||Exploring the Effects of Interactive Service on Return Intention in Cultural Tourism: Moderating Effects of Cultural Richness
||Institute of Creative Industries Design
||Thi Dao TA
Models of Decision Making
Goal Directed Model
Viet Nam is a country with a huge potential of spiritual and cultural values which play key roles in tourism sector. It is because Vietnam has more than 60 folks that hold a diversity of ways of living, lifestyles, customs and traditions, that have been being shaped and developed along the country for thousands and thousands of years. Tourism, especial cultural tourism, is a sector that can become an important source of revenue since it creates jobs for people resulting in stable incomes for local residents in the communities. There are many ways for residents in the communities to take part in activities of tourism including becoming tour-guides, selling food and beverages, providing worship offerings, souvenirs, local and traditional products, providing transportation services, etc. Despite this facts, rate of tourist re-visitation is very low in comparison with Vietnam’s neighbors including Laos, Cambodia. Applying on the Theory of Goal Directed Model as a base theory and Cultural Richness as a moderator, this study is designed to investigate the tourist perceptions of two cultural destinations in Vietnam which are Confucius Temple and Hoi An ancient Town. Mixed method research is adopted to answer the two research questions “To what extend interactive services affect tourists’ intention to return using goal directed model?” and “How local government and tourism service providers can improve the quality of tourism services in order to gain higher return rate?” The findings of this study provide theoretical implications as well as practical implications for both local government and tourism providers in Vietnam.
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF FIGURES XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation. 1
1.1.1 General Information about Tourism Industry. 1
1.1.2. Tourism Industry in Vietnam and its Neighbors 2
1.1.3. Return Intentions and its Importance. 4
1.1.4. Return Intention in Cultural Tourism 5
1.1.5. Interactive services and its importance. 7
1.1.6. Cultural richness and its importance 8
1.1.7 Theory of Goal Directed Model and its Relevance to the Research 11
1.2 Research Objectives and Contributions. 12
1.3 The Flow of the Current Research. 14
1.4 The Structure of the Current Research. 14
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 16
2.1 Theoretical Background 16
2.1.1 The Theory of Reasoned Action 16
2.1.2 The theory of Planned Behavior 17
2.1.3 The MGB - Model of Goal Directed Behavior 20
2.1.4 Cultural Tourism and The Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGB) 24
2.2 Concepts of Research Constructs 27
2.2.1 Cultural Tourism 27
2.2.2 Interactive Services 36
2.2.3 The Theory of Goal Directed Model 39
2.2.4 Return Intention 43
2.3 Hypothesis Development. 44
2.3.1 Interactive Services, Attitude, and Anticipated Emotion 44
2.3.2 Tourist Attitude, Anticipated Emotion and Desire 47
2.3.3 Subjective Norm and Desire 50
2.3.4 Perceived Behavioral Control, Desire and Return Intention 51
2.3.5 Desire and Return Intention 52
2.3.6 Moderating Effects and Interaction Effects of Cultural Richness 53
2.4 Proposed Conceptual Model 56
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 57
3.1 Experiment Design and Procedure 57
3.2 Construct Measurement 59
3.2.1 Measurements of Interactive Service 60
3.2.2 Measurements of Attitude 61
3.2.3 Measurements of Anticipated Emotion 62
3.2.3 Measurement of Perceived Behavioral Control 63
3.2.4 Measurement of Subjective Norms 63
3.2.5 Measurement of Desire 64
3.2.6 Measurement of Return Intention 64
3.2.7 Measurement of Cultural Richness 65
3.2.8 Control Variables 65
3.3 Experiment - Manipulation Check 66
3.4 Data Analysis Procedures 67
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis 67
3.4.2 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 67
3.4.3 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test 67
3.4.4 Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Regression Analysis 68
3.4.5 Sampling Plan 69
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 71
4.1 Pretest. 71
4.2. Demographics and random assignment results 73
4.3 Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and manipulation check 74
4.3.1 Descriptive statistics 74
4.3.2 Confirmatory factor analysis 77
4.3.3 Manipulation check 80
4.4 Main effects, interaction effects, moderating effects, and control variables 83
4.4.1 Main effects 83
4.4.2 Moderating and Interaction Effects 87
4.4.3 Control Variables 92
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 96
5.1 Discussion and Implication 96
5.2 Limitation, Directions for Future Research and Conclusion 106
Appendix I: The two investigated sites 125
Appendix Ia Temple of Literature 125
Appendix Ib Hoi An Ancient Town 128
Appendix II Questionaire 129
Appendix IIIa Interviews with Tourists 134
Appendix IIIb Interviews with Service Providers 141
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