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系統識別號 U0026-0801201914013900
論文名稱(中文) 以結構方程模式探討社區環境、情感評價與幸福感之關係
論文名稱(英文) Exploring the Relationships among Community Environment, Affective Appraisal, and Happiness Using the Structural Equation Model
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 陳秋伶
研究生(英文) Chiu-lin Chen
學號 N78981167
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 94頁
口試委員 指導教授-張珩
口試委員-侯錦雄
口試委員-林宗賢
口試委員-周學雯
口試委員-林子平
中文關鍵字 社區  實質環境  社區涵構  情感評價  幸福感 
英文關鍵字 community  physical environment  context  affective appraisal  happiness  SEM 
學科別分類
中文摘要 從文明之始,人類就不停探索幸福在哪裡?資本主義世界原以為經濟是幸福來源的主宰,但貧窮的佛教小國—不丹以國民幸福指數(Gross National Happiness,GNH)概念,顛覆了這個迷思。因此,幸福的概念從心理學跨界到各學門領域,環境心理/行為學對於居住幸福的研究如雨後春筍般萌發,且將研究焦點強調在居民與其居住環境的關係,並探討居住環境各面向對於居民情緒的關係和對健康福祉的影響。因此,本研究目的即在探討社區環境對居民情感評價以及幸福感認知之影響與關聯性。
為了避免所研究的現象是來自某種特定的社區型態,研究設計特別多樣性地選擇各種在台灣的典型社區,或其混和型態。本研究取樣 5個社區,分屬典型之台灣社區型態或其混合形式:電梯大樓、電梯公寓、透天厝與平房,以位於台南的大安新城國宅社區、怡平里社區、龍山里社區,以及地處高雄的宏毅社區及宏南社區作為研究對象。本研究根據5處社區居民共發放568份問卷,回收有效樣本473份位樣本進行分析,透過量化統計的描述性統計、項目分析、因素分析、多元迴歸分析、結構方程模式等方法,以驗證本研究各項假設。
迴歸分析結果顯示,社區產生的環境刺激(包括實質環境、服務機能、涵構)誘發了居民的情緒反應,而這些因素主要涉及戶外環境,因為許多研究發現室內生活條件對居民對社區環境的認知並沒有顯著影響。居民對於社區的情感評價進一步地左右了其幸福感的產生。居民對於社區的情感評價可分為「愉悅」、「控制」及「喚起」3個次構念,幸福感則包括「知足」與「常樂」2個次構念。研究結果也證明了社區環境對社區居民的情感評價具有正面影響效果,並指出,在規劃和打造幸福社區時應同時考量物質的和感知的環境。在居民對於社區的情感評價上,「實質環境」和「服務機能」次構念的效應大小是相似的,但「社區涵構」次構念的影響被發現占主導地位。「實質環境」的綠地、配置、美學和街道意象,以及「服務機能」的通道與出入、社會服務和休閒服務,均與情感評估相關,其影響效果規模從小到中。同樣地,「社區涵構」中的社交生活和居住時間與情感評價也有相關聯,且具有中等的影響效果。進一步來看,社區環境中的配置、通道與出入、社交生活和居住時間等4個因子各別都會影響居民情感評價的「愉悅」、「喚起」和「控制」等因子。結果也指出,社區實質環境中的綠地、配置、美學、通道與出入、社會服務機能等元素皆顯著地影響居民對幸福感的認知;其中通道與出入、社會服務則同時影響了幸福的「知足」及「常樂」兩個元素;而社區配置及美學則與「知足」顯著相關,綠地及商業服務顯著影響「常樂」。
進一步就結構模式方面加以探討發現,實質環境、涵構、情感評價以及幸福感四個構念間具有一個結構性的關係;且實質環境並不直接影響幸福感,而必須透過社區涵構和情感評價來影響居民的幸福感。社區涵構在整個模式中處於關鍵地位,實質環境中以「配置」及「通道與出入」最重要,社區涵構中「社交生活」最重要,情感評價中「愉悅」最有影響力。
上述的社區實質環境、涵構、居民情感評價與幸福感等4個構念的相關性與結構性研究結果,提供了新的重要見解,城市和建築專業人士可以使用它們來創建對居民更宜居、更具吸引力的社區,藉此規劃者和設計師即可以創造一個愉快的社區,讓居民感到快樂。
英文摘要 From the dawn of civilization, humans have pondered, fretted and philosophized over the source of happiness. Although many capitalists believe that economic growth may be the only path to happiness, the small and poor Buddhist country of Bhutan has challenged this belief with the concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH). Today, the concept of happiness has evolved beyond the realm of psychology into a wide diversity of disciplines, and many researchers are now exploring how environmental / behavioral psychology influences the happiness perceived by individuals as well as communities. The goal of this study was to explore how various environmental factors influence perceived happiness in residential communities.
In order to obtain a representative cross-section of residential communities, this study targeted the types of communities that are typical in Taiwan, including high-rise condominiums, townhouse communities, and courtyard communities. The five communities that were targeted in this study were Dalin, Yiping, and Longshan in Tainan City and Hongyi and Hongnan in Kaohsiung. The study questionnaire was distributed to 568 residents, with 473 valid questionnaires completed and used in analysis. Descriptive statistics, item analysis, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and the structural equation model were used to analyze the 473 valid survey datasets in order to confirm the hypotheses of this study.
The results of regression analysis show that communities generate stimuli that elicit emotional reactions from residents. Furthermore, these stimuli are primarily related to the outdoor environment, which supports previous findings that indoor living conditions do not significantly affect resident perceptions of their community environment. Moreover, the affective appraisal of community residents was shown to influence their happiness. The affective appraisal of community residents may be divided into the three dimensions of pleasure, dominance, and arousal, while happiness may be distinguished into the two dimensions of satisfied and joyful. This study found a positive effect of community environment on the affective appraisal of community residents. Moreover, the results indicate that both material and perceptive environments should be considered when planning and creating happy communities. The context aspect was found to predominate when the effect sizes of the physical-environment and service-function aspects were similar. The variables found to be correlated with affective appraisal included: green space, layout, aesthetics, and streetscape in the physical-environment aspect and transport service, social welfare service, and recreational service in the service-function aspect, with effect sizes ranging from small to medium. Similarly, affective appraisal was also found to be correlated with physical environment evaluation, social interactions, and time in the context aspect, with medium effect sizes. Moreover, each of the four factors of layout, traffic function, social environment, and time influenced the participants’ affective appraisals of pleasure, arousal, and control. Furthermore, green area, community layout, aesthetics, transportation service, and social service all significantly influenced the perceived happiness of the participants. Finally, the factors of transportation service and social service simultaneously influenced “satisfied” and “joyful”, community layout and aesthetics were significantly correlated to “satisfied”, and green area and business service significantly affected “joyful”.
The findings in this study regarding the correlations among and the structure of the four constructs of community physical environment, context, affective appraisal, and happiness provide important new insights. Planners and designers may use this model to plan and develop communities that bring pleasure and happiness to their residents.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XV
表目錄 XVI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與流程 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 社區環境剖析 5
第二節 情感評價 6
第三節 實質環境與居民情感評價 7
第四節 幸福社區 8
第三章 研究設計 11
第一節 研究基地 11
第二節 研究變項 17
第三節 調查程序 20
第四節 資料分析 21
第四章 結果與討論 23
第一節 樣本背景屬性分析 23
第二節 社區實質環境對於居民幸福感影響之探索 28
第三節 居民情感評價與社區環境關係 31
第四節 幸福社區結構方程模型 40
第五章 結論與建議 47
第一節 結論 47
第二節 建議 51
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議 52
參考資料 55
一、中文文獻 55
二、英文文獻 56
附錄 67
附錄一、研究問卷 67
附錄二、國際期刊投稿 71
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