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系統識別號 U0026-0709201615371200
論文名稱(中文) 底棲型鰕虎對天然及人造產卵點之選擇
論文名稱(英文) Natural and Artificial Spawning Shelter Selection by the Benthic Goby
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 柯宗佑
研究生(英文) Chung-Yu Ko
電子信箱 mvpl5566@gmail.com
學號 n86031073
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 78頁
口試委員 指導教授-孫建平
口試委員-邱郁文
口試委員-陳宣汶
中文關鍵字 人造棲所  五溝水  吻鰕虎  產卵棲所偏好  環境因子 
英文關鍵字 Artificial Shelter  Wu Gou Shui  Rhinogobius  Preferred habitat spawning  Environmental factor 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來因為氣候加劇變化,發生許多的洪水及乾旱等極端事件,隨之而來的是頻繁的水利工程,然而工程計畫對淡水生態系統帶來不小的負面影響,尤其對於底質環境影響更是甚大。隨著生態永續的意識抬頭,對於魚類、水棲昆蟲、水生植物等生物之棲地的關注也日益增加,而底質粒徑之大小與組成改變,無論是對於魚類、或是其他水生生物都會造成衝擊,在台灣過往的研究,對於環境因子與生物間的關係都已經有所了解,但利用改變底質、增加棲所為方式來復育生態之研究卻是鮮少著墨。台灣約有247種鰕虎,其中有12種棲息於淡水中的鰕虎被認定為瀕臨危險的狀態,倘若能以人造材質增加鰕虎的棲所數量,能夠提供淡水鰕虎有合適的產卵棲所,能幫助瀕臨危險的鰕虎增加其繁殖及成長的空間。因此本研究於五溝水村的一號水門下游及五福橋下游處,放置四種不同材質、形狀大小的人造棲所後,透過短吻紅斑吻鰕虎的魚卵採樣(分別為人造棲所有魚卵採樣、自然棲所有魚卵採樣)、環境因子測量與伏流水情況的判定,搭配統計分析推求目標魚種在產卵時,對於底質與環境因子的偏好,進而瞭解人造棲所對於目標物種是否有所助益。
透過鰕虎在人造棲所或自然石頭有魚卵點位與點位網格內可被產卵棲所總面積的關係得知,在可用棲所較少時,選用人造棲所數量較多;在可用棲所較多時,自然與人造棲所無明顯選用數量差異。再透過獨立樣本T檢定的結果得知,人造棲所與自然棲所之間魚種選擇產卵的水質參數有顯著差異分別為:溶氧、粒徑序號,此兩種差異之可能原因歸因於人造棲所擺放位置、材質、形狀設計所造成,其餘水質因子並無顯著差異。
本研究分析結果,短吻紅斑吻鰕虎在許多環境下皆會選用人造棲所作為產卵棲所,人造棲所之表現並不差於自然石頭。未來在復育鰕虎,在可棲息地內棲所不足時,可使用人造棲所做為鰕虎的家。
英文摘要 There are 247 goby species in Taiwan, and 12 of them are recognized as endangered freshwater species. Therefore in this study, at the beginning we placed four types of artificial habitats of all different materials and shapes, at downstream spots of Watergate No.1, Wugoushui Village and Wufu Bridge. Later, through sampling eggs of red-spotted goby in different places such as artificial habitat, natural habitat and measurements on environmental factors and hyporheic water, with statistical analysis tools we could tell target species’ preference for bottom material and environmental factors while laying eggs, in order to further see whether artificial habitats benefit target species or not. In the study, through principal component analysis, we found the critical controllable factors for gobies to choose their artificial habitats or natural rocks. Spots with eggs mainly tend to be regions with high level of dissolved oxygen, and this shows that, in the study, during the period from placing habitats to sampling, the natural rocks in sampling station still could not be completely replaced. Since the time of placing artificial habitat was not long enough, so artificial habitats in regions with low level of dissolved oxygen could not completely adapt to the natural environment. Moreover, through relation between total areas of where gobies can lay eggs in artificial habitats or natural rocks where are with eggs detected or can be laid eggs, we can see when available habitats are less, artificial habitats adopted are considerably more. When available habitats are more, there is no significant difference between the numbers of natural rocks and artificial habitats adopted.
論文目次 摘要 I
Extended Abstract II
謝誌 X
目錄 XI
圖目錄 XIV
表目錄 XVI
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究假設 2
1-3 論文研究架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 淡水生態系統 5
2-2 棲息地 7
2-2-1 棲息地定義 8
2-2-2 棲地為優選或逆境 8
2-3 不同尺度下的棲息地 9
2-3-1 棲所的重要性 9
2-3-2 棲所對魚類之影響 10
2-4 溪流生態對魚類的影響 11
2-4-1 水文影響 12
2-4-2 底質影響 12
2-4-3 水質影響 13
2-5 底棲型鰕虎生活及產卵習性 13
2-5-1 棲息領域 13
2-5-2 繁殖與產卵習性 14
2-5-3 影響魚卵因子 15
第三章 材料與方法 17
3-1 研究區域 17
3-2 目標物種 22
3-2-1 短吻紅斑吻鰕虎 22
3-2-2 極樂吻鰕虎 23
3-3 採樣時間與內容 23
3-4 材料 25
3-4-1 人造棲所材料準備 25
3-4-2 鰕虎卵採樣方法 29
3-4-3 環境因子調查 31
3-4-4 伏流水性質量測 32
3-5 統計分析方法 35
3-5-1 主成份分析 35
3-5-2 常態分佈檢定 36
3-5-3 獨立樣本T檢定 37
3-5-4 Mann-Whitney U檢定 38
3-5-5 單因子變異數分析 39
第四章 結果與討論 40
4-1 採樣結果 40
4-1-1 三樣站採樣結果 40
4-1-2 採樣區域環境 41
4-1-3 魚卵採樣結果 43
4-2 鰕虎對人造棲所的接受度 47
4-2-1 整體關鍵因子評估 47
4-2-2 三個樣站之差異 52
4-2-3 人造與自然棲所之環境差異 55
4-2-4 點位內的棲所數量 59
4-3 棲所間的差異 61
4-3-1 四種的人造棲所比較 61
4-3-2 有魚卵石頭形狀 63
4-3-3 有魚卵石頭體積與流速 65
第五章 結論與建議 67
5-1 結論 67
5-2 建議與展望 68
第六章 參考文獻 70
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