) 對企業不同品牌經營模式的品牌認知之消費者信念-以高科技電腦產業為例
論文名稱(英文) Consumers' Perceived Beliefs of Brands Arising from Enterprises’ Brand Management Models
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Information Management
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 葉昱麟
研究生(英文) Yu-Lin Yeh
電子信箱 theoldcat2003@yahoo.com.tw
學號 R76984065
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 143頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝佩璇
口試委員-呂執中
口試委員-林清河
口試委員-盧希鵬
中文關鍵字 品牌經營  品牌信念  品牌形象  品牌權益  第二人生 
英文關鍵字 brand management  brand belief  brand image  brand equity  Second life 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究將不同品牌經營模式分為:公司網站及公司在「第二人生」(Second Life, SL)虛擬世界的據點,其中公司網站是指其美國的官方網站。現在虛擬世界除了具有遊戲性質之外,也廣泛應用於公司的員工專業技能訓練、學習、實驗等。使得現在已有許多公司在SL虛擬世界活動,做為另類的品牌經營與行銷管道。過去文獻已提出許多公司提升品牌權益的活動以及成效,然而對虛體世界中的品牌經營活動卻較少著墨,故本研究探討公司在官方網站與虛擬世界的品牌經營方式,了解在這之間的經營方式是否有所不同。另外,本研究也探討消費者對企業不同品牌經營模式所產生的品牌形象之信念,了解消費者對公司網站與虛擬據點的信念是否有所不同。本研究所選擇的個案公司,以IBM與Dell這兩家同時擁有網站及SL虛擬據點的電腦服務業者來進行研究。
首先本研究進行內容分析兩個案公司的網站與虛擬據點,發現IBM的官方網站與虛擬據點皆著重於互動性與生動性的內容;而Dell的官方網站以簡潔的方式,主要提供文字形式的資訊,其虛擬據點則以象徵性與裝飾性的物件為主。此外,從內容分析的結果發現,部份網站與虛擬據點的設計,可同時提供多個可視線索的內容,使可視線索之間存在著互相依賴性。接著本研究進行實驗性研究,設計四個實驗情境(兩個案公司*兩經營模式)並邀請國立成功大學工業與資訊管理學系的大學生為受測對象(潛在消費者),以探討消費者對某個案公司的網站與虛擬據點提供的資訊,分別產生的品牌認知之信念是否有所不同;其中,品牌認知包括:品牌態度與品牌形象。由於受測者在進入實驗情境之前,對兩個案公司的品牌態度之前測有顯著差異( t = -1.929, P = 0.008; IBM > Dell),因此本研究將分別探討兩個案公司所邀請的受測者進入不同實驗情境的結果。進入IBM官方網站實驗情境的受測者與進入IBM虛擬據點實驗情境的受測者,對於品牌態度之信念兩者無顯著差異( t = 1.130, P = 0.265)。而對於情境前後品牌態度的變化,兩情境均有提升品牌態度的效果。(官方網站:t = 3.294, P = 0.004;虛擬據點:t = 2.617, P = 0.017)。而對品牌形象之信念並無顯著差異(F = 1.404, P = 0.257,其中功能性:F = 0.065, P = 0.800;經驗性:F =0.808 , P=0.374;象徵性:F = 0.571, P = 0.455)。另一方面,進入Dell官方網站實驗情境的受測者與進入Dell虛擬據點實驗情境的受測者,對於品牌態度之信念兩者是無顯著差異( t = -1.653, P = 0.107)。而情境前後品牌態度的變化,兩情境均有提升品牌態度的效果(官方網站:t = 2.392, P = 0.027;虛擬據點:t = 2.151, P = 0.045)。然而,受測者的品牌形象之信念在兩者情境中是有顯著差異的(F = 12.105, P = 0.000),其中對於經驗性與象徵性品牌形象之信念有顯著差異,而功能性品牌形象之信念則沒有顯著差異(功能性:F = 1.746, P = 0.194;經驗性:F = 28.167, P = 0.000, 虛擬據點>網站;象徵性:F = 10.670, P = 0.002, 虛擬據點>網站)。
本研究也比較內容分析與實驗情境的結果,發現若官方網站與虛擬據點同樣以功能性與生動性為重點來設計,例如:IBM網站讓使用者能有效尋找欲購買產品的功能內容及豐富圖片、影片資料,其虛擬據點也提供許多能與使用者互動的影音內容。因此,瀏覽該官方網站或虛擬據點的受測者,會產生同樣程度的品牌認知之信念(包括:品牌態度與品牌形象)。然而,若官方網站使用文字與靜態圖片的內容為主,而虛擬據點則使用象徵性與裝飾性的物件,例如:Dell網站提供使用者較多文字與靜態圖片的內容,而其虛擬據點讓使用者可以種植虛擬的樹苗,甚至置身於巨大的電腦內參觀。因此,瀏覽該虛擬據點的受測者會產生較深刻的象徵性、經驗性品牌形象之信念,對於該官方網站則僅會產生同樣程度的功能性品牌形象之信念,甚至相較於IBM的網站與虛擬據點的功能性設計對於品牌形象之信念的影響,Dell仍有多處需要加強。整體而言,不論是進入IBM或者Dell實驗情境後的受測者,欲分別提昇其對品牌態度之信念、品牌形象之信念,尤其若要提昇受測者對功能性、經驗性、象徵性的品牌形象之信念,建議同時在官方網站與虛擬據點提供互動性、生動性、象徵性與裝飾性的物件。
英文摘要 This study distinguishes enterprises’ brand management models into official websites and virtual sites in a virtual world (namely Second Life). Virtual worlds are now not only being used for entertainment, but also being widely applied for other uses. Many enterprises have set up having virtual islands and virtual commercial buildings in Second Life as brand management and marketing channels. Many previous studies have examined enterprises’ activities to enhance brand equity and their resulting effectiveness. However, brand management activities in virtual worlds have received much less attention. This study investigates enterprises’ brand management in their official websites and virtual world sites to uncover any differences in the ways they operate. This study also investigates consumers’ perceived beliefs of brands arising from enterprises’ brand management models, and attempts to find out the perceived beliefs of official websites and virtual world sites are different or not. This work selects IBM and Dell as case study companies, both of which are computer service providers, have official websites and virtual sites in Second life.
First of all, this study applied content analysis to IBM and Dell’s official websites and virtual sites, and finds that IBM’s official and virtual sites both focus on vivid, interactive content. On the other hand, Dell’s official website mainly provides information in text form in a concise manner, while there are symbolic and decorative objects in Dell’s virtual site. Moreover, there is an interdependence between some affordances in both Dell and IBM's sites, because some designs provide content with multiple affordances. Second, this study designed four experimental conditions (two enterprise* two management models), and invited students from NCKU's Department of Industrial and Information Management College to act as the subjects, in an attempt to explore the differences in their perceived beliefs of the brands in the different conditions, with a focus on brand attitude and brand image.
Before involving the four different conditions, this study found that the subjects had significant pre-existing differences in their beliefs with regard to brand attitude and IBM and Dell (T = -1.929, P = 0.008; IBM > Dell). In addition, the demonstrated no significant differences in brand attitude with regard to IBM's official and virtual sites (T = 1.130, P = 0.265). After involving the different conditions, the subjects’ brand attitude improve in both conditions for IBM (official site: t = 3.294, P = 0.004; virtual site: t = 2.617, P = 0.017). In addition, the subjects had no significant differences in beliefs with regard to brand image for IBM (overall: F = 0.065, P = 0.800, functional: F = 0.065, P = 0.800; experiential: F =0.808 , P=0.374; symbolic: F = 0.571, P = 0.455).
The subjects also had no significant differences in brand attitude for Dell's official and virtual sites (T = -1.653, P = 0.107). After involving the conditions, the subjects’ brand attitude improved in both conditions for Dell (official site: t = 2.392, P = 0.027; virtual site: t = 2.151, P = 0.045). In addition, the subjects had significant differences with regard to brand image for Dell (F = 12.105, P = 0.000),as well as significant differences in belief related to experiential and symbolic brand images, although no significant differences in their beliefs of functional brand image (functional: F = 0.065, P = 0.800; experiential: F =0.808 , P=0.374, virtual site> website; symbolic: F = 0.571, P = 0.455, virtual site> website).
This study also compares the results of the content analysis and the experimental conditions. The findings show that if the official and virtual sites are both designed based on the principles of functionality and vividness, then college students who visit them would have same beliefs with regard to brand attitude and brand image. In addition, the findings also show that if the official websites are mainly designed based around words and pictures, and the virtual sites are based on symbolic and decorative objects, then college students who visit both kinds of sites would have same level of beliefs with regard to functional brand image. Comparing IBM and Dell, the latter's website and virtual site both need some improvements. Overall, for both experimental conditions for IBM and Dell, if the companies want to improve viewers’ beliefs about brand attitude and image, and especially want to improve those related to functional, experiential, and symbolic brand image, then it is necessary for their sites to have interactive, vivid, and symbolic content.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制 4
第四節 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 企業品牌經營之探討 7
2.1.1 品牌的定義與特性 7
2.1.2 品牌經營的模式 10
2.1.3 品牌權益 13
第二節 消費者行為 19
2.2.1 實體消費者行為 19
2.2.2 線上消費者行為 22
2.2.3 於Second Life上的消費者行為 24
2.2.4 權變理論 25
第三節 品牌信念與品牌認知相關研究 26
2.3.1 品牌信念 26
2.3.2 品牌態度 27
2.3.3 品牌形象 29
2.3.4 品牌聯想 33
第四節 虛擬世界之探討 35
2.4.1 虛擬世界的發展歷史與特徵 35
2.4.2 虛擬世界品牌權益強化模型 37
2.4.3 各企業於Second Life中的活動 44
第五節 文獻小結 48
第三章 研究方法 50
第一節 個案挑選 51
第二節 內容分析 54
3.2.1 內容分析觀察構面 54
3.2.2 內容分析信度 56
第三節 實驗情境設計 57
3.3.1 實驗情境製作與受測者挑選 57
3.3.2 實驗控制變項 61
第四節 實驗情境問卷設計問項 63
第五節 實驗情境資料分析方法 67
3.5.1 敘述性統計分析 67
3.5.2 信度與效度分析 67
3.5.3 獨立樣本T檢定與ANOVA 68
3.5.4 實驗情境問卷測試 69
第四章 內容分析與資料分析 72
第一節 公司網站與虛擬據點內容分析 72
4.1.1 IBM官方網站內容分析 72
4.1.2 IBM虛擬據點內容分析 79
4.1.3 Dell官方網站內容分析 85
4.1.4 Dell虛擬據點內容分析 91
4.1.5 內容分析結果小結 98
第二節 實驗情境問卷分析 104
4.2.1 信效度分析 104
4.2.2 樣本背景分析 105
4.2.3 品牌態度前測分析 106
4.2.4 品牌態度之信念分析 106
4.2.5 品牌形象之信念分析 108
4.2.6 實驗情境問卷分析小結 111
第三節 內容分析與實驗情境結果比較 113
第五章 結論與建議 116
第一節 研究結論 116
第二節 研究建議與未來方向 119
參考文獻 121
附錄一 情境1 IBM官方網站情境問卷 128
附錄二 情境2 IBM虛擬據點情境問卷 132
附錄三 情境3 Dell官方網站情境問卷 136
附錄四 情境4 Dell虛擬據點情境問卷 140
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