進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0712201708143700
論文名稱(中文) 南非電力部門之能源消費ˋCO2 排放及投入產出生命週期評估之研究
論文名稱(英文) Integrated Study of Energy Consumption CO2 Emissions and Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment for the Electricity Sector in South Africa
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 裴牧和
研究生(英文) MOHAMED BEIDARI
學號 P58007041
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 228頁
口試委員 共同指導教授-林素貞
指導教授-黃良銘
口試委員-王鴻博
口試委員-吳榮華
口試委員-馬鴻文
召集委員-陳鶴文
中文關鍵字 None 
英文關鍵字 Energy consumption  CO2 emissions  Electricity sector  Decoupling analysis  Kaya identity  Decomposition analysis  Input-output analysis  Input-output life cycle assessment  Monte-Carlo analysis. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 None
英文摘要 South Africa (SA) is the most industrialized and developed country in Africa. According to British Petroleum (BP) Statistical Review of Energy (2014), coal accounted for 72% of South Africa's total primary energy consumption, followed by oil (22%), natural gas (3%), nuclear (3%), and renewables (less than 1%) in 2013. This dependency on coal put SA as the leading carbon dioxide emitter in Africa and the 13th largest in the world, according to the latest U.S. Energy Information Administration report (EIA, 2015). Coal combustion is generally more carbon-intensive than the burning natural of gas or petroleum for electricity. Coal represents more than 90% of the electricity generated in South Africa, which accounts for about 99% of CO2 emissions from electricity sector (IEA data, 2015). In 2013, the electricity sector was the largest source of SA’s CO2 emissions, accounting for about 60% of the SA total as shown in Figure 1. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity have increased by 64% since 1990 as electricity demand has grown and as coal has remained the dominant source for generation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is firstly to evaluate the occurrence of decoupling of CO2 emissions from the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in South Africa (SA) for the period of 1990 to 2012 by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Tapio methods, and to identify the primary CO2 emissions driving forces by the Kaya identity. Then, the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) is applied to analyze the influence of the factors which ruled electricity generation-related CO2 emission in SA over the period 1990–2013. For further investigations, the input-output linkage and multiplier methods have been applied to investigate the interrelationships of the 18 sectors’ input-output tables for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012, and to measure the total impact of their energy commodity input coefficients and CO2 emissions output coefficients for the year 2012. Finally, the Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (IO-LCA) was employed to evaluate the potential global warming and other environmental impacts from the electricity generation and related industry. The impact 2002+ model was adopted from SimaPro 7.3.3 to analyze environmental impacts. The methodology also explores the level of uncertainty of various impact categories. Monte Carlo simulation is used to analyze the uncertainties associated with Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), and the normalization and weighting processes. The uncertainty of the environmental performance for major impact categories and damage categories are also calculated and compared.
The results from the decoupling investigation show a strong decoupling during the period of 2010–2012, which is considered as the best development situation. From 1994–2010 SA had a weak decoupling; while during the period 1990–1994, the development in SA presents an expansive negative decoupling state. The comparison of the OECD and Tapio’s methods shows well-correlated results but differs in their applications; however, the OECD method appears as the simpler one. The results of the Kaya identity demonstrate that the increase in population, GDP per capita and deteriorating energy efficiency were the main primary driving forces for the increase of CO2 emissions. Concerning the LMDI, results show that the electricity generation intensity effect plays the dominant role in decreasing CO2 emissions. However, the effect of economic activity is the major determinant that contributes to increasing CO2 emissions. Regarding the input-output linkage and multiplier analysis, results reveals that the electricity sector has a weak linkage with others sectors, which means it is mostly independent of other sectors. In another words, it does not induce and enable economic growth. Moreover, two sectors, namely Chemical and Petrochemical Industries and Basic Metals, were found as key sectors in SA’s economy in 1995, 2000 and 2012. In 2005 and 2010, only Chemical and Petrochemical Industries was the most important sector in SA. Additionally, Commercial and Public Services was the strongest forward linkage sector in SA. Our findings also showed that the electricity sector was the main direct monetary energy consumer and CO2 emitter and therefore the most dominant source in terms of energy and CO2 intensities among all the 18 sectors in SA. Furthermore, our investigation of the direct and indirect effects on energy consumption and CO2 emissions indicated that both total of direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions were higher than both total indirect energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Finally, the normalization results from IMPACT 2002+ demonstrates that the electricity power generation sector and the coal mining sector were respectively the two main sectors which had the highest environmental load during the study period. It also showed that the resources were the major environmental damages, followed by human health and climate change over those five years. In contrast, the ecosystem quality was barely affected, and their impact values were the lowest among those 4 damage categories over the study period. The cumulative of normalized impact values revealed that the respiratory inorganics, the non-renewable energy, and the global warming in that order were the most significant environmental impacts from the South Africa’s electricity generation sector. Results of direct and indirect effects revealed that the electricity sector had the highest direct impact on human health, followed by climate change and ecosystem quality in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. In contrast, the resources impact was mainly caused from the indirect effect produced by other relevant sectors such as coal mining sector for three years. Results also pointed out that the Particulates, < 10 um mainly emitted from the electricity sector was the major substance that contributed to respiratory inorganics impact category and the human health damage category. The global warming impact category was largely caused by carbon dioxide from non-renewable energy which was as a result of the use of coal and unspecified energy at the power plant for the electricity generation. Thus, the electricity sector was the major emitter of carbon dioxide and had the highest share of the substances responsible of the global warming impact category. Moreover, the non-renewable energy is mainly caused by coal and unspecified energy with the coal mining and the electricity sectors being the main non-renewable energy consumers.
The particulate matter PM10 and the carbon dioxide were identified as air pollutants with major health and environmental concerns. The results of the IO-LCA specified that majority of these two substance emissions were emitted from the electricity sector. Thus, Eskom (SA’s electricity national distributor) and the SA’s government should take actions to reduce more PM10 and CO2 emissions by finding strategies to decrease the amount of coal consumed to produce electricity, or shift to renewable. However, other substances such as Sulfur dioxide, Arsenic, Barium, Nitrogen oxides, Ammonia, Dioxin, 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-, Dinitrogen monoxide, Sulfur hexafluoride and Methane which are also pollutants with major health and environmental concerns, shouldn’t be ignored.
The results of the Monte Carlo simulation of the top 12 sectors showed that the standard deviations of the respiratory inorganics, global warming, climate change and human health do not widely vary from their means with coefficients of variation less than 32% overall. This point out some of level of consistency with the input data. The results also indicated that the score for non-renewable energy and resources have very high uncertainty compare to Global warming and Respiratory inorganics especially in 1995 and 2012 where the coefficients of variation were respectively 104% and 115%. That revealed the standard deviation varies widely from the mean. Finally, the simulation of Monte Carlo on Single score of the top 12 sectors presented a coefficient of variation less than 60% each year of the study, which means the standard deviation does not vary widely from the mean. Therefore, the results of this study revealed some of level of reliability with the input data overall. In addition to the results of this study, some potential suggestions on reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions deduced from this study are discussed.
論文目次 CONTENTS
ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS VI
LIST OF TABLES XIII
LIST OF FIGURES XVI
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research objective 11
1.3 Framework of the research 12
CHAPTER 2 METHODS AND LITERATURE REVIEW 15
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Decoupling 16
2.2.1 Literature review 16
2.2.3 Tapio's decoupling 22
2.2.4 Kaya Identity 24
2.3 Decomposition analysis 27
2.3.2 CO2 Emissions from Electricity Generation 31
2.3.3 Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) 32
2.4 Input-Output Analysis 36
2.4.1 Literature review 36
2.4.2 General framework of input-output analysis 39
2.4.3 Linkage effect analysis 47
2.4.4 Multiplier effect analysis 48
2.5 Life cycle assessment (LCA) 50
2.5.1 Input-output life cycle assessment (I-O LCA) 60
2.5.2 Literature review 63
2.5.3 I-O LCA calculation 67
2.5.4 Impact assessment model 69
2.5.5 Monte Carlo analysis 78
CHAPTER 3 DECOUPLING EFFECTS BETWEEN CARBON DIOXIDE AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT IN SOUTH AFRICA 82
3.1 Introduction 82
3.2 Data consolidation 83
3.3 Analysis of CO2 emissions 84
3.4 Decoupling analysis 87
3.5 Comparison of the methods 90
3.6 Kaya factors analysis 92
3.7 Summary 94
CHAPTER 4 DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF CO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL - SOURCED ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AFRICA 97
4.1 Introduction 97
4.2 Data consolidation 98
4.3 Trends of energy consumption and CO2 emissions from SA’s thermal power sector 98
4.4 Decomposition analysis 99
4.5 Policy Implications 105
4.6 Summary 107
CHAPTER 5 INTER-INSDUSTRY LINKAGES AND MULTIPLIER EFFECTS OF SOUTH AFRICA'S ELECTRICITY SECTOR 109
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Data consolidation 112
5.3 Inter-Industry linkages 113
5.4 Energy multiplier 116
5.5 CO2 multiplier 117
5.6 Direct and indirect effects of energy consumption 118
5.7 Direct and Indirect effects of CO2 emissions 118
5.8 Policy implications 119
5.9 Summary 120
CHAPTER 6 130
INPUT-OUTPUT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA'S ELECTRICITY SECTOR 130
6.1 Introduction 130
6.1.1 Scope 131
6.1.2 Functional units 132
6.1.3 Data consolidation 132
6.2 Limitations and assumptions 133
6.3 Environmental impacts of the electricity generation sector 134
6.3.1 Environmental Impact Results 135
6.4 Summary 158
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 161
6.1 Conclusions 161
6.2 Suggestions 166
REFERENCES 171
APPENDICES 191
Appendix 1- OECD decoupling result (fix based year method) 191
Appendix 2- Tapio decoupling result (rolling based year method) 192
Appendix 3 Network on Single Score Impact on Environment of the top 12 sectors in 1995. 193
Appendix 4 Network on Single Score Impact on Environment of the top 12 sectors in 2000. 194
Appendix 5 Network on Single Score Impact on Environment of the top 12 sectors in 2005. 195
Appendix 6 Network on Single Score Impact on Environment of the top 12 sectors in 2010. 196
Appendix 7 Network on Single Score Impact on Environment of the top 12 sectors in 2012. 197
Appendix 8 Characterization of the top 12 sectors in 1995. 198
Appendix 9 Characterization of the top 12 sectors in 2000. 199
Appendix 10 Characterization of the top 12 sectors in 2005. 200
Appendix 12 Characterization of the top 12 sectors in 2010. 201
Appendix 13 Characterization of the top 12 sectors in 2012. 202
Appendix 14 Normalization of environmental damages of the top 12 sectors in 1995. 203
Appendix 15 Normalization of environmental damages of the top 12 sectors in 2000. 204
Appendix 16 Normalization of environmental damages of the top 12 sectors in 2005. 205
Appendix 17 Normalization of environmental damages of the top 12 sectors in 2010. 206
Appendix 18 Normalization of environmental damages of the top 12 sectors in 2010. 207
Appendix 19 Monte Carlo simulation results on Characterization of the top 12 sectors. 208
Appendix 20 Monte Carlo simulation results on Damage Assessment of the top 12 sectors. 209
Appendix 21 Monte Carlo simulation results on Normalization of the top 12 sectors. 210
Appendix 22 Monte Carlo simulation results on Weighting of the top 12 sectors. 211
Appendix 23 Monte Carlo simulation results on Single score of the top 12 sectors. 212




LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Energy sector carbon dioxide emissions intensity and per capita in 2012. 5
Table 1-2 South Africa's power stations and nominal installed capacity (unit: megawatts). 8

Table 2- 1 Tapio’s decoupling states. 24
Table 2-2 Default emissions factors for stationary combustion in the energy industries (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a net calorific basis). 32
Table 2-3 LMDI formulae for decomposing changes in electricity generation-related CO2 emissions. 35
Table 2- 4 Input-output table structure 41
Table 2-5 Characterization damage factors of the impact categories in IMPACT 2002+ 75
Table 2-6 Normalization factor for four damage categories in IMPACT 2002+ 77
Table 2-7 Weighting factor for four damage categories in IMPACT 2002+ 77
Table 2-8 Statistical Distributions 79

Table 3 - 1 Total primary energy supply, total final energy consumption, total CO2 emission from fuels combustion and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of SA. 86
Table 3 - 2 Tapio decoupling method results of SA. 89
Table 3 - 3 Carbon emissions and the Kaya identity components of SA (percentage changes per period). 94

Table 3 - 1 Total primary energy supply, total final energy consumption, total CO2 emission from fuels combustion and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of SA. 86
Table 3 - 2 Tapio decoupling method results of SA. 89
Table 3 - 3 Carbon emissions and the Kaya identity components of SA (percentage changes per period). 94

Table 4 - 1 Decomposition of the changes in CO2 emissions in South Africa: 1990–2013. 104

Table 5 - 1 Sectors classification. 112
Table 5 - 2 Sectoral backward linkage effect for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 123
Table 5 - 3 Sectoral forward linkage effect for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 124
Table 5 - 4 Top 5 backward linkage sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 125
Table 5 - 5 Top 5 forward linkage sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 125
Table 5 - 6 Electricity sector inter-industry linkages for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 126
Table 5 - 7 Energy consumption, monetary energy consumption and energy multiplier for 2012. 126
Table 5 - 8 CO2 emissions, monetary CO2 emissions factor and CO2 multiplier for 2012. 127

Table 6 - 1 Characterization of South Africa’s electricity sector for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 137
Table 6 - 2 Characterization of South Africa’s Coal mining sector for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 138
Table 6 - 3 Environmental damage categories of the top 12 sectors. 140
Table 6 - 4 Respiratory inorganics total major substances of the top 12 sectors. 144
Table 6 - 5 Respiratory inorganics total major substances of the electricity sector. 145
Table 6 - 6 Global warming (climate change) total major substances of the top 12 sectors. 145
Table 6 - 7 Global warming (climate change) total major substances of the electricity sector. 146
Table 6 - 8 Non-renewable energy (resources) total major substances of the top 12 sectors. 147
Table 6 - 9 Non-renewable energy (resources) total major substances of the coal mining sector. 148
Table 6 - 10 Non-renewable energy (resources) total major substances of the electricity sector. 149
Table 6 - 11 Human health total major substances of the top 12 sectors. 150
Table 6 - 12 Human health total major substances of the electricity sector. 151
Table 6 - 13 Weighting of South Africa’s electricity sector. 154
Table 6 - 14 The direct and indirect environmental impact of South Africa’s electricity sector. 154


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 - 1 Total primary energy supply of South Africa by fuel types. 4
Figure 1 - 2 Share of total CO2 emissions from fossil fuels burned and others energy sources in South Africa. 4
Figure 1 - 3 Share of South Africa CO2 emissions by sector in 2013 (IEA data, 2015). Other sectors include industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. 9
Figure 1 - 4 Generation mix and CO2 intensity of Eskom and per countries (Source: Eskom, IMF, 2010 World Energy Outlook, BCG analysis). 10
Figure 1 - 5 Research Framework 14

Figure 2 - 1 Schematic presentation of the environmental impact assessment mechanism explaining the general modeling of a substance emission through a series of impacts leading to damages to the environmental areas of protection. Source: Hauschild and Potting, (2005) 55
Figure 2 - 2 Overall scheme of the IMPACT 2002+ framework, linking LCI results via the midpoint categories to damage categories. Source: Jolliet et al., (2003). 74

Figure 3 - 1 Trend of GDP, CO2 emissions, Total Primary Energy Supply and Total Final Energy Consumption of SA. 85
Figure 3 - 2 Trend of GDP, CO2/GDP, TFC/GDP and decoupling factor in South Africa.Decoupling factor is defined as 1 – (EP/DF)To/(EP/DF)T where EP = environmental pressure and DF = driving force. Decoupling occurs when the value of the decoupling factor is between 0 and 1. Source: OECD, Eurostat (2002). 89

Figure 4 - 1 Share of energy consumption structure and the CO2 emissions from South Africa’s electricity power generation. 103
Figure 4 - 2 LMDI decomposition results of CO2 emissions per-capita from electricity generation in SA (1990–2013). 104

Figure 5 - 1 Trend of GDP, Total Final Energy Consumption and CO2 emissions (Source: consolidation from data of IEA (2017) and World Bank (2017 111

Figure 6 - 1 Normalized environmental damages for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 152
Figure 6 - 2 Normalization of the total environmental impacts for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 152
Figure 6 - 3 Normalization of the environmental impacts from electricity sector for years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012. 153




參考文獻 Adam Voiland. (2010). Aerosols: Tiny Particles, Big Impact. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aerosols/page1.php. Last accessed: May 2013.
Albrecht, J., François, D. and Schoors, K. (2002). A Shapley Decomposition of Carbon Emissions without Residuals. Energy Policy 30: 727–736.
Ang, B.W. (2004). Decomposition analysis for policymaking in energy: Which is the preferred method? Energy Policy 32: 1131–1139.
Ang, B.W. (2015). LMDI decomposition approach: A guide for implementation. Energy Policy 86: 233–238.
Ang, B.W., Liu, F. and Chew, E.P. (2003). Perfect decomposition techniques in energy and environmental analysis. Energy Policy 31: 1561–1566.
Ang, J.B. (2007). CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, and Output in France. Energy Policy 35: 4772–4778.
Asafu-Adjaye, J., 2000. The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries. Energy Economics 22, 615–625.
Aubertin, C., Dahan, A. and Damian, M. (2015). Paris, COP21 : un" accord historique" et une nouvelle façon de poser la question climatique= Paris, COP21 : a" historic agreement" and a new approach to climate change= París, COP21 : un" acuerdo histórico" y una nueva manera de afrontar la cuestión climática.
Bare, J. C., Hofstetter, P., Pennington, D. W., and De Haes, H. A. U. (2000). Midpoints versus endpoints: the sacrifices and benefits. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 5: 319-326.
Bayliss, K. (2008). Lessons from the South African Electricity Crisis, No. 56.
Beidari, M., Lin, S.J. and Lewis, C. (2017). Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from coal - sourced electricity production in South Africa. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 1043–1051.
Bergerson, J. and Lave, L. 2004. Life Cycle Analysis of Power Generation Systems. Encyclopedia of Energy, 3, 635-645.
Bilec, M. M., Ries, R. J. and Matthews, H. S. 2009. Life-Cycle Assessment Modeling of Construction Processes for Buildings. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 16(3), 199-205.
Botha, A.P. (2013). Explaining the changing input-output multipliers in South African: 1980-2010. Paper Presented at the Biennial Conference of the Economic Society of South Africa, Vol. 25, p. 27.
BP Group. (2014). BP statistical review of world energy June 2014. BP World Energy Review.
Budzianowski, W.M. (2012). Target for National Carbon Intensity of Energy by 2050: A Case Study of Poland's Energy System. Energy 46: 575–581.
Cansino, J.M., Sánchez-Braza, A. and Rodríguez-Arévalo, M.L. (2015). Driving forces of Spain׳ s CO2 emissions: A LMDI decomposition approach. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 48: 749–759.
Carnegie Mellon University. 2006. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment. Approaches to Life Cycle Assessment. http://www.eiolca.net/Method/LCAapproaches.html. Last Access: September 2016.
Chang, C.C. (2010). A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Appl. Energy 87: 3533–3537.
Chen, L.C., Peng, P.Y., Lin, L.F., Yang, T.C. and Huang, C.M. (2014). Facile Preparation of Nitrogen-Doped Activated Carbon for Carbon Dioxide Adsorption. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14: 916–927.
Chiu, P.C. and Ku, Y. (2012). Chemical Looping Process-A Novel Technology for Inherent CO2 Capture. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 12 : 1421–1432.
Chong, C., Ma, L., Li, Z., Ni, W. and Song, S. (2015). Logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition of coal consumption in China based on the energy allocation diagram of coal flows. Energy 85: 366–378.
Climent, F. and Pardo, A. (2007). Decoupling Factors on the Energy–Output Linkage: The Spanish Case. Energy Policy 35: 522–528.
Crawford, R. 2009. Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Emissions Analysis of Wind Turbines and the Effect of Size on Energy Yield. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(9), 2653-2660.
De Freitas, L.C. and Kaneko, S. (2011). Decomposing the Decoupling of CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth in Brazil. Ecol. Econ. 70: 1459–1469.
Department of Energy and Minerals, South Africa (2008). Annual Report, http://www.energy.gov.za/files/media/ar/ar2009.pdf.
Department of Energy and Minerals, South Africa, DME. (2002). Draft White Paper on Renewable Energy and Clean Energy. http://www.energy.gov.za/files/publicatio ns_frame.html.
Department of Environmental Affairs (2015). South Africa’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. Department of Environmental Affairs, Pretoria.
Diakoulaki, D. and Mandaraka, M. (2007). Decomposition Analysis for Assessing the Progress in Decoupling Industrial Growth from CO2 Emissions in the EU Manufacturing Sector. Energy Econ. 29: 636–664.
Duro, J.A. and Padilla, E. (2006). International Inequalities in Per Capita CO2 Emissions: A Decomposition Methodology by Kaya Factors. Energy Econ. 28: 170–187.
Eberhard, A., Kolker, J. and Leigland, J. (2014). South Africa's Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Program: Success Factors and Lessons.
EIA (2015). https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=ZAF, Last Access: 15 February, 2017.
EIA Website: http://www.eia.gov.
Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town (2006). Energy Policies for Sustainable Development in South Africa. http://www.erc.uct.ac.za/Research/Publications-recent.htm.
ENLSIC buildings. 2011, April, 2011. Energy Saving through Promotion of Life Cycle Assessment in Buildings, http://circe.cps.unizar.es/enslic/texto/home.html20. Last accessed: Auguest, 2016
Eskom integrated report (2015). http://www.eskom.co.za/IR2015/Documents/EskomIR2015single.pdf, Last Access: 18 May, 2016.
European Communities (EC). 2003. Integrated Product Policy: Building on Environmental Life-Cycle Thinking Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament COM (2003), 302 Final. Brussels.
Finnveden, G., Hauschild, M. Z., Ekvall, T., Guinée, J., Heijungs, R., Hellweg, S., Koehler, A., Pennington, D. and Suh, S. 2009. Recent Developments in Life Cycle Assessment. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(1), 1-21.
Fletcher, J. E. 1989. Input-Output Analysis and Tourism Impact Studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(4), 514-529.
Frischknecht, R., Althaus, H.J., Bauer, C., Doka, G., Heck, T., Jungbluth, N., Kellenberger, D. and Nemecek, T. 2007. The Environmental Relevance of Capital Goods in Life Cycle Assessments of Products and Services. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12(1), 7-17.
Frischknecht, R., Jungbluth, N., Althaus, H.-J., Doka, G., Dones, R., Heck, T., Hellweg, S., Hischier, R., Nemecek, T. and Rebitzer, G. 2005. The Ecoinvent Database: Overview and Methodological Framework. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 10(1), 3-9.
Gernuks, M., Buchgeister, J., and Schebek, L. (2007). Assessment of environmental aspects and determination of environmental targets within environmental management systems (Ems)–development of a procedure for Volkswagen. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(11), 1063-1075.
Ghosh, S., 2002. Electricity consumption and economic growth in India. Energy Policy 30, 125–129.
Goedkoop, M. and Spriensma, R. 2000. The Eco-Indicator 99: A Damage Oriented Method for Life Cycle Impact Assessment–Methodology Report. Product Ecology Consultants (PRé), Amersfoort, Netherlands.
Goedkoop, M., Oele, M., de Schryver, A., Vieira, M., and Hegger, S. (2008). SimaPro database manual methods library. PRé Consultants, The Netherlands, 22-25.
Gretton, P. 2013. On Input-Output Tables: Uses and Abuses. Productivity Commission Staff Research Note, Australian Goverment Productivity Commission.
Guinée, J. B. 2002. Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment Operational Guide to the Iso Standards. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 7(5), 311-313.
Guinée, J., Gorrée, M., Heijungs, R., Huppes, G., Kleijn, R., van Oers, L., Wegener Sleeswijk, A., Suh, S., Udo de Haes, H., de Bruijn, H., van Duin, R. and Huijbregts, M. 2002. Life Cycle Assessment: An Operational Guide to the Iso Standards. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (NL).
Handbook, I. L. C. D. (2010). Analysis of existing Environmental Impact assessment methodologies for use in Life Cycle Assessment. Joint Research Center-European Commission.
Hauschild, M. Z. and Potting, J. 2005. Spatial Differentiation in Life Cycle Impact Assessment: The EDIP2003 Methodology. Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of the environment, 2005. Environmental Protection Agency.
Hendrickson, C. T., Lave, L. B. and Matthews, H. S. 2006. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-Output Approach: Resources for the Future.
Hendrickson, C., Horvath, A., Joshi, S. and Lave, L. 1998. Peer Reviewed: Economic Input–Output Models for Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment. Environmental Science & Technology, 32(7), 184A-191A.
Hertwich, E. G. 2005. Life Cycle Approaches to Sustainable Consumption: A Critical Review. Environmental Science & Technology, 39(13), 4673-4684.
Hertwich, E. G., Gibon, T., Bouman, E. A., Arvesen, A., Suh, S., Heath, G. A., Bergesen, J. D., Ramirez, A., Vega, M. I. and Shi, L. 2015. Integrated Life-Cycle Assessment of Electricity-Supply Scenarios Confirms Global Environmental Benefit of Low-Carbon Technologies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(20), 6277-6282.
Hirschman, A.O. (1958). The Strategy of Economic Development. Yale University Press New Haven.
Hoffman, P., (1998), The Man Who Loved Only Numbers: The Story of Paul Erdos and the Search for Mathematical Truth. New York: Hyperion, pg. 238-239.
https://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=2913. Last accessed:
https://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=313. Last accessed:
Huang, Y. A., Weber, C. L. and Matthews, H. S. 2009. Categorization of Scope 3 Emissions for Streamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(22), 8509-8515.
Humbert, S., De Schryver, A., Bengoa, X., Margni, M. and Jolliet, O. 2012. Impact 2002+: User Guide Draft for Version Q 2.2 (Version Adapted by Quantis). The IMPACT Modelling Team, Quantis sustainability counts.
Humbert, S., Margni, M., and Jolliet, O. (2005). A user guide for the new life cycle impact assessment methodology IMPACT 2002+. École Polythecnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
Huppes, G., Koning, A., Suh, S., Heijungs, R., Oers, L., Nielsen, P. and Guinée, J. B. 2006. Environmental Impacts of Consumption in the European Union: High‐ Resolution Input‐Output Tables with Detailed Environmental Extensions. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 10(3), 129-146.
Independent Power Producers Office. (2017). Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme.
IEA (2017). IEA Statistics, http://www.iea.org/statistics/statisticssearch/report/?year=2014&country=SOUTHAFRIC&product=Balances, Last Access 23 March 2017.
Inglesi-Lotz, R. and Blignaut, J.N. (2011). South Africa’s electricity consumption: A sectoral decomposition analysis. Appl. Energy 88: 4779–4784.
Inglesi-Lotz, R. and Pouris, A. (2012). Energy efficiency in South Africa: A decomposition exercise. Energy 42: 113–120.
IPCC (2006). 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change.
ISO 14040. 1997. Environmental Management-Life Cycle Assessment-Principles and Framework. International Organization for Standardisation, Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO 14040. 2006. Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment- Principles and Framework. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)Geneve, Switzerland.
ISO 14042. 2000. Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment-Life Cycle Impact Assessment International Organization for Standardisation (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland.
Jolliet, O., Margni, M., Charles, R., Humbert, S., Payet, J., Rebitzer, G. and Rosenbaum, R. (2003). Impact 2002+: A New Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 8(6), 324-330.
Joshi, S. 1999. Product Environmental Life‐Cycle Assessment Using Input‐Output Techniques. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 3(2‐3), 95-120.
Jung, S., An, K.J., Dodbiba, G. and Fujita, T. (2012). Regional Energy-related Carbon Emission Characteristics and Potential Mitigation in Eco-industrial Parks in South Korea: Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index Analysis Based on the Kaya Identity. Energy 46: 231–241.
Karim, A. 2011. Life Cycle Analysis and Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methodologies: A State of the Art. Master thesis, University of Lleida.
Korre, A., Nie, Z. and Durucan, S. 2010. Life Cycle Modelling of Fossil Fuel Power Generation with Post-Combustion CO2 Capture. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4(2), 289-300.
Kraft, J. and Kraft, A. (1978). Relationship between Energy and GDP. J. Energy Dev. (United States), 3.
Kumar, I., Tyner, W. E. and Sinha, K. C. 2016. Input–Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States. Energy Policy, 89, 294-301.
Lave, L. B., Cobras Flores, E., Hendrickson, C. T. and McMichael, F. 1995. Using Input-Output Analysis to Estimate Economy-Wide Discharges. Environmental Science & Technology, 29(9), 420-426.
Lenzen, M. 2000. Errors in Conventional and Input‐Output-Based Life-Cycle Inventories. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 4(4), 127-148.
Leontief, W. (1970). Environmental repercussions and the economic structure: An input-output approach. Rev. Econ. Stat. 52: 262–271.
Leontief, W. 1936. Quantitative Input and Output Relations in the Economic Systems of the United States. The Review of Economic Statistics, 18(3), 105-125.
Letschert, V., Leventis, G., Covary, T. and Group, S.I.W. (2013). Energy Efficiency Country Study: Republic of South Africa. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (US).
Li, F., Song, Z. and Liu, W. (2014). China's energy consumption under the global economic crisis: Decomposition and sectoral analysis. Energy Policy 64: 193–202.
Li, P., Pan, S.Y., Pei, S., Lin, Y.J. and Chiang, P.C. (2016). Challenges and perspectives on carbon fixation and utilization technologies: An overview. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 16: 1327–1344.
Liao, Meng-I, Pi-cheng Chen, Hwong-wen Ma*, Shinichiro Nakamura. 2015. “Identification of the Driving Force of Waste Generation Using a High-Resolution Waste Input-Output Table.” Journal of Cleaner Production,Vol. 94, 294-303.
Lin, B. and Long, H. (2016). Emissions reduction in China׳ s chemical industry–Based on LMDI. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 53: 1348–1355.
Lin, S.J. and Chang, T.C. (1996). Decomposition of SO2, NOx and CO2 Emissions from Energy Use of Major Economic Sectors in Taiwan. Energy J. 17: 1–17.
Lin, S.J. and Chang, Y.F. (1997). Linkage Effects and environmental impacts from oil consumption industries in Taiwan. J. Environ. Manage. 49: 393–411.
Lin, S.J., Beidari, M. and Lewis, C. (2015). Energy consumption trends and decoupling effects between carbon dioxide and gross domestic product in South Africa. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 15: 2676–2687.
Lin, S.J., Liu, C.H. and Lewis, C. (2012). CO2 Emission Multiplier Effects of Taiwan’s Electricity Sector by Input-output Analysis. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 12: 180–190.
Lin, S.J., Lu, I. and Lewis, C. (2006). Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective. Energy Policy 34: 1499–1507.
Liou, J.L., Chiu, C.R., Huang, F.M. and Liu, W.Y. (2015). Analyzing the relationship between CO2 emission and economic efficiency by a relaxed two-stage DEA model. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 15: 694–701.
Liu, C. H., Lenzen, M. and Murray, J. 2012a. A Disaggregated Emissions Inventory for Taiwan with Uses in Hybrid Input‐Output Life Cycle Analysis (IO-LCA). Natural Resources Forum, 36, 123-141
Liu, C. H., Lin, S. J. and Lewis, C. 2012b. Environmental Impacts of Electricity Sector in Taiwan by Using Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment: The Role of Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Aerosol Air Qual. Res, 12, 733-744.
Liu, C.H. and Lin, S.J. (2011). CO2 Emission Characteristics and Power Generation Efficiency Analyses of the Electricity Sector in Taiwan. Ph.D. Thesis, Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Liu, C.H., Lin, S.J. and Lewis, C. (2012). Environmental Impacts of Electricity Sector in Taiwan by Using Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment: The Role of Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 12: 733–744.
Liu, C.H., Lin, S.J. and Lewis, C. (2013). Evaluation of NOx, SOx and CO2 Emissions of Taiwan’s Thermal Power Plants by Data Envelopment Analysis. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 13: 1815–1823.
Liu, L. (2011). Environmental Poverty, a Decomposed Environmental Kuznets Curve, and Alternatives: Sustainability Lessons from China. Ecol. Econ. 73: 86–92.
Lu, I., Lin, S.J. and Lewis, C. (2007). Decomposition and decoupling effects of carbon dioxide emission from highway transportation in Taiwan, Germany, Japan and South Korea. Energy Policy 35: 3226–3235.
Luken, R.A. and Piras, S. (2011). A Critical Overview of Industrial Energy Decoupling Programs in Six Developing Countries in Asia. Energy Policy 39: 3869–3872.
Ma, Hwong-wen*, Hsiu-ching Shih, Ming-lung Hung, Chia-wei Chao, Pei-chiun Li. 2012. “Integrating Input Output Analysis with Risk Assessment to Evaluate the Population Risk of Arsenic.” Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 46, 1104-1110.
Margni, M., and Jolliet, O. (2006). Continent-specific intake fractions and characterization factors for toxic emissions: Does it make a difference? The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 11, 55-63.
Marriott, J., Matthews, H. S. and Hendrickson, C. T. 2010. Impact of Power Generation Mix on Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint Greenhouse Gas Results. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 14(6), 919-928
Matthews, H. S. and Small, M. J. 2000. Extending the Boundaries of Life-Cycle Assessment through Environmental Economic Input-Output Models. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 4(3), 7-10.
Meng, L., and Sager, J. (2017). Energy Consumption and Energy-Related CO2 Emissions from China’s Petrochemical Industry Based on an Environmental Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment. Energies, 10(10), 1585.
Menyah, K. and Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). Energy Consumption, Pollutant Emissions and Economic Growth in South Africa. Energy Econ. 32: 1374–1382.
Metropolis, N (1987), "The beginning of the Monte Carlo method", Los Alamos Science (1987 Special Issue dedicated to Stanislaw Ulam): 125–130, http://library.lanl.gov/la-pubs/00326866.pdf
Metropolis, N. and Ulam, S. (1949). "The Monte Carlo Method." J. Amer. Stat. Assoc. 44, 335-341.
Miller, R.E. and Blair, P.D. (1985). Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Miller, R.E. and Blair, P.D. (2009). Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Muangthai, I., Lewis, C. and Lin, S.J. (2014). Decoupling effects and decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from Thailand’s thermal power sector. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14: 1929–1938.
Muangthai, I., Lin, S. J. and Lewis, C. (2016). Inter-industry linkages, energy and CO2 multipliers of the electric power industry in Thailand. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 16: 2033–2047.
Nakicenovic, N., Alcamo, J., Davis, G., de Vries, B., Fenhann, J., Gaffin, S., Gregory, K., Grübler, A., Jung, T.Y., Kram, T., La Rovere, E.L., Michaelis, L., Mori, S., Morita, T., Pepper, W., Pitcher, H., Price, L., Riahi, K., Roehrl, A., Rogner, H.H., Sankovski, A., Schlesinger, M., Shukla, P., Smith, S., Swart, R., van Rooijen, S., Victor, N., Dadi, Z. (2000). Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Working Group III, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 595pp. ISBN 0, 521(80493), 0.
Narayan, P.K., Singh, B., 2007. The electricity consumption and GDP nexus for Fiji Islands. Energy Economics 29, 1141–1150.
Narayan, P.K., Smyth, R., 2005. Electricity consumption, employment and real income in Australia: evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests. Energy Policy 33, 1109–1116.
Nkomo, J. (2005). Energy and economic development: challenges for South Africa. J. Energy South. Afr. 16: 10–20.
Odeh, N. A. and Cockerill, T. T. 2008. Life Cycle Ghg Assessment of Fossil Fuel Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage. Energy Policy, 36(1), 367-380.
Odhiambo, N.M. (2009). Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in South Africa: A Trivariate Causality Test. Energy Econ. 31: 635–640.
O'Mahony, T. (2013). Decomposition of Ireland's Carbon Emissions from 1990 to 2010: An Extended Kaya Identity. Energy Policy 59: 573–581.
Onat, N. C., Kucukvar, M. and Tatari, O. 2014. Scope-Based Carbon Footprint Analysis of U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings: An Input–Output Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment Approach. Building and Environment, 72, 53-62.
Pachauri, R.K., Allen, M., Barros, V., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., Church, J., Clarke, L., Dahe, Q. and Dasgupta, P. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Paloviita, A. 2003. Using Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment in Measuring Product Group Eco-Efficiency in the Finnich Forest Sector. Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Input-Output Techniques; Montréal, Canada2002.
Paul, S. and Bhattacharya, R.N. (2004). CO2 Emission from Energy Use in India: A Decomposition Analysis. Energy Policy 32: 585–593.
Pré Consultants. 2008. Sima Pro 7.3 Mannual. PRé Consultants, B.V., The Netherlands.
Pré Consultants. 2011. Product Ecology Consultants. http://www.pre.nl,
Pré Consultants. 2016. Simapro Database Manual. PRé Consultants, B.V., The Netherlands.
Rebitzer, G., Ekvall, T., Frischknecht, R., Hunkeler, D., Norris, G., Rydberg, T., Schmidt, W. P., Suh, S., Weidema, B. P. and Pennington, D. W. 2004. Life Cycle Assessment: Part 1: Framework, Goal and Scope Definition, Inventory Analysis, and Applications. Environment International, 30(5), 701-720.
Reich, L., Yue, L., Bader, R. and Lipiński, W. (2014). Towards Solar Thermochemical Carbon Dioxide Capture via Calcium Oxide Looping: A Review. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14: 500–514.
Ren, S. and Hu, Z. (2012). Effects of Decoupling of Carbon Dioxide Emission by Chinese Nonferrous Metals Industry. Energy Policy 43: 407–414.
Ren, S., Yin, H. and Chen, X. (2014). Using LMDI to analyze the decoupling of carbon dioxide emissions by China's manufacturing industry. Environ. Dev. 9: 61–75.
Sebitosi, A.B. and Pillay, P. (2008a). Grappling with a Half-hearted Policy: The Case of Renewable Energy and the Environment in South Africa. Energy Policy 36: 2513–2516.
Sebitosi, A.B. and Pillay, P. (2008b). Renewable Energy and the Environment in South Africa: A Way Forward. Energy Policy 36: 3312–3316.
Secretariat, O.E.C.D. (2002). Indicators to Measure Decoupling of Environmental Pressure from Economic Growth. Sustain. Dev SG/SD (2002), 1.
September 2016.
September 2016.
Shao, S., Yang, L., Gan, C., Cao, J., Geng, Y., Guan, D., (2016). Using an extended LMDI model to explore techno-economic drivers of energy-related industrial CO2 emission changes: A case study for Shanghai (China). Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 55: 516–536.
Smetana, S., Tamasy, C., Mathys, A., and Heinz, V. (2017). Regionalized Input-Output Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Food Production Case Study. In Sustainability Through Innovation in Product Life Cycle Design (pp. 959-968). Springer Singapore.
South Africa Department of Energy Statistics, http://www.energy.gov.za/files/energyStats_frame.html, Last Access 23 March 2017.
Soytas, U., Sari, R. and Ewing, B.T. (2007). Energy Consumption, Income, and Carbon Emissions in the United States. Ecol. Econ. 62: 482–489.
Statistics South Africa, http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=1854&PPN=Report-04-04-02, Last Access: 23 March 2017.
Statistics, I. (2015). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion–Highlights 2013. IEA, Paris Cited July.
Statistics, I.E.A. (2013). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion–Highlights 2011. IEA, Paris Cited July.
Statistics, I.E.A. (2014). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion–Highlights 2012. IEA, Paris Cited July.
Stilwell, L.C., Minnitt, R.C.A., Monson, T.D. and Kuhn, G. (2000). An input-output analysis of the impact of mining on the South African economy. Resour. Policy 26: 17–30.
Strømman, A. H. and Hertwich, E. 2004. Approaches to Avoid Double Counting in Hybrid Life Cycle Inventories.
Suh, S. 2003. Simapro 7 Databasemanual.CML, Leiden University, the Netherlands.
Suh, S. 2004. A Note on the Calculus for Physical Input–Output Analysis and Its Application to Land Appropriation of International Trade Activities. Ecological Economics, 48(1), 9-17.
Suh, S. 2005. Developing a Sectoral Environmental Database for Input–Output Analysis: The Comprehensive Environmental Data Archive of the Us. Economic Systems Research, 17(4), 449-469.
Suh, S. and Huppes, G. 2002. Missing Inventory Estimation Tool Using Extended Input-Output Analysis. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 7(3), 134-140.
Surridge, A.D. and Cloete, M. (2009). Carbon Capture and Storage in South Africa. Energy Procedia 1: 2741–2744.
Tapio, P. (2005). Towards a Theory of Decoupling: Degrees of Decoupling in the EU and the Case of Road Traffic in Finland between 1970 and 2001. Transp. Policy 12: 137–151.
Tapio, P., Banister, D., Luukkanen, J., Vehmas, J. and Willamo, R. (2007). Energy and Transport in Comparison: Immaterialisation, Dematerialisation and Decarbonisation in the EU15 between 1970 and 2000. Energy Policy 35: 433–451.
Todd, J. and Curran, M. 1999. Streamlined Life-Cycle Assessment. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).
Tregenna, F. (2008). Sectoral engines of growth in South Africa: An analysis of services and manufacturing (No. 2008.98). Research Paper/UNU-WIDER.
Turner, K. 2009. The Evaluation of National Accounting with Environmental Accounts (Namea) as a Methodology for Carrying out a Sustainability Assessment of the Scottish Food and Drink Sector. SEPA R80153PUR. University of Strathclyde.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA Estimates. 2015. http://www.eia.gov/countries/analysisbriefs/South_africa/south_africa.pdf.
U.S. Environmental Health and Toxicology. 2014a. Arsenic. Chemicals.
U.S. Environmental Health and Toxicology. 2014b. Sulfur Dioxide. Chemicals.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 2013. Pollutant Emissions in the Transportation Sector Main Air Pollutants and Their Effects on Human Health and The Environment http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2013/wp29grpe/GRPE-66-09-Rev.1.pdf22. Last accessed: April 2016.
Vehmas, J., Malaska, P., Luukkanen, J., Kaivo-oja, J., Hietanen, O., Vinnari, M. and Ilvonen, J. (2003). Europe in the Global Battle of Sustainability: Rebound Strikes Back? —Advanced Sustainability Analysis, Publications of the Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Series Discussion and Working Papers, 7: 2003, Turku.
Wachsmann, U., Wood, R., Lenzen, M. and Schaeffer, R. (2009). Structural decomposition of energy use in Brazil from 1970 to 1996. Appl. Energy 86: 578–587.
Wang, W., Liu, X., Zhang, M. and Song, X. (2014). Using a new generalized LMDI (logarithmic mean Divisia index) method to analyze China's energy consumption. Energy 67: 617–622.
Ward, S. and Walsh, V. (2010). Energy for Large Cities Report. World Energy Congress Energy and Climate Change Branch Environmental Resource Management Department City of Cape Town.
Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2009). Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Experience of African Countries Revisited. Energy Econ. 31: 217–224.
World Bank data (2015). http://data.worldbank.org, Last Access: 20 November, 2015.
World Bank data website: http://data.worldbank.org.
World Bank Data, http://data.worldbank.org/country/south-africa?view=chart, Last Access 23 March 2017.
Wright, D.J. (1974). 3. Good and services: An input-output analysis. Energy Policy 2: 307–315.
Wu J.H., Chen Y.Y. and Huang Y.H., “Trade Pattern Change Impact on Industrial CO2 Emissions in Taiwan”, Energy Policy, Vol.35, No.11 pp.5436-5446, 2007(SSCI, SCI)
Xu, X. and Ang, B.W. (2013). Index decomposition analysis applied to CO2 emission studies. Energy Econ. 93: 313–329.
Yamaji, K., Matsuhashi, R., Nagata, Y. and Kaya, Y. (1991). An Integrated System for CO2/Energy/GNP Analysis: Case Studies on Economic Measures for CO2 Reduction in Japan. In Workshop on CO2 Reduction and Removal: Measures for the Next Century (Vol. 19).
Yang, Y. H., Lin, S. J. and Lewis, C. 2007. Life Cycle Assessment of Fuel Selection for Power Generation in Taiwan. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 57(11), 1387-1395.
Yuan, L. and Pan, J.H. (2013). Disaggregation of Carbon Emission Drivers in Kaya Identity and its Limitations with Regard to Policy Implications. Adv. Climate Change Res. 9: 210–215.
Zhang, M., Dai, S. and Song, Y. (2015). Decomposition analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions in South Africa. J. Energy South. Afr. 26: 67–73.
Zhang, M., Liu, X., Wang, W. and Zhou, M. (2013). Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in China. Energy Policy 52: 159–165.
Zhang, Z. (2000). Decoupling China’s Carbon Emissions Increase from Economic Growth: An Economic Analysis and Policy Implications. World Dev. 28: 739–752.
Zhao, Y., Zhang, Z., Wang, S., Zhang, Y. and Liu, Y. (2015). Linkage analysis of sectoral CO2 emissions based on the hypothetical extraction method in South Africa. J. Cleaner Prod. 103: 916–924.
Zhong, T.Y., Huang, X.J., Han, L. and Wang, B.Y. (2010). Review on the Research of Decoupling Analysis in the Field of Environments and Resource. J. Nat. Resour. 25: 1400–1412.
Ziramba, E. (2008). The Demand for Residential Electricity in South Africa. Energy Policy 36: 3460–3466.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-01-01起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-01-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw