進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0709201616554500
論文名稱(中文) 應用相變化材料於鋰電池模組之自然對流熱傳分析
論文名稱(英文) Analysis on Convection Heat Transfer of Lithium-ion Battery Module Applying Phase Change Material
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 系統及船舶機電工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 邱逸晨
研究生(英文) YiChen, Ciou
學號 P16031143
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 94頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳鴻文
口試委員-張始偉
口試委員-洪榮芳
口試委員-吳聖儒
口試委員-朱存權
中文關鍵字 相變材料  散熱鰭片  電池間距  鋰離子電池  熱傳 
英文關鍵字 Phase change material  fin array  inter-cell distance  Li-ion battery  Heat transfer 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文探討具相變化材料的鋰電池模組的暫態三維自然對流,利用有限體積法(FVM) 來離散流體體積(VOF) 之Navier-Stokes方程和能量方程並化為代數方程組。運用解壓力耦合方程的半隱式方法(SIMPLE, Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation) 來解該代數方程組迭代至收斂,獲得流場及溫度場。此模擬將電池模型置於地面上,且放置在自然環境中。九顆鋰電池模組下探討相同放電率 (2 C) 、不同封裝外殼內材料 (空氣和相變材) 和不同電池間的距離,於自然對流且考慮熱輻射情況下,模擬整體溫度場與流場分佈。本文也討論在鋰電池模組的加入極頭鋁製散熱鰭片的效果。
研究結果顯示:封裝外殼內的空氣以相變材取代後具有更好的傳熱性能。相變材於鋰電池模組的使用能使最高溫度大約降14.2 K。此外,當相變材開始融化時,相變材可以使電池模組的最高溫度維持在大約321 K。加裝鋁製散熱鰭片能有較好的散熱效果。鋁製鰭片搭配相變化材料能讓鋰電池模組獲得最好的對流熱傳效果。與鋁製鰭片搭配空氣的鋰電池模組相比,鋁製鰭片配合相變材的使用可有效低整體溫度約15.2 K。
英文摘要 This thesis investigates transient three-dimensional heat transfer Lithium-ion battery module with phase change material (PCM) in natural convection. The Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation for Volume of Fluid (VOF) are discretized by the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and then are constructed as a system of algebraic equations. It could be solved by semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equation (SIMPLE). The solutions are iterated to converge within each step to obtain the temperature and flow field.
This simulation module places the battery on the ground and put it in the natural environment. The flow characteristic and temperature distribution in natural convection are analyzed for nine-cell batteries case, at constant discharge rates (2 C), with different kinds of materials placed inside in the package (the air and the PCM) under different inter-cell distances. The effect of fin array was added on top of the effects examined with the fin.
The better heat transfer performance is found by replacing the air with the PCM in the package. The highest temperature of the module using the PCM without fin array is about 14.2K lower than that of the module using the air without fin array. Furthermore, using the PCM without fin array could keep the highest temperature of the battery module at about 321 K when the melting process of the PCM occurs. The battery module using the PCM with fin array can enhance the convection heat transfer. The overall temperature could be reduced about 15.2 K when it compared with that using air without fin array.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgments IV
List of Tables……………………………………………………………VI
List of Figures…..……………………………………………………...VII
Content V
Nomenclature XV
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1-1 Background 1
1-2 Literature reviews 2
1-3 Objectives and motivation of the present study 7
Chapter 2. Introduction of Lithium-ion battery and phase change material 9
2-1 Introduction of Lithium-ion battery 9
2-2 Fundamental principal of Lithium-ion battery 9
2-4 Phase change materials 10
Chapter 3. Numerical method and geometry 12
3-1 Principle 12
3-2 Mathematical formulation 12
3-3 Discretization approach 15
3-3-1 Finite volume method 16
3-3-2 Discretization of the momentum equation 16
3-3-3 Discretization of the energy equation 17
3-4 SIMPLE method 17
3-4-1 Velocity-correction equation 17
3-4-2 Pressure-correction equation 19
3-4-3 Computational process 19
3-4-4 Under-relaxation factor 19
3-4-5 Convergence criterion 20
3-4-6 Numerical mesh 20
3-5 Numerical model 21
3-5-1 Geometry model 21
3-5-2 Boundary and initial conditions 22
Chapter 4. Results and discussions 24
4.1 Grid independence test 24
4.2 Time step validation 25
4.3 Accuracy of simulation 25
4.4 Heat transfer performance and flow characteristic for cases A and B under different inter-cell distances 26
4.5 Heat transfer performance and flow characteristic for cases C and D under different inter-cell distances 27
4.6 Overall comparison of heat transfer enhancement for cases A, B, C, and D 28
Chapter 5 Conclusions and future works 30
5-1 Conclusions 30
5-2 Future works 31
References 32

List of Tables
Table 1 Specification and properties of the Li-ion Battery [30] 36
Table 2 Properties of PCM, aluminum, and air 36
Table 3 Thermal characteristic at different inter-cell distances at 90 min 36

List of Figures
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of Lithium-ion battery [24] 37
Figure 2 Numerical model of cases A, B 38
Figure 3 Numerical model of case C, D 39
Figure 4 Numerical model of case A, B after simplified 40
Figure 5 Numerical model of cases C, D after Simplified 41
Figure 6 The size of inter-cell distance 42
Figure 7 The observation point of the battery module with 1 mm inter-cell distance 42
Figure 8 Grid independence test of the temperature distributions of Case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance 43
Figure 9 Grid independence test of the average Nusselt number of Case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance 43
Figure 10 Time step refinement test on the temperature distributions of Case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance 44
Figure 11 Time step refinement test on the average Nusselt number of Case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance 44
Figure 12 Temperature contour of the battery pack of reference [20] in the present study 45
Figure 13 Temperature contour of the battery pack (reference [20]) 45
Figure 14 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 10 min on the x-z plane 46
Figure 15 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 20 min on the x-z plane 46
Figure 16 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 30 min on the x-z plane 47
Figure 17 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 50 min on the x-z plane 47
Figure 18 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min on the x-z plane 48
Figure 19 Comparison of 6 different inter-cell distances of case A 48
Figure 20 The average Nusselt number of case A under 6 different inter-cell distances 49
Figure 21 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 20 min on the x-z plane 49
Figure 22 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 30 min on the x-z plane 50
Figure 23 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 50 min on the x-z plane 50
Figure 24 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 70 min on the x-z plane 51
Figure 25 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min on the x-z plane 51
Figure 26 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 30 min on the x-z plane 52
Figure 27 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 50 min on the x-z plane 52
Figure 28 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 70 min on the x-z plane 53
Figure 29 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min on the x-z plane 53
Figure 30 Comparison of temperature distributions of 6 different inter-cell distances of case B 54
Figure 31 Comparison of average Nusselt number of 6 different inter-cell distances of case B 54
Figure 32 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A and case B under 1 mm inter-cell distance 55
Figure 33 Comparison of average Nusselt number of case A and case B under 1 mm inter-cell distance 55
Figure 34 Comparison of temperature distributions of 6 different inter-cell distances of case C 56
Figure 35 Comparison of temperature distributions of 6 different inter-cell distances of case D 56
57
Figure 36 Comparison of average Nusselt number of 6 different inter-cell distances of case C 57
Figure 37 Comparison of average Nusselt number of 6 different inter-cell distances of case D 57
Figure 38 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 35 min on the x-z plane 58
Figure 39 Liquid fraction contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 35 min on the x-z plane 58
Figure 40 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 50 min on the x-z plane 59
Figure 41 Liquid fraction contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 50 min on the x-z plane 59
Figure 42 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min on the z-x plane 60
Figure 43 Liquid fraction contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min on the x-z plane 60
Figure 44 Comparison of temperature distributions of case C and case D under 1 mm inter-cell distance 61
Figure 45 Comparison of average Nusselt number of case C and case D under 1 mm inter-cell distance 61
Figure 46 Comparison of Temperature distributions of case A, B C and D with 1 mm inter-cell distance 62
Figure 47 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 2 mm inter-cell distance 62
Figure 48 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 3 mm inter-cell distance 63
Figure 49 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 4 mm inter-cell distance 63
Figure 50 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 5 mm inter-cell distance 64
Figure 51 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 6 mm inter-cell distance 64
Figure 52 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 1 mm inter-cell distance 65
Figure 53 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 2 mm inter-cell distance 65
Figure 54 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 3 mm inter-cell distance 66
Figure 55 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 4 mm inter-cell distance 66
Figure 56 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 5 mm inter-cell distance 67
Figure 57 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 6 mm inter-cell distance 67
Figure 58 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 68
Figure 59 Temperature contour of case A with 2 mm inter-cell distance at 90min 68
Figure 60 Temperature contour of case A with 3 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 69
Figure 61 Temperature contour of case A with 4 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 69
Figure 62 Temperature contour of case A with 5 mm inter-cell distance at 90min 70
Figure 63 Temperature contour of case A with 6 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 70
Figure 64 Temperature contour of case B under 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 71
Figure 65 Temperature contour of case B under 2 mm inter-cell distance at 90min 71
Figure 66 Temperature contour of case B under 3 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 72
Figure 67 Temperature contour of case B under 4 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 72
Figure 68 Temperature contour of case B under 5 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 73
Figure 69 Temperature contour of case B under 6 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 73
Figure 70 Temperature contour of case C with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 74
Figure 71 Temperature contour of case C with 2 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 74
Figure 72 Temperature contour of case C with 3 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 75
Figure 73 Temperature contour of case C with 4 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 75
Figure 74 Temperature contour of case C with 5 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 76
Figure 75 Temperature contour of case C with 6 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 76
Figure 76 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 77
Figure 77 Temperature contour of case D with 2 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 77
Figure 78 Temperature contour of case D with 3 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 78
Figure 79 Temperature contour of case D with 4 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 78
Figure 80 Temperature contour of case D with 5 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 79
Figure 81 Temperature contour of case D with 6 mm inter-cell distance at 90 min 79
參考文獻 [1] S. Dhameja, “Electric Vehicle Battery”, Systems, Elsevier, 2005.
[2] M. Armand, J. M. Tarascon, Building better batteries, Nature Vol. 451, pp. 652–657, 2008.
[3] B. Scrosati, J. Hassoun, Y.K. Sun, “Lithium-ion batteries. A look into the future”, Energy Environ, pp. 3287–3295, 2011.
[4] J. Franklin, R. Spotnitz, “Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells”, Journal of Power Sources Vol. 113, pp. 81–100, 2003.
[5] G.Q. Chu, J.H. Sun, Q.S. Wang, “Lithium ion battery fire and explosion”, Fire Safety Science–proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium, pp. 375-382, 2005.
[6] A. A. Pesaran, A. Vlahinos, S. D. Burch, “Thermal performance of EV and HEV battery modules and packs”, 14th Electric Vehicle Symposium, 1997.
[7] B Haran, B.N. Popov, P Ramadass, R. White, “Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures: Part I. Capacity fade analysis,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 112, pp. 614–620, 2002.
[8] C.C. Wan, K.H. Liu, M.S. Wu, Y.Y. Wang, “Heat dissipation design for lithium-ion batteries”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 109, pp. 160–166, 2002.
[9] A. Mills, J. R. Selman, M. Farid, S. Al-Hallaj, “Thermal conductivity enhancement of phase change materials using a graphite matrix,” Journal of Applied Thermal Engineering 26, pp. 1652-1661, 2006.
[10] A. Mills, S. Al-Hallaj, “Simulation of passive thermal management system for lithium-ion battery packs”, Journal of Power Sources Vol.
48
141, pp. 307-315, 2005.
[11] N. Sato, “Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles J Power Sources”, Vol. 99, pp. 70–77, 2001.
[12] M. Bahrami, P. Taheri, “Temperature Rise in Prismatic Polymer Lithium-Ion Batteries: An Analytic Approach”, SAE, 2012.
[13] C.C. Wan, S.C. Chen, Y.Y. Wang “Thermal analysis of lithium-ion batteries”, J. Power Sources, Vol. 140, pp. 111–124, 2005.
[14] B. Chengc, B. Caoa, B. Longb, G. Guan, S. Zhoua, P. Xua, “Three-dimensional thermal finite element modeling of lithium-ion battery in thermal abuse application”, J. Power Sources, Vol. 195, pp. 2393-2398, 2010.
[15] A.R. Michael, D.U. Sauer, “Dynamic electric behavior and open circuit voltage modeling of LiFePO4 based lithium ion secondary batteries”, J. Power Sources, Vol. 196, pp. 331-336, 2011.
[16] J. R. Selman, R. Sabbah, R. Kizilel, S. Al-Hallaj, “Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution”, J. Power Sources, Vol.182, pp. 630, 2008.
[17] A. Pesaran, G.H. Kim, J. Gonder, J. Lustbader, “Thermal management of batteries in advanced vehicles using phase-change materials”, in: 23rd International Electric Vehicles Symposium and Exposition, Anaheim, California, 2007.
49
[18] S.F. Wang, Y.L. Zhang, Z.H. Rao, “Simulation of heat dissipation with phase change material for cylindrical power battery” Energy Inst, Vol. 85, pp. 38–43, 2012.
[19] J. Zhao, K.J. Tseng, T. Wang, “Zhongbao Wei Thermal investigation of lithium-ion battery module with different cell arrangement structures and forced air-cooling stratefactores” 2014.
[20] K.K. Parsons, “Design and simulation of passive thermal management system of passive thermal management system for lithium-ion battery packs on an unmanned ground vehicle,” Master thesis, Science in Mechanical Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, 2012.
[21] S.K. Mohammadian, Y. Zhang “Thermal management optimization of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module using pin-fin heat sinks for hybrid electric vehicles J Power Sources”, Vol. 273, pp. 431–439, 2015.
[22] C. Forgez, C. Delacourt, D.V. Do, G. Friedrich, M. Morcrette, “Thermal modeling of a cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite lithium-ion battery Journal of Power Sources”, Vol. 195, pp. 2961–2968, 2010.
[23] J. W. Evans, Y. Chen, “Heat transfer phenomena in lithium/polymer electrolyte batteries for electric vehicle application”, J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol.140, pp.1833-1838, 1993.
[24] A. Kojic, J. Christensen, J. Ahmed, N.A. Chaturvedi, R. Klein, “Algorithms for advanced battery-management systems”, IEEE Control Syst. Mag., Vol. 30, pp. 49–68, 2010.
50
[25] K. Sagara, S.D. Sharma, “Latent heat storage materials and systems: a review”, Int. J., Green Energy Vol. 2, pp. 1–56, 2005.
[26] Y.H. Wang, Y.T. Yang, “Numerical Simulation of Portable Electronic Cooling Using Phase Change Material”, Master Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2011.
[27] A.D. Brent, K.J. Reid, V.R. Voller, “Enthalpy-porosity technique for modeling convection-diffusion phase-change: application to the melting of a pure metal”, Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 13, pp. 297-318, 1988.
[28] B. Nichols, C. Hirt, “Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries Journal of Computational Physics”, Vol. 39, pp. 201, 1981.
[29] S. V. Patankar, “Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
[30] D.L. Cherng, “Analysis on air flow of heat dissipation for lithium battery module”, Final project report of National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Project number: SBD9960050, 2010.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-09-07起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw