
系統識別號 
U00260709201616554500 
論文名稱(中文) 
應用相變化材料於鋰電池模組之自然對流熱傳分析 
論文名稱(英文) 
Analysis on Convection Heat Transfer of Lithiumion Battery Module Applying Phase Change Material 
校院名稱 
成功大學 
系所名稱(中) 
系統及船舶機電工程學系 
系所名稱(英) 
Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering 
學年度 
104 
學期 
2 
出版年 
105 
研究生(中文) 
邱逸晨 
研究生(英文) 
YiChen, Ciou 
學號 
P16031143 
學位類別 
碩士 
語文別 
英文 
論文頁數 
94頁 
口試委員 
指導教授吳鴻文 口試委員張始偉 口試委員洪榮芳 口試委員吳聖儒 口試委員朱存權

中文關鍵字 
相變材料
散熱鰭片
電池間距
鋰離子電池
熱傳

英文關鍵字 
Phase change material
fin array
intercell distance
Liion battery
Heat transfer

學科別分類 

中文摘要 
本文探討具相變化材料的鋰電池模組的暫態三維自然對流，利用有限體積法(FVM) 來離散流體體積(VOF) 之NavierStokes方程和能量方程並化為代數方程組。運用解壓力耦合方程的半隱式方法(SIMPLE, SemiImplicit Method for PressureLinked Equation) 來解該代數方程組迭代至收斂，獲得流場及溫度場。此模擬將電池模型置於地面上，且放置在自然環境中。九顆鋰電池模組下探討相同放電率 (2 C) 、不同封裝外殼內材料 (空氣和相變材) 和不同電池間的距離，於自然對流且考慮熱輻射情況下，模擬整體溫度場與流場分佈。本文也討論在鋰電池模組的加入極頭鋁製散熱鰭片的效果。
研究結果顯示:封裝外殼內的空氣以相變材取代後具有更好的傳熱性能。相變材於鋰電池模組的使用能使最高溫度大約降14.2 K。此外，當相變材開始融化時，相變材可以使電池模組的最高溫度維持在大約321 K。加裝鋁製散熱鰭片能有較好的散熱效果。鋁製鰭片搭配相變化材料能讓鋰電池模組獲得最好的對流熱傳效果。與鋁製鰭片搭配空氣的鋰電池模組相比，鋁製鰭片配合相變材的使用可有效低整體溫度約15.2 K。

英文摘要 
This thesis investigates transient threedimensional heat transfer Lithiumion battery module with phase change material (PCM) in natural convection. The NavierStokes equations and energy equation for Volume of Fluid (VOF) are discretized by the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and then are constructed as a system of algebraic equations. It could be solved by semiimplicit method for pressurelinked equation (SIMPLE). The solutions are iterated to converge within each step to obtain the temperature and flow field.
This simulation module places the battery on the ground and put it in the natural environment. The flow characteristic and temperature distribution in natural convection are analyzed for ninecell batteries case, at constant discharge rates (2 C), with different kinds of materials placed inside in the package (the air and the PCM) under different intercell distances. The effect of fin array was added on top of the effects examined with the fin.
The better heat transfer performance is found by replacing the air with the PCM in the package. The highest temperature of the module using the PCM without fin array is about 14.2K lower than that of the module using the air without fin array. Furthermore, using the PCM without fin array could keep the highest temperature of the battery module at about 321 K when the melting process of the PCM occurs. The battery module using the PCM with fin array can enhance the convection heat transfer. The overall temperature could be reduced about 15.2 K when it compared with that using air without fin array.

論文目次 
摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgments IV
List of Tables……………………………………………………………VI
List of Figures…..……………………………………………………...VII
Content V
Nomenclature XV
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
11 Background 1
12 Literature reviews 2
13 Objectives and motivation of the present study 7
Chapter 2. Introduction of Lithiumion battery and phase change material 9
21 Introduction of Lithiumion battery 9
22 Fundamental principal of Lithiumion battery 9
24 Phase change materials 10
Chapter 3. Numerical method and geometry 12
31 Principle 12
32 Mathematical formulation 12
33 Discretization approach 15
331 Finite volume method 16
332 Discretization of the momentum equation 16
333 Discretization of the energy equation 17
34 SIMPLE method 17
341 Velocitycorrection equation 17
342 Pressurecorrection equation 19
343 Computational process 19
344 Underrelaxation factor 19
345 Convergence criterion 20
346 Numerical mesh 20
35 Numerical model 21
351 Geometry model 21
352 Boundary and initial conditions 22
Chapter 4. Results and discussions 24
4.1 Grid independence test 24
4.2 Time step validation 25
4.3 Accuracy of simulation 25
4.4 Heat transfer performance and flow characteristic for cases A and B under different intercell distances 26
4.5 Heat transfer performance and flow characteristic for cases C and D under different intercell distances 27
4.6 Overall comparison of heat transfer enhancement for cases A, B, C, and D 28
Chapter 5 Conclusions and future works 30
51 Conclusions 30
52 Future works 31
References 32
List of Tables
Table 1 Specification and properties of the Liion Battery [30] 36
Table 2 Properties of PCM, aluminum, and air 36
Table 3 Thermal characteristic at different intercell distances at 90 min 36
List of Figures
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of Lithiumion battery [24] 37
Figure 2 Numerical model of cases A, B 38
Figure 3 Numerical model of case C, D 39
Figure 4 Numerical model of case A, B after simplified 40
Figure 5 Numerical model of cases C, D after Simplified 41
Figure 6 The size of intercell distance 42
Figure 7 The observation point of the battery module with 1 mm intercell distance 42
Figure 8 Grid independence test of the temperature distributions of Case B with 1 mm intercell distance 43
Figure 9 Grid independence test of the average Nusselt number of Case B with 1 mm intercell distance 43
Figure 10 Time step refinement test on the temperature distributions of Case B with 1 mm intercell distance 44
Figure 11 Time step refinement test on the average Nusselt number of Case B with 1 mm intercell distance 44
Figure 12 Temperature contour of the battery pack of reference [20] in the present study 45
Figure 13 Temperature contour of the battery pack (reference [20]) 45
Figure 14 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm intercell distance at 10 min on the xz plane 46
Figure 15 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm intercell distance at 20 min on the xz plane 46
Figure 16 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm intercell distance at 30 min on the xz plane 47
Figure 17 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm intercell distance at 50 min on the xz plane 47
Figure 18 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min on the xz plane 48
Figure 19 Comparison of 6 different intercell distances of case A 48
Figure 20 The average Nusselt number of case A under 6 different intercell distances 49
Figure 21 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 20 min on the xz plane 49
Figure 22 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 30 min on the xz plane 50
Figure 23 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 50 min on the xz plane 50
Figure 24 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 70 min on the xz plane 51
Figure 25 Temperature contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min on the xz plane 51
Figure 26 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 30 min on the xz plane 52
Figure 27 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 50 min on the xz plane 52
Figure 28 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 70 min on the xz plane 53
Figure 29 Liquid fraction contour of case B with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min on the xz plane 53
Figure 30 Comparison of temperature distributions of 6 different intercell distances of case B 54
Figure 31 Comparison of average Nusselt number of 6 different intercell distances of case B 54
Figure 32 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A and case B under 1 mm intercell distance 55
Figure 33 Comparison of average Nusselt number of case A and case B under 1 mm intercell distance 55
Figure 34 Comparison of temperature distributions of 6 different intercell distances of case C 56
Figure 35 Comparison of temperature distributions of 6 different intercell distances of case D 56
57
Figure 36 Comparison of average Nusselt number of 6 different intercell distances of case C 57
Figure 37 Comparison of average Nusselt number of 6 different intercell distances of case D 57
Figure 38 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 35 min on the xz plane 58
Figure 39 Liquid fraction contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 35 min on the xz plane 58
Figure 40 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 50 min on the xz plane 59
Figure 41 Liquid fraction contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 50 min on the xz plane 59
Figure 42 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min on the zx plane 60
Figure 43 Liquid fraction contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min on the xz plane 60
Figure 44 Comparison of temperature distributions of case C and case D under 1 mm intercell distance 61
Figure 45 Comparison of average Nusselt number of case C and case D under 1 mm intercell distance 61
Figure 46 Comparison of Temperature distributions of case A, B C and D with 1 mm intercell distance 62
Figure 47 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 2 mm intercell distance 62
Figure 48 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 3 mm intercell distance 63
Figure 49 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 4 mm intercell distance 63
Figure 50 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 5 mm intercell distance 64
Figure 51 Comparison of temperature distributions of case A, B C and D under 6 mm intercell distance 64
Figure 52 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 1 mm intercell distance 65
Figure 53 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 2 mm intercell distance 65
Figure 54 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 3 mm intercell distance 66
Figure 55 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 4 mm intercell distance 66
Figure 56 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 5 mm intercell distance 67
Figure 57 Comparison of average Nusselt number of cases A, B C and D under 6 mm intercell distance 67
Figure 58 Temperature contour of case A with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min 68
Figure 59 Temperature contour of case A with 2 mm intercell distance at 90min 68
Figure 60 Temperature contour of case A with 3 mm intercell distance at 90 min 69
Figure 61 Temperature contour of case A with 4 mm intercell distance at 90 min 69
Figure 62 Temperature contour of case A with 5 mm intercell distance at 90min 70
Figure 63 Temperature contour of case A with 6 mm intercell distance at 90 min 70
Figure 64 Temperature contour of case B under 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min 71
Figure 65 Temperature contour of case B under 2 mm intercell distance at 90min 71
Figure 66 Temperature contour of case B under 3 mm intercell distance at 90 min 72
Figure 67 Temperature contour of case B under 4 mm intercell distance at 90 min 72
Figure 68 Temperature contour of case B under 5 mm intercell distance at 90 min 73
Figure 69 Temperature contour of case B under 6 mm intercell distance at 90 min 73
Figure 70 Temperature contour of case C with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min 74
Figure 71 Temperature contour of case C with 2 mm intercell distance at 90 min 74
Figure 72 Temperature contour of case C with 3 mm intercell distance at 90 min 75
Figure 73 Temperature contour of case C with 4 mm intercell distance at 90 min 75
Figure 74 Temperature contour of case C with 5 mm intercell distance at 90 min 76
Figure 75 Temperature contour of case C with 6 mm intercell distance at 90 min 76
Figure 76 Temperature contour of case D with 1 mm intercell distance at 90 min 77
Figure 77 Temperature contour of case D with 2 mm intercell distance at 90 min 77
Figure 78 Temperature contour of case D with 3 mm intercell distance at 90 min 78
Figure 79 Temperature contour of case D with 4 mm intercell distance at 90 min 78
Figure 80 Temperature contour of case D with 5 mm intercell distance at 90 min 79
Figure 81 Temperature contour of case D with 6 mm intercell distance at 90 min 79

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