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論文名稱(中文) 漢語「再說」的語法化歷程:由主觀性的角度探討
論文名稱(英文) The Grammaticalization of Zaishou in Mandarin Chinese: From the Perspective of Subjectivity
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 林亦真
研究生(英文) I-Chen Lin
學號 k26971197
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 125頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃淑妙
口試委員-謝菁玉
口試委員-呂佳蓉
中文關鍵字 語法化  主觀性  重新分析  關聯成份 
英文關鍵字 grammaticalization  subjectivity  reanalysis  conjunction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文探討漢語詞彙「再說」的語法化歷程。現代漢語中「再說」主要用途為銜接邏輯相關的句段,是僅具語法功能卻不含實質意義的虛詞。然而近年來研究「再說」語法化的著作指出「再說」早於六朝時期 (西元222-589年) 出現,並做為狀中結構短語。隨後,「再說」進行了相當多元並漫長的語法化歷程。過去的文獻著重於對「再說」功能與多義性做分類,但較未能針對各類「再說」的出現做一誘發、承襲之過程的深入考究。因此本研究採用著重功能性考究的語法化理論 (Hopper & Traugott, 1993)、著重漢語語法化研究發展的著作 (Shi, 2003, 2006),以及較具信度的「再說」 研究文獻 (Luo & Niu, 2009),並以整合性的觀維,重視、驗證過去相關研究對「再說」所做的分類與定義,更使用語料資源分別以歷時性與共時性角度來做分析,使用語料庫包括中央研究院現代漢語平衡語料庫、近代漢語標記語料庫,以及漢籍全文資料庫。研究結果顯示,歷時性的觀點而言,短語再說1因為主觀性影響與文體題材的變遷,約於宋代先演化出話題轉換標記再說2之用法,接下來再說1繼續受主觀性影響,又於明代發展出表達延滯意願的語氣詞再說3。本研究同時發現再說2與做為關聯成份的再說4 不論是句法語意或主觀性發展上皆有甚多相似處,但兩者之承襲性仍需仰賴更多延伸研究來證實。目前可知的是再說1為各種其他再說變體之根源。共時性角度而言,頻率統計分析顯示再說1於現代漢語時期雖仍被使用,但使用頻率相較於近代漢語已有下降之趨勢;再說2 於近代漢語使用率極高,但於現代漢語甚少出現;再說3於現代漢語使用率得到不小的進展;再說4 雖為現代最常見的類別,但在其他時期未曾出現。綜合本研究分析,「再說」的語法化歷程顯示語言之變遷與說話者主觀性觀維具有相當密切的互動關係。並且「再說」語法化過程之獨特,在於它反映出主觀性的長期影響力與一語言的語法系統息息相關,並與整體的文本敘述流程之發展歷史相輔相承,本研究旨在拓展此類研究的視野。以「再說」之語法化研究為例,縱然做為關聯成份已被視為習以為常,其背後卻隱涵相當悠久並且十分豐富多元的演化歷史。
英文摘要 This study aims to investigate the grammaticalization process of zaishuo 再說 in Mandarin Chinese. In Modern Mandarin Chinese, zaishuo is commonly used as a function word to connect clausal units being logically related. Recent studies of zaishuo have revealed that zaishuo appeared in the Six Dynasty era (A.D. 222-589) as a verbal phrase referring to speech-oriented actions. Ever since, zaishuo has undergone a profound process of grammaticalization. Previous research have coined several types of zaishuo by meaning and function, but the cause, the path and the result of the grammaticalization process between different types were unverified. By adopting grammaticalization theories that based on functional aspects (Hopper & Traugott, 1993) and Chinese language (Shi, 2003, 2006) with evident definitions of zaishuo (Luo & Niu, 2009), this study takes a convergent perspective to revisit and verify related previous studies. Consequently, this study have provided a comprehensive research framework conducted by diachronic and synchronic analyses based on collected data via corpus-based resources derived from Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Mandarin Chinese, Academia Sinica Tagged Corpus of Early Mandarin Chinese and Scripta Sinica. The results of the analyses indicate that diachronically, due to the influence of subjectivity and the rise of narrative text, zaishuo1 as a verbal phrase first mutated into zaishuo2 as topic-shifter around the Song Dynasty (A.D. 960-1279). Then zaishuo1 derived a second variant zaishuo3 as modal particle around Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1368-1644), which is also triggered by subjectivity. At the same time, it is evident that zaishuo2 shares many similarities with zaishuo4 which is a conjunction found in Modern Mandarin Chinese, but further studies are needed to confirm their direct inherent relation. So far this study concludes that zaishuo1 is the root for all other types of zaishuo. Synchronically, the frequency analysis reveals that zaishuo1 although still remain in used in Modern Mandarin Chinese, lost its popularity gradually; zaishuo2 being the most popular type in Early Mandarin Chinese, went almost extinct in Modern Mandarin Chinese; zaishuo3 has gained increased popularity in Modern Mandarin Chinese. Zaishuo4 is the most popular type in Modern Mandarin Chinese, but it was not found in any other eras. The grammaticalization of zaishuo reveals that language change is constantly influenced by subjectivity. And what is unique about the study of zaishuo is that it perfectly illustrates how subjectivity could gradually affect a grammatical system as well as the overall historical development of narrative text and discourse. This study has broadened the investigating paradigm of such topic and concludes that zaishuo, although taken for granted as a conjunction, bears a historically profound and vigorous evolving process.
論文目次 中文摘要............ i
Abstract............ ii
Acknowledgements ............ iii
Table of Contents............ iv
List of Tables............ vi
List of Figures............ vii
Conventions............ viii

Chapter 1 Introduction............ 1
1.1 Motivation and goals............ 2
1.2 Research Methods............ 7
1.2.1 Data collection of zaishuo............ 7
1.2.2 Divisions of chronological eras of Chinese language............ 9
1.2.3 Method for frequency analysis of zaishuo............ 10
1.3 The structure of the thesis............ 12

Chapter 2 Literature Review............ 13
2.1 The theoretical framework of grammaticalization............ 13
2.2 Key mechanisms of grammaticalization............ 16
2.2.1 Decategorization and generalization............ 17
2.2.2 Metonymy and pragmatic inferences............ 19
2.2.3 Reanalysis and analogy............ 20
2.3 Subjectivity in speech verbs in Mandarin Chinese............ 23
2.3.1 Subjectivity and internalization............ 24
2.3.2 Subjectivity and subjectivisation............ 25
2.3.3 Subjectivity as the influence to verbs............ 28
2.4 Grammaticalization of zaishuo............ 30
2.4.1 Luo & Niu (2009)............ 32
2.4.2 Hu & Yu (2010)............ 38
2.4.3 Wei (2010)............ 41
2.5 Interim summary............ 42

Chapter 3 Categorizations of zaishuo............ 45
3.1 Zaishuo1: A verbal phrase............ 45
3.1.1 Syntactic analysis of zaishuo1............ 46
3.1.2 Semantic analysis of zaishuo1............ 49
3.2 Zaishuo2 : A topic-shifter............ 50
3.2.1 Syntactic analysis of zaishuo2............ 52
3.2.2 Semantic analysis of zaishuo2............ 54
3.3 Zaishuo3: A modal particle............ 59
3.3.1 Syntactic analysis of zaishuo3............ 60
3.3.2 Semantic analysis of zaishuo3............ 64
3.4 Zaishuo4 : A conjunction............ 70
3.4.1 Syntactic analysis of zaishuo4............ 71
3.4.2 Semantic analysis of zaishuo4............ 75
3.5 Interim summary............ 77

Chapter 4 The grammaticalization of zaishuo............ 79
4.1 Synchronic analysis of zaishuo............ 79
4.1.1 Statistic analysis of zaishuo in Early Mandarin Chinese............ 80
4.1.2 Statistic analysis of zaishuo in Modern Mandarin Chinese............ 83
4.1.3 Comparison of frequency rates between two chronological eras............ 84
4.2 Diachronic analysis of zaishuo............ 86
4.2.1 The origin of zaishuo............ 86
4.2.2 The inherent relation between zaishuo2 and zaishuo4............ 91
4.2.3 Comparison of zaishuo3 between two chronological eras............ 95
4.3 Counter cases of zaishuo............ 98
4.3.1 Counter cases of zaishuo in Early Mandarin Chinese............ 98
4.3.2 Counter cases in Modern Mandarin Chinese............ 99
4.4 Interim summary............ 101

Chapter 5 Conclusion............ 105
5.1 Conclusion of the study of zaishuo............ 105
5.1.1 Diachronic development............ 105
5.1.2 Synchronic development............ 108
5.1.3 The mechanism of grammaticalization............ 109
5.1.4 The study of grammaticalization............ 111
5.2 Contribution of the study............ 113
5.3 Suggestions for further studies and final remarks............ 114
References............ 116
APPEDNDIX............ 125

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